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31.08.2014
Depending on your circumstances and the nature of the hazard, the first important decision is whether you stay put, also known as sheltering in place, or evacuate. There may be conditions under which you will decide to get away or there may be situations when you are ordered to leave. Take your pets with you, but understand that only service animals may be permitted in public shelters. Wear sturdy shoes and clothing that provides some protection such as long pants, long-sleeved shirts and a cap.
Whether you are at home, work or elsewhere, there may be situations when it's simply best to stay where you are and avoid any uncertainty outside.
There may be circumstances when staying put and creating a barrier between yourself and potentially contaminated air outside, a process known as "sealing the room," is a matter of survival. Use common sense and available information to assess the situation and determine if there is immediate danger. The process used to seal the room is considered a temporary protective measure to create a barrier between you and potentially contaminated air outside.
Be prepared to improvise and use what you have on hand to seal gaps so that you create a barrier between yourself and any contamination. Local authorities may not immediately be able to provide information on what is happening and what you should do.
Ten square feet of floor space per person will provide sufficient air to prevent carbon dioxide build-up for up to five hours, assuming a normal breathing rate while resting. However, local officials are unlikely to recommend the public shelter in a sealed room for more than 2-3 hours because the effectiveness of such sheltering diminishes with time as the contaminated outside air gradually seeps into the shelter.
Also you should ventilate the shelter when the emergency has passed to avoid breathing contaminated air still inside the shelter. To answer these questions, you need to know how to make various types of shelters and what materials you need to make them. Attach a drip stick (about a 10-centimeter stick) to each rope about 2.5 centimeters from the grommet. Spread the poncho and anchor it to the ground, putting sharpened sticks through the grommets and into the ground.
If you plan to use the lean-to for more than one night, or you expect rain, make a center support for the lean-to.
For additional protection from wind and rain, place some brush, your rucksack, or other equipment at the sides of the lean-to.
To reduce heat loss to the ground, place some type of insulating material, such as leaves or pine needles, inside your lean-to. To increase your security from enemy observation, lower the lean-to's silhouette by making two changes. Tie the other ends of these ropes at about knee height to two trees 2 to 3 meters apart and stretch the poncho tight.
Draw one side of the poncho tight and secure it to the ground pushing sharpened sticks through the grommets. If you have a parachute and three poles and the tactical situation allows, make a parachute tepee. You can make this tepee using parts of or a whole personnel main or reserve parachute canopy. Determine the wind direction and locate the entrance 90 degrees or more from the mean wind direction. Lay out the parachute on the "backside" of the tripod and locate the bridle loop (nylon web loop) at the top (apex) of the canopy.
Construct the entrance by wrapping the folded edges of the canopy around two free-standing poles.
Place all extra canopy underneath the tepee poles and inside to create a floor for the shelter.
Leave a 30- to 50-centimeter opening at the top for ventilation if you intend to have a fire inside the tepee. You need a 14-gore section (normally) of canopy, stakes, a stout center pole, and inner core and needle to construct this tepee. Stake the parachute material to the ground using the lines remaining at the lower lateral band. After deciding where to place the shelter door, emplace a stake and tie the first line (from the lower lateral band) securely to it. Stretch the parachute material taut to the next line, emplace a stake on the scribed line, and tie the line to it.
Loosely attach the top of the parachute material to the center pole with a suspension line you previously cut and, through trial and error, determine the point at which the parachute material will be pulled tight once the center pole is upright.
Using a suspension line (or inner core), sew the end gores together leaving 1 or 1.2 meters for a door. You use the same materials, except for the center pole, as for the one-pole parachute tepee. After staking down the material, unfasten the line tied to the tree trunk, tighten the tepee material by pulling on this line, and tie it securely to the tree trunk. Lay the two 3-meter poles on the ground on either side of and in the same direction as the 4.5-meter pole.
Lay the folded canopy over the 4.5 meter pole so that about the same amount of material hangs on both sides. Tuck the excess material under the 3-meter poles, and spread it on the ground inside to serve as a floor. Stake down or put a spreader between the two 3-meter poles at the shelter's entrance so they will not slide inward. The parachute cloth makes this shelter wind resistant, and the shelter is small enough that it is easily warmed. You can make a hammock using 6 to 8 gores of parachute canopy and two trees about 4.5 meters apart (Figure 5-8).
If you are in a wooded area and have enough natural materials, you can make a field-expedient lean-to (Figure 5-9) without the aid of tools or with only a knife. Cover the framework with brush, leaves, pine needles, or grass, starting at the bottom and working your way up like shingling. In cold weather, add to your lean-to's comfort by building a fire reflector wall (Figure 5-9). In a marsh or swamp, or any area with standing water or continually wet ground, the swamp bed (Figure 5-10) keeps you out of the water.
Look for four trees clustered in a rectangle, or cut four poles (bamboo is ideal) and drive them firmly into the ground so they form a rectangle. Build a fire pad by laying clay, silt, or mud on one comer of the swamp bed and allow it to dry. Another shelter designed to get you above and out of the water or wet ground uses the same rectangular configuration as the swamp bed.
Look for loose rocks, dead limbs, coconuts, or other natural growth than could fall on your shelter.
Build it by making a tripod with two short stakes and a long ridgepole or by placing one end of a long ridgepole on top of a sturdy base.
Secure the ridgepole (pole running the length of the shelter) using the tripod method or by anchoring it to a tree at about waist height. Prop large sticks along both sides of the ridgepole to create a wedge-shaped ribbing effect. Add light, dry, if possible, soft debris over the ribbing until the insulating material is at least 1 meter thick--the thicker the better. At the entrance, pile insulating material that you can drag to you once inside the shelter to close the entrance or build a door. As a final step in constructing this shelter, add shingling material or branches on top of the debris layer to prevent the insulating material from blowing away in a storm.
If you are in a cold, snow-covered area where evergreen trees grow and you have a digging tool, you can make a tree-pit shelter (Figure 5-12). Dig out the snow around the tree trunk until you reach the depth and diameter you desire, or until you reach the ground.
Find and collect driftwood or other natural material to use as support beams and as a digging tool. Scrape or dig out a trench running north to south so that it receives the least amount of sunlight. Lay support beams (driftwood or other natural material) that span the trench on top of the mound to form the framework for a roof. Anchor one end of your poncho (canvas, parachute, or other material) on the edge of the outcrop using rocks or other weights.
Note: If you have enough material, fold it in half and form a 30-centimeter to 45-centimeter airspace between the two halves. A belowground shelter (Figure 5-14) can reduce the midday heat as much as 16 to 22 degrees C (30 to 40 degrees F).
On the open end of the trench, dig out more sand so you can get in and out of your shelter easily. If you have extra material, you can further decrease the midday temperature in the trench by securing the material 30 to 45 centimeters above the other cover.
Another type of belowground shade shelter is of similar construction, except all sides are open to air currents and circulation. This 15 inch survival knife with drop point blade features a thick quality stainless steel blade with serrated top edge. If there is natural shelter such as a cave, fallen tree, hollow log, rock overhang, or brush, take advantage of it, but watch for animals. In cold weather, you can add insulation by stuffing your clothes with dry grass, leaves or carpeting from your vehicle.  Just be sure it is dry and insect free. If you are forced to sit in a confined area like a snow cave, do isometric exercises (tension exercises).  This will increase your body heat. In the following diagram, a shelter from the wind, an insulated bed of leaves, pine needles, boughs, a fire, and a reflector will help you stay alive. If the snow is not deep enough to form a roof, gather up branches and use them to make a roof.  Pile snow on top of the branches to complete the roof. Use other branches, pine needles and leaves to create insulation in your shelter by lining the bottom, and perhaps the sides, with them. If you think people will be out looking for you, make the site as visible as possible from the ground and the air.
A properly made snow cave can be 32 °F or warmer inside, even when outside temperatures are ?40 °F.  Remember to stay dry while building your cave, if you start to sweat it takes a long time to dry out and can lead to hypothermia. Just remember that whatever kind of shelter you are building the main idea is to keep your body temperature as near normal as possible. Within the cold weather regions, you may face two types of cold weather environments – wet or dry.
Wet cold weather conditions exist when the average temperature in a 24-hour period is -10 degrees C (14 degrees F) or above.
Dry cold weather conditions exist when the average temperature in a 24-hour period remains below -10 degrees C (14 degrees F) at all times. Remember, even when there is no wind, you will create the equivalent of wind by your movement – skiing, running, being towed on skis behind a vehicle, or working around aircraft that produce windblasts.
It is more difficult for you to satisfy your basic water, food, and shelter needs in a cold environment than in a warm environment.
You must not only have enough clothing to protect you from the cold, you must also know how to maximize the warmth you obtain (or retain) from your apparel. Although washing yourself may be impractical and uncomfortable in a cold environment, you must do so. If you are using a previously used shelter, check your body and clothing for lice each night. When you are healthy, your inner core temperature (torso temperature) remains almost constant at 37 degrees C (98.6 degrees F). Your body has a control system that lets it react to temperature extremes to maintain a temperature balance. The best way to deal with injuries and sicknesses is to take measures to prevent them from happening in the first place. The knowledge of signs and symptoms and the use of the buddy system are critical in maintaining health.
Hypothermia is the lowering of the body temperature at a rate faster than the body can produce heat.
CAUTION – Rewarming the total body in a warm water bath should be done only in a hospital environment because of the increased risk of cardiac arrest and rewarming shock.


CAUTION – The individual placed in the sleeping bag with the victim could also become a hypothermia victim if left in the bag too long. Rewarming too rapidly can cause the victim to have circulatory problems, resulting in heart failure.
These conditions result from many hours or days of exposure to wet or damp conditions at a temperature just above freezing.
When bundled up in many layers of clothing during cold weather, you may be unaware that you are losing body moisture. The reflection of the sun’s ultraviolet rays off a snow-covered area causes this condition. Your environment and the equipment you carry with you will determine the type of shelter you can build. The idea behind this shelter (Figure 15-4) is to get you below the snow and wind level and use the snow’s insulating qualities. To build this shelter, find a fallen tree and dig out the snow underneath it (Figure 15-6). If you are trying to remain hidden, remember that the smoke, smell, and light from your fire may reveal your location.
If you are trying to remain hidden, cut low tree boughs rather than the entire tree for firewood.
Birch trees are deciduous and the wood burns hot and fast, as if soaked with oil or kerosene.
Willow and alder grow in arctic regions, normally in marsh areas or near lakes and streams. CAUTION: Do not expose flesh to petroleum, oil, and lubricants in extremely cold temperatures. Some plastic products, such as MRE spoons, helmet visors, visor housings, and foam rubber will ignite quickly from a burning match. In cold weather regions, there are some hazards in using fires, whether to keep warm or to cook. In snow shelters, excessive heat will melt the insulating layer of snow that may also be your camouflage.
A fire inside a shelter lacking adequate ventilation can result in carbon monoxide poisoning.
A person trying to get warm or to dry clothes may become careless and burn or scorch his clothing and equipment.
Melting overhead snow may get you wet, bury you and your equipment, and possibly extinguish your fire. In general, a small fire and some type of stove is the best combination for cooking purposes. Water sources in arctic and subarctic regions are more sanitary than in other regions due to the climatic and environmental conditions. NOTE: Do not waste fuel to melt ice or snow when drinkable water is available from other sources. During the summer months, you can easily get fish and other water life from coastal waters, streams, rivers, and lakes. The eggs of the spiny sea urchin that lives in the waters around the Aleutian Islands and southern Alaska are excellent food. The bivalves, such as clams and mussels, are usually more palatable than spiral-shelled seafood, such as snails.
WARNING: The black mussel, a common mollusk of the far north, may be poisonous in any season. To approach a seal, do as the Eskimos do—stay downwind from it, cautiously moving closer while it sleeps. Keep the seal blubber and skin from coming into contact with any scratch or broken skin you may have. Keep in mind that where there are seals, there are usually polar bears, and polar bears have stalked and killed seal hunters.
Ptarmigans, owls, Canadian jays, grouse, and ravens are the only birds that remain in the arctic during the winter. Although tundras support a variety of plants during the warm months, all are small when compared to similar plants in warmer climates. There are some plants growing in arctic and subarctic regions that are poisonous if eaten . You will face many obstacles if your survival situation is in an arctic or subarctic region. In most situations you can determine the effects that weather can have on basic survival needs. You can determine wind direction by dropping grass or a few leaves or by watching the treetops.
Slow-moving or imperceptible winds and heavy, humid air often indicate a low-pressure front. If you see large amounts of debris in the air, or if local authorities say the air is badly contaminated, you may want to take this kind of action. However, you should watch TV, listen to the radio or check the Internet often for official news and instructions as they become available.
You need a poncho, 2 to 3 meters of rope or parachute suspension line, three stakes about 30 centimeters long, and two trees or two poles 2 to 3 meters apart. Pull the drawstring tight, roll the hood longways, fold it into thirds, and tie it off with the drawstring. First, secure the support lines to the trees at knee height (not at waist height) using two knee-high sticks in the two center grommets (sides of lean-to).
Another center support is an A-frame set outside but over the center of the tent (Figure 5-3). Then place the pole back up against the tripod so that the canopy's apex is at the same height as the lashing on the three poles. You cut the suspension lines except for 40- to 45-centimeter lengths at the canopy's lower lateral band.
It takes longer to make this type of shelter than it does to make other types, but it will protect you from the elements. Cut a few 2-centimeter-diameter poles (length depends on the distance between the lean-to's horizontal support and the top of the fire reflector wall).
They should be far enough apart and strong enough to support your height and weight, to include equipment.
You very simply lay sticks and branches lengthwise on the inside of the trees (or poles) until there is enough material to raise the sleeping surface above the water level. Examples are caves, rocky crevices, clumps of bushes, small depressions, large rocks on leeward sides of hills, large trees with low-hanging limbs, and fallen trees with thick branches. Low areas collect the heavy cold air at night and are therefore colder than the surrounding high ground. Ensure the ribbing is wide enough to accommodate your body and steep enough to shed moisture.
These form a latticework that will keep the insulating material (grass, pine needles, leaves) from falling through the ribbing into the sleeping area. If you have material such as a poncho, canvas, or a parachute, use it along with such terrain features as rock outcropping, mounds of sand, or a depression between dunes or rocks to make your shelter. If necessary, dig a trench 45 to 60 centimeters deep and long and wide enough for you to lie in comfortably. This layering of the material will reduce the inside temperature 11 to 22 degrees C (20 to 40 degrees F).
For maximum protection, you need a minimum of two layers of parachute material (Figure 5-15). Remember, cold weather is an adversary that can be as dangerous as anything else you can encounter. It decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything except to get warm. You can classify about 48 percent of the Northern Hemisphere’s total landmass as a cold region due to the influence and extent of air temperatures. Knowing in which environment your area of operations falls will affect planning and execution of a cold weather operation. Characteristics of this type of environment are freezing conditions during the colder night hours and thawing during the day. Even though the temperatures in this condition are much lower than normal, you do not have to contend with repetitive freezing and thawing conditions.
Even if you have the basic requirements, you must also have adequate protective clothing and the will to survive. In cold temperatures, your inner layers of clothing can become wet from sweat and your outer layer, if not water repellent, can become wet from snow and frost melted by body heat.
Take a handful of snow and wash your body where sweat and moisture accumulate, such as under the arms and between the legs, and then wipe yourself dry.
Since your limbs and head have less protective body tissue than your torso, their temperatures vary and may not reach core temperature. There are three main factors that affect this temperature balance—heat production, heat loss, and evaporation. However, to withstand really cold conditions for any length of time, he will have to become active or shiver. Causes of hypothermia may be general exposure or the sudden wetting of the body by falling into a lake or spraying with fuel or other liquids. This shivering may progress to the point that it is uncontrollable and interferes with an individual’s ability to care for himself.
Honey or dextrose are best, but if they are unavailable, sugar, cocoa, or a similar soluble sweetener may be used.
After-drop is the sharp body core temperature drop that occurs when taking the victim from the warm water.
The sun’s rays reflect at all angles from snow, ice, and water, hitting sensitive areas of skin—lips, nostrils, and eyelids.
The symptoms of snow blindness are a sensation of grit in the eyes, pain in and over the eyes that increases with eyeball movement, red and teary eyes, and a headache that intensifies with continued exposure to light. Lay down some pine boughs, grass, or other insulating material to keep the ground from absorbing your body heat.
Remember that it takes time and energy to build and that you will get wet while building it.
If snowfall is heavy, you will have to clear snow from the top at regular intervals to prevent the collapse of the parachute material. It not only provides a means to prepare food, but also to get warm and to melt snow or ice for water. Light reflects from surrounding trees or rocks, making even indirect light a source of danger.
Most birches grow near streams and lakes, but occasionally you will find a few on higher ground and away from water. Crawling out of a warm sleeping bag at night to relieve yourself means less rest and more exposure to the cold.
The type of food—fish, animal, fowl, or plant—and the ease in obtaining it depend on the time of the year and your location. Kelp, the long ribbonlike seaweed, and other smaller seaweeds that grow among offshore rocks are also edible. If it moves, stop and imitate its movements by lying flat on the ice, raising your head up and down, and wriggling your body slightly. Porcupines feed on bark; if you find tree limbs stripped bare, you are likely to find porcupines in the area. If you do not have time to skin the game, at least remove its entrails, musk glands, and genitals before storing. Your location and the time of the year will determine the types of obstacles and the inherent dangers.
Normal freezing and thawing action may cause a stream level to vary as much as 2 to 2.5 meters (7 to 8 feet) per day. However, some rivers that appear frozen may have soft, open areas that make travel very difficult or may not allow walking, skiing, or sledding.
Once you determine the wind direction, you can predict the type of weather that is imminent. If there is damage to your home and you are instructed to do so, shut off water, gas and electricity before leaving. Before selecting the trees you will use or the location of your poles, check the wind direction.


Tying strings (about 10 centimeters long) to each grommet along the poncho's top edge will allow the water to run to and down the line without dripping into the shelter. It has, however, less usable space and observation area than a lean-to, decreasing your reaction time to enemy detection. It provides protection from the elements and can act as a signaling device by enhancing a small amount of light from a fire or candle.
You need only wrap half of the tripod, as the remainder of the canopy will encircle the tripod in the opposite direction. This shelter is unsatisfactory, however, when snow is falling as even a light snowfall will cave it in.
If a standing tree is not available, construct a biped using Y-shaped sticks or two tripods. Lay one end of the poles on the lean-to support and the other end on top of the reflector wall. Since your physical effort will make you sweat more and increase dehydration, construct it before the heat of the day.
Ocean currents affect cold weather and cause large areas normally included in the temperate zone to fall within the cold regions during winter periods. Although the temperatures are warmer during this condition, the terrain is usually very sloppy due to slush and mud. In these conditions, you need more layers of inner clothing to protect you from temperatures as low as -60 degrees C (-76 degrees F).
For instance, with a 27.8-kph (15-knot) wind and a temperature of -10 degrees C (14 degrees F), the equivalent windchill temperature is -23 degrees C (-9 degrees F). You can lose 40 to 45 percent of body heat from an unprotected head and even more from the unprotected neck, wrist, and ankles (the same areas you put a cold rag on when overheated).
This affects your warmth in two ways: dampness decreases the insulation quality of clothing, and as sweat evaporates, your body cools. It also decreases the volume of air trapped between the layers, reducing its insulating value.
Another method is to wrap the victim in a warmed sleeping bag with another person who is already warm; both should be naked. Its probable cause is the return of previously stagnant limb blood to the core (inner torso) area as recirculation occurs. If you are alone, periodically cover your nose and lower part of your face with your mittened hand. Exposure to the sun results in sunburn more quickly at high altitudes than at low altitudes. Delaying relieving yourself because of the cold, eating dehydrated foods, drinking too little liquid, and irregular eating habits can cause you to become constipated. Wooded areas usually provide the best location, while barren areas have only snow as building material. Also, you must be in an area that is suitable for cutting snow blocks and have the equipment to cut them (snow saw or knife). It also provides you with a significant psychological boost by making you feel a little more secure in your situation. Smoke tends to go straight up in cold, calm weather, making it a beacon during the day, but helping to conceal the smell at night. Without its needles, it looks like a dead spruce, but it has many knobby buds and cones on its bare branches. By bundling or twisting grasses or other scrub vegetation to form a large, solid mass, you will have a slower burning, more productive fuel.
Oil congeals in extremely cold temperatures, therefore, drain it from the vehicle or aircraft while still warm if there is no danger of explosion or fire. It requires very little fuel, yet it generates considerable warmth and is hot enough to warm liquids. During the summer months, the best natural sources of water are freshwater lakes, streams, ponds, rivers, and springs. Trying to melt ice or snow in your mouth takes away body heat and may cause internal cold injuries. In areas where there is a great difference between the high and low tidewater levels, you can easily find shellfish at low tide.
Approach the seal with your body sideways to it and your arms close to your body so that you look as much like another seal as possible. If time allows, cut the meat into usable pieces and freeze each separately so that you can use the pieces as needed. This variance may occur any time during the day, depending on the distance from a glacier, the temperature, and the terrain. If you do not have snowshoes, make a pair using willow, strips of cloth, leather, or other suitable material. Rapidly shifting winds indicate an unsettled atmosphere and a likely change in the weather. Most insect activity increases before a storm, but bee activity increases before fair weather. It is large enough to hold several people and their equipment and to allow sleeping, cooking, and storing firewood. Form two rows of stacked logs to create an inner space within the wall that you can fill with dirt. Survival kit includes a hollow grip with a compass top to store items within the knife itself, as well as additional pouches on the sheath to hold the rest. With a little knowledge of the environment, proper plans, and appropriate equipment, you can overcome the elements.
You must concentrate on protecting yourself not only from the cold temperatures but also from the wet ground and freezing rain or wet snow.
There have been incidents when trained and well-equipped individuals have not survived cold weather situations because they lacked the will to live. Several layers of lightweight clothing are better than one equally thick layer of clothing, because the layers have dead airspace between them. If you do not have a sleeping bag, you can make one out of parachute cloth or similar material and natural dry material, such as leaves, pine needles, or moss. Once you have selected items that are essential for your survival, do not lose them after you enter a cold weather environment. It has been noted that a naked man exposed to still air at or about 0 degrees C (32 degrees F) can maintain a heat balance if he shivers as hard as he can. When the core temperature reaches 35 to 32 degrees C (95 to 90 degrees F), sluggish thinking, irrational reasoning, and a false feeling of warmth may occur.
Concentrating on warming the core area and stimulating peripheral circulation will lessen the effects of after-drop. As it progresses and damage appears, the skin will take on a red and then a bluish or black discoloration.
Wooded areas provide timber for shelter construction, wood for fire, concealment from observation, and protection from the wind. Always block a shelter’s entrance, if possible, to keep the heat in and the wind out.
While building this shelter, keep the roof arched for strength and to allow melted snow to drain down the sides. Use a ground sheet as overhead cover to prevent snow from falling off the tree into the shelter. In warmer weather, especially in a wooded area, smoke tends to hug the ground, making it less visible in the day, but making its odor spread. You can melt ice or snow in a water bag, MRE ration bag, tin can, or improvised container by placing the container near a fire. They raise their heads about every 30 seconds, however, to look for their enemy, the polar bear.
The ice at the edge of the breathing hole is usually smooth and at an incline, so the least movement of the seal may cause it to slide into the water.
The sluggish, humid air makes wilderness odors more pronounced than during high-pressure conditions. Heat can escape more easily from the body through the clothing’s crushed or filled up air pockets. Do this by partially opening your parka or jacket, by removing an inner layer of clothing, by removing heavy outer mittens, or by throwing back your parka hood or changing to lighter headgear. If you are unable to wash your underwear, take it off, shake it, and let it air out for an hour or two.
Core temperatures of 32 to 30 degrees C (90 to 86 degrees F) and below result in muscle rigidity, unconsciousness, and barely detectable signs of life. One way to tell if you are becoming dehydrated is to check the color of your urine on snow. Increase your fluid intake to at least 2 liters above your normal 2 to 3 liters daily intake and, if available, eat fruit and other foods that will loosen the stool.
Running water in streams, rivers, and bubbling springs is usually fresh and suitable for drinking. Begin with a small amount of ice or snow in the container and, as it turns to water, add more ice or snow. Therefore, try to get within 22 to 45 meters (73 to 148 feet) of the seal and kill it instantly (aim for the brain). In addition, sounds are sharper and carry farther in low-pressure conditions than high-pressure conditions. Because there is much blood circulation in the head, most of which is on the surface, you can lose heat quickly if you do not cover your head.
Also, layers of clothing allow you to take off or add clothing layers to prevent excessive sweating or to increase warmth. Despite the precautions you take, there will be times when you cannot keep from getting wet. If the victim’s core temperature falls below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F), death is almost certain. If your urine makes the snow dark yellow, you are becoming dehydrated and need to replace body fluids. Separate the sleeping platform from the snow cave’s walls or dig a small trench between the platform and the wall.
Driftwood or fats may be the only fuels available to a survivor on the barren coastlines in the arctic and subarctic regions.
In areas where there is a small difference between the high- and low-tide water levels, storm waves often wash shellfish onto the beaches. A deep frostbite injury, if thawed and refrozen, will cause more damage than a nonmedically trained person can handle. If it makes the snow light yellow to no color, your body fluids have a more normal balance. In extreme cases, the flesh dies and it may become necessary to have the foot or leg amputated.
A fatal error in cold weather shelter construction is making the shelter so large that it steals body heat rather than helps save it. This construction is especially important if you have a good source of heat in the snow cave. During the summer months, all arctic birds have a 2- to 3-week molting period during which they cannot fly and are easy to catch.
You can also place damp socks or mittens, unfolded, near your body so that your body heat can dry them.
Sometimes, however, pressure at the temples, burning of the eyes, headache, pounding pulse, drowsiness, or nausea may occur. Block the entrance with a snow block or other material and use the lower entrance area for cooking.
In a campsite, hang damp clothing inside the shelter near the top, using drying lines or improvised racks. The one characteristic, visible sign of carbon monoxide poisoning is a cherry red coloring in the tissues of the lips, mouth, and inside of the eyelids. If you do not have a drift large enough to build a snow cave, you can make a variation of it by piling snow into a mound large enough to dig out. If no other means are available for drying your boots, put them between your sleeping bag shell and liner.



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