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2012 ANATOMY(B) & 2012 ANATOMY(B) & Karen Lancour Patty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor – A&P. ANATOMY Event Content: 2012 BASIC ANATOMY (Structure and function) Respiratory System Respiratory System Digestive System (new) Digestive System (new) Major disorders Major disorders Treatment and prevention of disorders Treatment and prevention of disorders PROCESS SKILLS - observations, inferences, predictions, calculations, data analysis, and conclusions. Respiratory System Respiratory System – Functions Basic functions of the respiratory system are: 1. Pulmonary Ventilation The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm work together Inspiration, or inhalation – a very active process that requires input of energy Air flows into the lungs when the thoracic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. Measures of Pulmonary Ventilation Respiratory volumes – values determined by using a spirometer Tidal Volume (TV) – amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – amount of air that can be inhaled during forced breathing in addition to resting tidal volume Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – amount of air that can be exhaled during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume Residual Volume (RV) – Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation.
Effects of Exercise on Respiratory System During exercise the muscle cells use up more oxygen and produce increased amounts of carbon dioxide. LIVER and GALL BLADDER Liver: - provides bile salts to the small intestine, which are critical for digestion and absorption of fats. PANCREAS Pancreas: - provides digestive enzymes to the small intestine which are critical for digestion of fats, carbohydrates and protein. LARGE INTESTINES Colon: liquid residue – mainly water with undigested materal water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place feces are formed. Pathways in the Mouth 6 Back of mouth (pharynx) leads to TWO tubes: Esophagus (empties into stomach) Trachea (leads to lungs) DONT want food to clog trachea! The digestive system is made of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anusand other organs that help the body break down.

Your digestive system has three main functions The Digestive System digestion absorption elimination.
Food Type Carbohydrate Fat Protein Use Long term energy Fast energy Protecting organs and long term energy store Making muscle, enzymes, skin, hair. The lungs and heart have to work harder to supply the extra oxygen and remove the carbon dioxide. Major Activities of Digestive System Ingestion Ingestion Mechanical Processing Mechanical Processing Digestion. 6.1 Holozoic Nutrition Nutrition is the intake of food and processes of converting food substances into living matter.
Changing big nutrient molecules into their smaller building blocks REQUIRES ENZYMES Example: Proteins broken down into amino.
Functions Ingest food Break down food Move through digestive tract Absorb digested food and water Eliminates waste materials. Nutrients Nutrients - substances obtained from the environment that organisms need for growth and survival Six major.
Most chemical digestion takes place here Absorb nutrients Other organs assist 1 st part of the SI is the duodenum. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.
Expiration, or exhalation – a passive process that takes advantage of the recoil properties of elastic fibers Air is forced out of the lungs when the thoracic pressure rises above atmospheric pressure.

Introduction Digestion is the process of altering the physical state and chemical composition of food, so that it can be absorbed.
Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and. We need food to: oprovide us with energy for our daily activities like walking, and to maintain.
Muscle cell respiration increases - more oxygen is used up and levels of carbon dioxide rise.
The brain detects increasing levels of carbon dioxide - a signal is sent to the lungs to increase breathing. Breathing rate and the volume of air in each breath increase - This means that more gaseous exchange takes place.
The brain also tells the heart to beat faster so that more blood is pumped to the lungs for gaseous exchange.

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