Chicago heat wave facts,citizen cooperative bank,heat emergencies signs and symptoms - PDF Review

This work was done under the auspices of the Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, with funding from the National Science Foundation, the U.S.
Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
The purpose of this research is to learn how city governments, human services departments, and community organizations can reduce the impact to human health from summer heat waves in U.S.
Slow and silent, a heat wave does not descend upon a city with the fury of a tornado, hurricane, or a winter storm. Although, heat waves are not often taken as seriously as other forms of severe weather, the mortality from these weather events in the U. Aside from being a major health hazard, heat waves also put heavy stress on our energy resources.
This paper will focus on past heat waves that recently occurred (within the past 6 years) impacting U. As a first step in the research of summer heat wave in the United States over the past decade, meteorological and social data were obtained from a wide range of sources.
Case studies of two cities, Chicago and Philadelphia, were examined for the summers of 1995 and 1999 in Chicago and 1995 in Philadelphia. These studies also explored differences in the heat wave events, such as the actual temperatures that were considered normal, the "threshold apparent" temperature used to issue a heat warning for the public, and the time period for an event to be considered a heat wave. This research also explored high nighttime temperatures and nighttime apparent temperatures. This research also examined the societal impacts of heat waves on human mortality, the stress on emergency services, and the ability of utility companies to provide power to their customers during these events. York Times, USA Today, and CBS Newsletter to find information about severe heat waves that affected one or both of the cities in 1995 and 1999.
As typical of many heat waves that develop in the central United States, the heat wave during July of 1995 was the result of a strong upper-level ridge shifting eastward due to a deepening trough over the Northwestern U.S. In Chicago the heat wave lasted only six days, however, the impacts on human mortality from this brief period were catastrophic. In Philadelphia the heat wave's most intense period only lasted two days (July 14th and 15th).
The heat wave's impact on mortality in Philadelphia was different than the impact in Chicago.
During the summer of 1993 an 11-day heat wave ended the lives of 118 people in the city of Philadelphia.
The Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) took a different approach by using more meteorological variables to identifying hazardous conditions associated with heat waves that occur in Philadelphia.
The PWWS is sophisticated because it uses more than just apparent temperature in identifying heat wave conditions or oppressive air masses.
During the summer the PWWS is a triad consisting of the PDPH, the NWS office for the Philadelphia area (Mount Holly NJ), and Delaware's Center for Climate Research (DCCR), all of which work together to keep a watch out for MTOs moving into the Mid-Atlantic region.
The PWWS is very unique in the way it customizes it's heat warning system to identify MTO's (heat waves) that would jeopardize the health of the people in Philadelphia. After the 1995 Heat Wave in Chicago the Mayor's Office, City Council, and the Chicago Health Department came together to develop a new "heat warning plan" (Changnon et al.). During the last third of July 1999 the Midwest experienced a heat wave that was nearly as intense as the 1995 Heat Wave as far as heat indices within cities, especially Chicago.
It is difficult to compare the tragedy of the 1995 Heat Wave in Chicago with the impacts and the response to the 1999 Heat Wave.
In taking steps to further reduce the impacts that heat waves have on the populations in U.S. Heat Waves do pose a definite health hazard, however, and social conditions are major players.
The challenge with developing community heat wave response organizations is finding enough dedicated members to assist during heat waves or keeping the organization prepared and ready to mobilize during the warmer parts of the year in U.S.
More people will start to care and form community heat wave response organizations if they are educated on how hazardous heat waves can be. The goal of this paper was to tell a story of two cities, educating a broad audience on what happened in Chicago and Philadelphia during severe heat waves and how these cities developed plans "to keep the most at-risk people safe" during heat waves. The focus of this research project was to assess the impacts of heat waves in cities located in the U.S. For example, three consecutive days with a heat index above 105°F may have similar impacts in Boston and Dallas, but there may be different impacts when the variables of structural density, the population's access to air conditioning, and acclimatization are considered. Another future research project that is well deserving of attention would be to assess how populations, urban or rural, deal with excessive heat. Website created by Casey Thornbrugh, Asher Ghertner, Shannon McNeeley, Olga Wilhelmi, and Robert Harriss. The Chicago heat wave of 1995 killed over 700 people and displaced tens of thousands of residents. This website was built as a guide to putting together your own disaster recovery plan in the event that you or your family are effected by either a man-made or natural disaster. The past couple of days, Chicago has been (as my dad would have said), "Hotter than the hinges of hell". There are many people all over Chicago and especially the East Coast suffering crankiness due to heat, the uncomfortably of sweating profusely in weird places and the trials and tribulations of using window units and fans that are far from pumping "frigid air" when it is this hot out. I should also randomly mention here that it's so hot, that my cat, Lola, just let me pet her with an ice pack.
An extreme and prolonged heat wave in the summer of 1995 killed more than 700 Chicagoans — some who remained unidentified, buried in mass graves. The School of Public Health commemorates the 20th anniversary of the heat wave with a public forum Sept.
Officials who played key roles in responding to the heat wave, as well as current public health leaders, will attend the forum. It’s important that UIC students, as future leaders, learn about the heat wave, Dorevitch said. Related Stories Images of African representation in public health campaigns'A Choreography of Contagion' through Dec. City officials are spreading the word about places to cool off, especially for the elderly.
As always, officials urge that everyone check in on their elderly neighbors, or people without air conditioning. It moves over an area as a large, deep air mass with descending air, retarding the development of any significant precipitation that would provide relief to the ground surface's rising temperatures.
It is often the case when an intense heat wave occurs, thousands or even millions of people in a given region run their air conditioners at the same time. We should, however, give serious consideration to how our communities deal with heat waves when they occur.
We learned that the actions taken by city governments, human services departments, and the NWS offices were crucial to the reduction of impacts from a heat wave while it was occurring. However, a phenomenonally high apparent temperature of 129°F was reached on July 15th, and three weeks of hot weather followed the heat wave's peak (Philadelphia Daily News 1995). However, despite the difference in population, the mortality rate during the heat wave in Philadelphia was still significantly less than in Chicago. After that summer the Philadelphia Department of Public Health worked in cooperation with the National Weather Service to develop a more effective heat warning system. The six meteorological characteristics of air temperature, dew point temperature, cloud cover, sea level pressure, wind speed, and wind direction are used by the PWWS to identify air masses that are typically present over the Mid-Atlantic region (specifically the Philadelphia area) during the summer (Kalkstein et al.
NWS data is used to forecast an MTO up to 48 hours in advance of its anticipated arrival (Kalkstein et al.
It can be described as somewhat of a "grass roots" approach at the city level to identify the risks to and the needs of the people specifically for Philadelphia.


The participating agencies and human services departments in Chicago's heat warning plan are shown in Fig.
The city opened 65 cooling centers, using schools and other facilities and provided free bus service to these centers (Palecki et al.
When the actual mortality numbers from the 1995 and 1999 Heat Waves in Chicago are assessed, it is noticeable that in the city over 500 people died from 1995's heat wave as compared to 93 people who died during the 1999 Heat Wave. People with high incomes who can afford to set their air conditioners on "high" are not the ones dying during heat waves. If peoples' communities and workplaces are damaged people have little choice but to stay and help each other.
Daley mentioned the importance of the whole city's cooperation in his 1996 Summer Heat Preparedness Speech, "I want to continue to stress, however, that the City's efforts alone cannot prevent the tragedies related to extreme heat. Another goal was to assess areas that needed improvement in the cities' heat wave response plans and provide new ideas for dealing with heat waves at a different level than city government or human services departments. All of these cities may benefit and learn from Chicago and Philadelphia on how to design effective heat warning systems or improve the heat warning systems they may already have.
In the 20th century we have seen an increase in the average global temperature as well as a phenomenal increase of a major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Recent history has shown us all that although they mean well, the emergency response organizations that are meant to protect us in a crisis are not always effective.
This most strongly includes humans, who as mammals are completely affected by the environment and as technological beings are changing it more and more."Part artist, part whistleblower, Gary Braasch is a one-man, wandering IPCC with a camera.
Many people did not have air conditioning in their homes; some who died lived in areas of high crime and were afraid to open their windows. Procedures are in place to reach those who were unreachable during the 1995 heat wave, often elderly people who lived alone in communities without many resources, Dorevitch said. He received a grant from the Centers for Disease Control to help state and local health departments prepare for the effects of global climate change. The city of Chicago developed its Extreme Weather Operations Plan to reduce the impact of heat waves after the tragedy experienced in 1995 when over 500 people died from excessive heat exposure (heat stroke).
As this air mass moves slowly or just sits over one area for days or even weeks, its rising surface temperatures begin to take their toll on the people who are trapped in it. During past heat waves, power companies have often had to engage in a series of "rolling blackouts" to prevent a total blackout over the affected region. In addition, there are a number of other reasons why we should care about how we deal with heat waves.
Philadelphia was also examined in 1995 because during that heat wave the city applied its new heat warning system. This information was obtained from local newspaper articles (Chicago Tribune, The Times Union, and The Philadelphia Daily News) communications with climatologists and meteorologists, and other documents that supplied information about a city's heat wave response system.
On Chicago's Northside 40,000 customers lost electric power on the night of July 14th and 8,500 of those customers remained without power through July 15th (Changnon et al. This number included the number of people who died from heat-related illnesses as well as the number of excess deaths reported. This new system was developed because it was found that certain factors were left out when only the apparent temperatures were used to issue excessive heat warnings. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Southern Regional Climate Center as a basis in creating the Philadelphia Hot Weather-Health Watch Warning System (PWWS) (Kalkstein et al. This heat warning system has been customized by other cities to apply to their population's needs and identify who and what is at risk. Ninety-three people is still a tragic loss of life so this case study does not look at the Extreme Weather Operations Plan as the solution to the problem of heat waves but rather as a step in the right direction to save lives. In the case of Philadelphia, we emphasized the identification of which weather conditions or air masses that posed the greatest health hazard for the city.
The people who are not reached are the elderly who live alone in the poor, high crime neighborhoods in the city.
In the case of Philadelphia both the NWS and Department of Public Health cooperate to reduce heat wave impacts, and in Chicago the city government and human services departments also work hard to reduce impacts. This is a challenge because, as stated in the beginning of this paper, heat waves are different in nature than other forms of severe weather or disasters. In the case of heat waves, aside from occasional power outages and buckling of some roads, peoples' daily lives continue as normal. It can also be stressed in Chicago, Philadelphia, and all the other cities designing heat wave warning systems, these systems must include mobilization by the NWS offices, city governments, human services departments, and community organizations to more effectively reduce the impact of heat waves.
While New York experiences humid heat waves, similar to Chicago and Philadelphia, elevating mortality, Los Angeles often experiences dry heat waves elevating mortality somewhat but having a greater impact from winds and wild fires accompanying the heat wave. In addition, we should ask if the earth's cities or the entire human population of the earth should be prepared for a warmer climate with more frequent heat waves in regions where they were once rare, and have cities prepared for more intense (hotter) heat waves?
It is our firm belief that everyone should have a home emergency plan and basic survival training as well as a minimum stockpile of long-life food, water and medical supplies. Since 2000, he has traveled around the world documenting the effects of climate change for his World View of Global Warming project. This is a critical issue, because if a total blackout occurs over a given region, the heat wave then becomes a health hazard to the entire population. First, it is often the case that many fatalities during even the most severe heat waves occur after the first day of extreme heat. From the eleven air masses that typically occur over the Mid-Atlantic region, the Maritime Tropical Oppressive Air Mass (MTO) is the air mass that is most often associated with elevated human mortality during the summer (Fig.
If an MTO is anticipated to arrive within 48 hours of a forecast, a Health "Watch" is issued for Philadelphia by the PDPH. The cities that have adopted this approach to customizing heat wave warning systems in the U.S. In addition to the buses the city provided round-the-clock drivers for people who needed to go to a cooling center (Chicago Tribune 1999). However, what we have learned from these studies is that further solutions may come from community organizations working to reduce heat wave impacts. People go to work, or school, fitness-focused people exercise out in the heat, and kids play outside. In studying the impacts of heat waves in general it can be seen that the impacts of heat waves vary in different areas of the U.S. This topic is very deserving of study because we have seen the global temperature increase, and across the globe in developed and developing countries people are moving to cities.
However, there are also serious shortcomings that have yet to be appropriately addressed, and some things simply haven’t changed whatsoever in the 20 years that have since passed. As the air temperature near the ground surface increased, the area of high pressure expanded upward pushing the 500 millibar level past its normal July geopotential height creating an incredible mass of heating, subsiding air (Palecki et al. The heat combined with the high moisture content of the air produced an apparent temperature (heat index) of 118°F at O'Hare International Airport (Kunkel et al. The local power company, Commonwealth Edison, issued rolling blackouts throughout the rural and suburban areas to keep power within the city of Chicago.
These studies linked elevated mortality with days when oppressive (hot and humid) air masses were present. A day later another NWS forecast is assessed by the PDPH 24 hours in advance of a MTO's anticipated arrival.
From July 21st to the 25th more than 30,000 elderly people were visited by the Department of Aging, the Chicago Housing Authority, and other city agencies.
They cannot leave to go to a cooling center because when they do everything they own in their home could be as good as gone when someone breaks in and steals everything. For example, if people are scared to leave their homes to go to cooling centers, members of a community organization who are less at risk from heat could watch their homes while they are gone.
If these trends continue, the global community could learn from each other on how we all can live comfortably in a warmer world.


On July 14th 19,200 megawatts of power were used, which was a record high for the city (Changnon et al. That same day the power usage was at 6,959 megawatts, which was a record for weekend usage in Philadelphia. From the conclusions of these studies the PWWS established a goal to identify hazardous, oppressive air masses.
However, the presence of an MTO does not mean that elevated mortality is imminent during the day (days) of its presence.
If an MTO is still expected to arrive 24 hours after the forecast, the PDPH issues a Health "Alert." In preparation of the MTO's arrival the PDPH and the DCCR observe the six meteorological characteristics of the MTO every six hours to determine if the conditions are severe enough to cause elevated mortality in Philadelphia.
As soon as a heat watch or warning is issued by the NWS, the Chicago Fire Commissioner is put in charge of mobilizing the city service departments in preparation for the heat wave.
It would also be easier for community-based organizations to conduct the door-to-door checks on people for two reasons.
Above: "The 2900 megawatt John Amos power plant near Charleston West Virginia looms over a neighborhood in Poca, across the Kanawa River. Then the PWWS alerts the public and health agencies that these oppressive air masses have been predicted and are likely to impact the city.
If elevated mortality is predicted the PDPH and the DCCR recommend the issuance of a Health "Warning", which must have the concurrence of the NWS (Kalkstein et al. The Mayor's Office of Inquiry and Information distributes 500,000 brochures on how to register to receive a "well-being check" for oneself, a neighbor or other loved ones. On July 29th the NWS issued an "excessive heat warning" and the Extreme Weather Operations Plan was quickly put back into effect by the city. First, they live in the community so they are not going out of their way to a strange neighborhood, and they may already know, personally, who is most at risk during at heat wave.
The Amos plant is consistently on the list of dirtiest power plants, its coal burning (2003 figures) makes it 11th in CO2 releases and 12th in SO2. This study will be looking at heat wave mortality from exposure to excessive heat as well as mortality from other illnesses further complicated by exposure to excessive heat. The mortality reached its peak daily total on July 15th (third day of the heat wave) with 181 heat-related (heatstroke) deaths (Huang, CBS Newsletter 1996). The six meteorological characteristics are further assessed four times daily for MTOs and are compared to mortality data during the presence of MTOs. Other human services departments are in charge of carrying out well-being checks, providing cooling centers, checking buildings for proper ventilation, monitoring nursing homes and hospital emergency rooms, watching for all citizens at risk (the elderly, families, and people with preexisting health complications, who do not have air conditioning or people who work outside) from excessive heat exposure, and distributing "Heat Tips" brochures with information on how to stay healthy during a heat wave (Mayor Daley 1996). As the heat index pushed up to 120 the City of Chicago's human services departments worked overtime conducting well-being checks, monitoring hospitals and senior facilities, and moving the people most at risk to cooling centers.
Second, they are likely to know the people they are checking up on and last, they take some of the burden off the city human services departments so they can tend to other problems associated with the heat wave. Finally, this study will focus on how the heat warning systems used in Chicago and Philadelphia were able to reduce the impact to human health during heat waves and how these systems can be improved and used in other U.S. Finally, this study will attempt to provide more ideas that could help reduce the impacts of heat waves in the cities of the Midwest, the Northeast, and could possibly be applied to other cities across the U.S. By July 20th the Chicago Department of Public Health reported 498 heat-related fatalities from the heat wave.
This is to determine what conditions or thresholds make certain MTOs more or less hazardous to the Philadelphia population.
With a Health "Warning" issued steps are taken by the PDPH, Peco Energy Co., Philadelphia Water Department, city hospitals, Philadelphia Fire Department, homeless services, and the Philadelphia Corporation for Aging to reduce the health impacts and mortality of Philadelphia's population during a severe heat wave. Some families living in inner city apartments do have air conditioners, but won't turn them on because they do not realize that with the heat warnings in effect, the government will subsidize the extra cost to run the air conditioners during heat waves. Once mobilized, a community heat wave response organization can also work with the city human services departments. Pollution from the 600 coal power plants in the US contribute to up to 30,000 deaths yearly. On August 2nd the total number of heat-related fatalities within the city of Chicago amounted to 525 (Whitman 1995). An example of this can be seen in San Leandro, California's "Triad Alliance" where community-based organizations, emergency management departments, and the city government work together to mitigate disasters associated with earthquakes. What to do about CO2 emissions is a severe issue now that the US government has delayed the experimental "FutureGen" sequestering project. First, advection (horizontal movement) of air from the Gulf of Mexico pumped warm, moist air northward on the western side of the high-pressure area. Another 208 fatalities were from excess deaths, which are deaths from other health problems further complicated by excess heat exposure. In the case of heat waves, the city government or mayor's office could still facilitate the registering of people for well-being checks, but then distribute the lists of people to be checked to the community organizations.
It makes efficiency and conservation of energy all the more important.""Chicago 1995, when an urban heat wave killed more than 700 people. Serious heat-related illnesses (heat stroke and heat exhaustion) sent thousands to Chicago hospitals overwhelming the hospitals' staff and ambulance services (Changnon et al. This - and scientific predictions on the effects of global warming - foreshadowed the overwhelming heat wave of August 2003, when more than 30,000 deaths occurred across Europe, and the Northern Hemisphere's heat wave of 2006.
This trend suggests that more people would be at risk when a heat wave occurs in the region, power companies would be heavily stressed trying to keep more people cool, and "urban heat islands" (urban areas where heat is retained by a high density of man-made structures) would be created, or enhanced if they already existed in the region. Heath officials agree with climatologists that cities will increasingly feel the effects of disease and heat made worse by global warming.""The US spends about $700,000 a minute on imported oil, and most of it is refined in places like this, Carson, California, in metropolitan Los Angeles. Scientists have observed the average global temperature increase by the end of the 20th century.
This neighborhood, like many others around the nation, shows the fact that Americans are affected by much more than the price of gas. As global warming continues it could increase the probability of more frequent and more intense heat waves. The reliance on larger gas-guzzler vehicles and proximity to polluting industries means that millions suffer from related economic, safety and health issues.""As this low aerial view of the Miami metro area coastline makes quite obvious, the entire area is within a few meters of sea level and faces a severe challenge from rising sea levels and stronger storms. Florida has the highest percent population change in recent years, and almost everyone is moving near the coasts and waterways.
How to defend this multi-billion dollar, multi-million person coastline while cutting emissions to hold future change in check is a massive challenge.""The Thames River Barrier against high tides, built in 1982 and now used six or seven times a year to protect London from flooding. Finally, there are a few other societal impacts to be considered such as: water usage (heat waves often occur during droughts), urban pollution building up during heat waves, and the economic impact (the cost to keep millions of people cool).
Coastal cities around the world will have to build barriers such as this one and the dikes of Holland to adapt to sea level rise and stronger storms.""60,000 square foot PV solar array on roof of Moscone Center, San Francisco, which generates enough power for 1000 homes. This roof is one of the first and largest owned by a city, but many businesses like Google and Fed Ex now have even larger installations.
There is no unsurmountable reason (beyond the angle of the sun in northern latitudes) why most flat roofs cannot be covered with solar panels, generating enough to meet most of the current US need for electricity.
That does not count the open space over parking lots, which could also generate enough power to recharge the electric cars, buses and trucks parked inside.""The Pearl District in Portland, Oregon, where I live, site of an urban renaissance with an eye toward reducing carbon emissions.
This area has new public transportation, new parks, and apartment and office buildings with energy saving features - part of Portland's drive to bring its total emissions to 1990 levels.""Waves flood over a road during high tide on Funafuti, Tuvalu, main island in the tiny atoll nation 1000km north of Fiji, which is beset by rising sea levels. Only 4 meters above sea level, high tides bring with them the threat of flooding.""Love of Earth, despite the cliche, does describe the feelings I have for this miraculous planet and its wonders.
And that love feels violated by wanton destruction and waste, of which there is far too much, especially in the way the developed nations operate. The effects of global warming are advancing faster than is commonly known, and some of the most magnificent landscapes and most interesting cultures are being affected right now.



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