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So, adding more batteries in the bank helps you sustsin more time between charging, windy or sunny periods. Every variation in battery configurations that you support, discuss, use, simply complicates support of the systems you sell and support. That's one reason I don't like to sell turbines for use with some pre-existing solar system. A battery bank storage system should be sized to get you through several days of stormy weather, but if the battery bank is too large for the size of your solar array or generator powered charger, you may not have time to recharge back to 100% before needing to power the loads again. Once a solar charged battery bank has been depleted, you will need to turn off all loads until the next sunny day, or utilize a backup generator or wind turbine to help you through the extended period of cloudy days.
Assuming we can put back what we take out each day, there are advantages to having a storage battery larger than needed to meet the daily appliance and lighting loads.
Although an occasional period of stormy weather may require your battery bank to be heavily discharged, your normal average daily discharge should not go below 50%, with 40% a better goal (60% charge remaining). When selecting a battery it is the amp-hour (A-Hr) rating that defines its energy storage capacity, and a battery’s advertised amp-hour rating can be listed for different discharge time periods, so be sure you are not comparing apples and oranges. For example, an “L16” size deep discharge battery typically used in solar powered homes has a 350 amp-hour capacity when slowly discharged over a 20-hour period (C20).
Since a typical four-hour solar charging period per day or four hours of generator run time per day leaves 20 hours per day for slow discharge before the next charging cycle, the advertised C20 rating will be the closest published discharge rating to the typical daily cycling of most residential off-grid systems. Say you want to power a 12-volt DC lighting system for an off-grid cabin that has no other source of power. If we select a battery having a 350 amp-hour rating, this battery will deliver 175 amp-hours (350 x 0.50) before needing recharging if discharged to 50%. The wiring diagram in Figure 1 shows the battery bank of our remote cabin lighting example, consisting of two 6-volt batteries wired in series.
If we were to wire the same two batteries in parallel, as in Figure 2, we would get a 6-volt output with a 700 amp-hour capacity.
For large loads, you will either need to use batteries having a higher amp-hour rating, or wire the batteries in series-parallel, as in Figure 3. Although theoretically we could wire batteries together in as many series and parallel configurations as needed to provide any voltage and amp-hour capacity, having a large number of batteries in parallel is not desirable.
Since most battery interconnect wiring uses fairly large size cables, a cell failure can result in very large currents discharging from one parallel string into another, causing melted battery cables or a boiled dry cell giving off lots of smoke and explosive gasses. NOTE: In all of these wiring examples, the positive (+) and negative (-) connections are located at opposite ends of each battery bank. If you have ever dropped a wrench across the terminals of a car battery you know how easy it is to melt metal, even at this low voltage. Every wire connected to the positive (+) terminal of any battery or group of batteries should pass through a fuse to prevent serious damage if there is a system short.

You should also understand that an AC fuse or AC circuit breaker would not safely protect a DC wiring circuit. When using multiple batteries to increase the voltage and capacity of your battery bank, be sure to use the proper size and type cables for these interconnects and keep them as short as possible. Using improper safety devices or undersized low cost non-copper cables and connectors is no place to save money.
I have a 20' travel trailer and a friend of mine has told me that if I bought 2 6 volt golf cart batteries that I would have a longer battery time when going to campgrounds that have no power. Comments for Will Two 6 Volt Deep Cycle Batteries In RV Provide Power Longer Then One 12 Volt Battery? Remember when using 6 volt batteries, in a 12 volt system, that they must be used in pairs wired in series (one NEG to the other POS and the other posts are your 12 v output). How much more percentage will you get out of the two 6 volt batteries vs the 12 volt battery.
Most solar or generator based backup and off-grid power systems will require a battery bank to store energy for use later when the sun is not shinning or the generator is not running. If the battery load each day is greater than the solar or generator charging each day, the battery bank voltage will drop lower and lower each day until it will no longer be able to supply the loads. A dual source charging system allows using a smaller battery bank than a solar only system. However, this same battery may only have a 400-cycle life if each cycle took the battery down to 90% discharged (10% charge remaining). However, this same battery has a 460 amp-hour rating when discharged over a 100-hour period (C100), but only a 259 amp-hour rating when discharged over a 6-hour period (C6).
The 350 amp-hour battery used in this example was a 6-volt battery, and our lighting system requires double that voltage or 12-volts to operate, so we will need two batteries wired in series to provide the 12-volts. If series wiring multiplies the voltage, and parallel wiring multiples the storage capacity (amp-hour), how do we get a higher capacity battery bank to power higher voltage loads? Four 6-volt batteries wired in series-parallel will provide a 12-volt output with a 700 amp-hour capacity. If a battery or battery cell fails in an individual series wired string, the battery bank voltage for that series string drops or the voltage output stops completely.
It is a good idea to limit your battery bank to no more than four battery strings wired in parallel, with two parallel strings that much safer. Since most of today’s 12-volt DC appliances, DC lighting, and DC to AC inverters are now available in 24-volt and 48-volt versions, a 24-volt system will need four 6-volt batteries in series and a 48-volt system will need eight 6-volt batteries in series to achieve the higher voltage.
This causes the electrical path to be equal in length and resistance regardless of which way the electricity flows, resulting in an equally balanced charge and discharge for each individual battery.
DC electricity does not cycle to zero volts like AC electricity, and a constant DC electrical flow will try to “weld” the switch contacts together when the arc forms as the fuse or circuit breaker starts to open.

Do not use automotive or marine type cables or welding cables, as these are not UL listed for residential wiring.
Be sure your backup power system uses the correct wire sizes for the loads and batteries used, and be sure each circuit is protected by the proper size and type safety device. The 400 amp-hour battery you find on sale could actually have a smaller capacity than a 350 amp-hr battery if you are comparing amp-hour ratings for different discharge periods. If all lights are operating at the same time, this means the total lighting load will be 12 amps (4 lights x 3 amps). Unfortunately this does not also double the amp-hour capacity of this battery bank which will stay the same. In any series-parallel battery layout, make sure you do not have more than two cables connected to any single battery flag terminal, as the terminal may not be adequate in size or strength to support more. If a battery or battery cell fails in a group of batteries wired in parallel, the adjacent string of good batteries will try to flow current into the string having the bad battery or battery cell, which becomes another system load. You can also reduce the risk associated with batteries wired in parallel by installing a “catastrophic” fuse in each individual series string of a parallel-wired battery bank. For example, a 48-volt battery bank having sixteen 6-volt batteries would only require two parallel strings of eight batteries each (8 batteries x 6-volts).
Safety devices rated for DC use need to be of much heavier construction than the same amp capacity device intended for AC circuits. Our next issue will address everything you wanted to know about battery inverters to power your AC loads. This is accomplished by using more batteries, larger batteries, or reducing the system load.
This also means your solar array will need to put into the battery bank a minimum each day of what you are taking out, plus at least 20% more to account for system and charging losses. Multiple batteries wired in series have the same amp-hour capacity as each individual battery.
Your battery system must supply 72 amp-hours (12 amps x 6 hours) of energy each day to meet your daily power needs, if we ignore all efficiency losses. Only when we wire batteries in parallel do we obtain multiples of the amp-hour capacity, but wiring batteries in parallel does not increase battery voltage.
Also, the larger the car’s engine (electrical load) the faster you will drain the gas tank (battery), which means you will need to stop more often for gas (recharge).

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