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An electromagnetic pulse (sometimes abbreviated EMP) is a burst of electromagnetic radiation. In military terminology, a nuclear bomb detonated hundreds of kilometers above the Earth's surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) device.
The fact that an electromagnetic pulse is produced by a nuclear explosion was known since the earliest days of nuclear weapons testing. During the first United States nuclear test on 16 July 1945, electronic equipment was shielded due to Enrico Fermi's expectation of an electromagnetic pulse from the detonation. The high altitude nuclear tests of 1962, as described below, increased the awareness of EMP beyond the original small population of nuclear weapons scientists and engineers. Starfish Prime was the first successful test in the series of United States high-altitude nuclear tests in 1962 known as Operation Fishbowl.
The EMP damage of the Starfish Prime test was quickly repaired because of the ruggedness (compared to today)[9] of the electrical and electronic infrastructure of Hawaii in 1962. The concept of the explosively pumped flux compression generator for generating a non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse was conceived as early as 1951 by Andrei Sakharov in the Soviet Union,[15] but nations have usually kept their most recent work on non-nuclear EMP highly classified until the technology was old enough for similar ideas to be conceived by physicists in other nations. The case of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse differs from other kinds of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) in being a complex electromagnetic multi-pulse.
The mechanism for a 400 km high altitude burst EMP: gamma rays hit the atmosphere between 20–40 km altitude, ejecting electrons which are then deflected sideways by the Earth's magnetic field.
The E1 component is produced when gamma radiation from the nuclear detonation knocks electrons out of the atoms in the upper atmosphere. Physicist Conrad Longmire has given numerical values for a typical case of the E1 pulse produced by a second generation nuclear weapon such as those used in high altitude tests of Operation Fishbowl in 1962.
Because of the downward tilt of the Earth's magnetic field at high latitudes, the area of peak field strength is a U-shaped region to the equatorial side of the nuclear detonation.
The Earth's magnetic field quickly deflects the electrons at right angles to the geomagnetic field, and the extent of the deflection depends upon the strength of the magnetic field.
This interaction of the very rapidly moving negatively charged electrons with the magnetic field radiates a pulse of electromagnetic energy.
There are a number of secondary collisions which cause the subsequent electrons to lose energy before they reach ground level.
These 2 MeV gamma rays will normally produce an E1 pulse near ground level at moderately high latitudes that peaks at about 50,000 volts per metre.
The process of the gamma rays knocking electrons out of the atoms in the mid-stratosphere causes this region of the atmosphere to become an electrical conductor due to ionization, a process which blocks the production of further electromagnetic signals and causes the field strength to saturate at about 50,000 volts per metre. There are reports of "super-EMP" nuclear weapons that are able to overcome the 50,000 volt per metre limit by the very nearly instantaneous release of a burst of gamma radiation of much higher energy levels than are known to be produced by second generation nuclear weapons. The E2 component is generated by scattered gamma rays and inelastic gammas produced by weapon neutrons. According to the United States EMP Commission, the main potential problem with the E2 component is the fact that it immediately follows the E1 component, which may have damaged the devices that would normally protect against E2.
According to the EMP Commission Executive Report of 2004, "In general, it would not be an issue for critical infrastructure systems since they have existing protective measures for defense against occasional lightning strikes. Because of the similarity between solar-induced geomagnetic storms and nuclear E3, it has become common to refer to solar-induced geomagnetic storms as "solar EMP."[24] At ground level, however, "solar EMP" is not known to produce an E1 or E2 component. Older, vacuum tube (valve) based equipment is generally much less vulnerable to EMP than newer solid state equipment.
Although vacuum tubes are far more resistant to EMP than solid state devices, other components in vacuum tube circuitry can be damaged by EMP. If the aircraft carrying the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs had been within the intense nuclear radiation zone when the bombs exploded over those cities, then they would have suffered effects from the charge separation (radial) EMP. Beyond a certain altitude a nuclear weapon will not produce any EMP, as the gamma rays will have had sufficient distance to disperse. A high-altitude nuclear detonation produces an immediate flux of gamma rays from the nuclear reactions within the device.
The pulse can easily span continent-sized areas, and this radiation can affect systems on land, sea, and air. The altitude indicated above is greater than that of the International Space Station and many low Earth orbit satellites. Typical nuclear weapon yields used during Cold War planning for EMP attacks were in the range of 1 to 10 megatons (4.2 to 42 PJ)[32] This is roughly 50 to 500 times the sizes of the weapons the United States used in Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
A unique and important aspect of nuclear EMP is that all of the components of the electromagnetic pulse are generated outside of the weapon.
For high-altitude nuclear explosions, this means that much of the EMP is actually generated at a large distance from the detonation (where the gamma radiation from the explosion hits the upper atmosphere).
In other words, the electric field strength in the entire area that is affected by the EMP will be fairly uniform for weapons with a large gamma ray output; but for much smaller weapons, the electric field may fall off at a comparatively faster rate at large distances from the detonation point. It is the peak electric field of the EMP that determines the peak voltage induced in equipment and other electrical conductors on the ground, and most of the damage is determined by induced voltages. Non-nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NNEMP) is an electromagnetic pulse generated without use of nuclear weapons. NNEMP generators can be carried as a payload of bombs, cruise missiles and drones, allowing construction of electromagnetic bombs with diminished mechanical, thermal and ionizing radiation effects and without the political consequences of deploying nuclear weapons. The range of NNEMP weapons (non-nuclear electromagnetic bombs) is severely limited compared to nuclear EMP.
A right front view of a Boeing E-4 National Airborne Operations Center aircraft on the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) simulator (HAGII-C) for testing.
Information about the EMP simulators used by the United States during the latter part of the Cold War, along with more general information about electromagnetic pulse, are now in papers under the care of the SUMMA Foundation,[41] which is now hosted at the University of New Mexico.
The United States EMP Commission was authorized by the United States Congress in Fiscal Year 2001, and re-authorized in Fiscal Year 2006. The United States EMP Commission has brought together a group of notable scientists and technologists to compile several reports.
The EMP Commission sponsored a worldwide survey of foreign scientific and military literature to evaluate the knowledge, and possibly the intentions, of foreign states with respect to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. Many foreign analysts–particularly in Iran, North Korea, China, and Russia–view the United States as a potential aggressor that would be willing to use its entire panoply of weapons, including nuclear weapons, in a first strike. Russian and Chinese military scientists in open source writings describe the basic principles of nuclear weapons designed specifically to generate an enhanced-EMP effect, that they term "Super-EMP" weapons.
In non-technical writings about nuclear EMP, both in print and on the Internet, some common misconceptions about EMP are nearly always found.
The E3 component of nuclear EMP that produces geomagnetically induced currents in very long electrical conductors is roughly proportional to the total energy yield of the weapon.
It has long been known that there are many ways to protect against nuclear EMP (or to quickly begin repairs where protection is not practical); but the United States EMP Commission determined that such protections are almost completely absent in the civilian infrastructure of the United States, and that even large sectors of the United States military services were no longer protected against EMP to the level that they were during the Cold War.
The Office of Naval Research successfully disables a small target vessel using a solid-state, high-energy laser mounted onto the deck of the Navy's self-defense test ship, former USS Paul Foster (DD 964). Marking a milestone for the Navy, the Office of Naval Research and its industry partner on April 6 successfully tested a solid-state, high-energy laser (HEL) from a surface ship, which disabled a small target vessel. The Navy and Northrop Grumman completed at-sea testing of the Maritime Laser Demonstrator (MLD), which validated the potential to provide advanced self-defense for surface ships and personnel by keeping small boat threats at a safe distance. The latest test occurred near San Nicholas Island, off the coast of Central California in the Pacific Ocean test range. Carr also recognized the Office of the Secretary of Defense's High Energy Joint Technology Office and the Army's Joint High Powered Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) program for their work.
In just slightly more than two-and-a-half years, the MLD has gone from contract award to demonstrating a Navy ship defensive capability, he said. Additionally, the Navy accomplished several other benchmarks, including integrating MLD with a ship's radar and navigation system and firing an electric laser weapon from a moving platform at-sea in a humid environment. But while April's MLD test proves the ability to use a scalable laser to thwart small vessels at range, the technology will not replace traditional weapon systems, Carr added.
The Free-Electron Laser (FEL), supported by the Office of Naval Research and located at the U.S. In a time of increasing irregular warfare threats, the Navy has devised and successfully demonstrated a revolutionary technology to help reduce the risk of naval mine strikes to U.S. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is funding emerging technology that will allow wireless surveillance not only of ships and aircraft, but also the tracking of people and high value assets inside the ships.
The US Navy announced a successful test Friday of an electromagnetic cannon capable of firing a projectile 110 nautical miles (200 kilometers) at five times the speed of sound.

Could existing electric vehicles (EVs), despite their limited driving range, bring about a meaningful reduction in the greenhouse-gas emissions that are causing global climate change? The British government gave the green light Tuesday for what it called the world's biggest offshore wind farm to be built off the English coast.
A blimp-shaped, helium-filled airship considered the world's largest aircraft flew for the first time Wednesday with a short but historic jaunt over an airfield in central England.
In a few weeks, Uber will start using self-driving cars to carry passengers in Pittsburgh, raising the stakes in the fast-track race to deploy autonomous vehicles.
Would it be too much to ask the author to always check whether there is a video available ?
I can't seem to tell from the video or article, how long does the weapon need to shoot at a target for the results we see in the video to happen?If it's longer than a moment or two, what is the advantage this solution has over a kinetic weapon (gun)? The value in using a laser over kinetic weapons is that a laser travels straight to a definite point.
Yes a laser will move in a straight line, but i did notice from the video that the laser had to be on the target much much longer for an effect to take place than would have been needed with a kinetic weapon. There are more uncontrollable variables in firing a "slow" bullet, even one fired using a computer instead of a human. Green Plant UK stocks a range of Rayco stump grinders and is able to offer a full sales service. We believe that our fleet of hire machinery is one of the best, if not the best, maintained fleet in the business. We have a range of ex-demo and hire machines which have been maintained to the highest standards. We are often able to offer subsidised finance deals on new machines as well as competitive finance rates on used machines. We can regenerate used forklift batteries regaining lost run time and increasing the life span of the battery.
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The EZPuller is a portable battery transfer cart that can be mounted on to any powered pallet truck with suitable forks. The low cost unit features a 4-1 hand crank that makes it easy to remove or replace lift truck batteries.
When changing a small sized fleet of batteries in a charging room, the EZPuller is the answer.
The PowerPuller is a portable powered battery transfer cart that can be mounted to any powered pallet truck with suitable forks.
The unit is powered from the pallet truck battery, so no additional power source is needed.
When changing a medium sized fleet of batteries in a charging room, the PowerPuller is the answer. The UniPuller is recommended for those applications requiring 20 to 40 battery changes per day where battery compartment height variation is greater then 152mm or over 305mm above the floor. The UniPuller combines its own power and drive unit, carriage assembly and magnet attachment system to give a portable, but complete, heavy-duty battery handler. When changing a medium sized fleet of batteries in a charging room and a complete machine is required, theUniPuller is the answer. The abrupt pulse of electromagnetic radiation usually results from certain types of high energy explosions, especially a nuclear explosion, or from a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field.
Effects of a HEMP device depend on a very large number of factors, including the altitude of the detonation, energy yield, gamma ray output, interactions with the Earth's magnetic field, and electromagnetic shielding of targets.
The official technical history for that first nuclear test states, "All signal lines were completely shielded, in many cases doubly shielded. The larger scientific community became aware of the significance of the EMP problem after a series of three articles was published about nuclear electromagnetic pulse in 1981 by William J. The subsequent Operation Fishbowl tests gathered more data on the high-altitude EMP phenomenon. The geomagnetic storm-like E3 pulse (from the test designated as "Test 184") even induced an electric current surge in a long underground power line that caused a fire in the power plant in the city of Karaganda. The E1 component is a very brief but intense electromagnetic field that can quickly induce very high voltages in electrical conductors. The electrons begin to travel in a generally downward direction at relativistic speeds (more than 90 percent of the speed of light). According to him, the typical gamma rays given off by the weapon have an energy of about 2 MeV (million electron volts). As shown in the diagram at the right, for nuclear detonations over the continental United States, this U-shaped region is south of the detonation point. At geomagnetic field strengths typical of the central United States, central Europe or Australia, these initial electrons spiral around the magnetic field lines in a circle with a typical radius of about 85 metres (about 280 feet). The strength of the E1 pulse depends upon the number and intensity of the gamma rays produced by the weapon and upon the rapidity of the gamma ray burst from the weapon. This E2 component is an "intermediate time" pulse that, by the IEC definition, lasts from about 1 microsecond to 1 second after the beginning of the electromagnetic pulse.
The most significant risk is synergistic, because the E2 component follows a small fraction of a second after the first component's insult, which has the ability to impair or destroy many protective and control features.
The E3 component of the pulse is a very slow pulse, lasting tens to hundreds of seconds, that is caused by the nuclear detonation heaving the Earth's magnetic field out of the way, followed by the restoration of the magnetic field to its natural place.
The B-29 aircraft that delivered the nuclear weapons at Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not lose power due to damage to their electrical or electronic systems. But this only occurs within the severe blast radius for detonations below about 10 km altitude.
In deep space or on worlds with no magnetic field (the moon or Mars for example) there will be little or no EMP. These photons in turn produce high energy free electrons by Compton scattering at altitudes between (roughly) 20 and 40 km. The first recorded EMP incident accompanied a high-altitude nuclear test over the South Pacific and resulted in power system failures as far away as Hawaii. Because of the nature of the pulse as a large, high powered, noisy spike, it is doubtful that there would be much protection if the explosion were seen in the sky just below the tops of hills or mountains.
Large weapons could have a dramatic impact on satellite operations and communications such as occurred during the 1962 tests.
In the thermonuclear Starfish Prime the fission yield was less than 100% to begin with, and then the thicker outer casing absorbed about 95% of the prompt gamma rays from the pusher around the fusion stage. This causes the electric field from the EMP to be remarkably uniform over the large area affected. Within the range of gamma ray deposition, simple laws no longer hold as the air is ionised and there are other EMP effects, such as a radial electric field due to the separation of Compton electrons from air molecules, together with other complex phenomena. There are a number of devices that can achieve this objective, ranging from a large low-inductance capacitor bank discharged into a single-loop antenna or a microwave generator to an explosively pumped flux compression generator. In 2008, the EMP Commission released the Critical National Infrastructures Report.[34] This report describes, in as much detail as practical, the likely consequences of a nuclear EMP on civilian infrastructures.
The survey found that the physics of EMP phenomenon and the military potential of EMP attack are widely understood in the international community, as reflected in official and unofficial writings and statements. They perceive the United States as having contingency plans to make a nuclear EMP attack, and as being willing to execute those plans under a broad range of circumstances. These widely-repeated misconceptions have led to a very considerable amount of confusion about the subject.
As stated in the "History" section above, nuclear EMP from a nuclear air burst has been known since 1945. The other components of nuclear EMP are less likely to be dependent on total energy yield of the weapon.
The public statements of the physicists and engineers working in the EMP field tend to emphasize the importance of making electronic equipment and electrical components resistant to EMP — and of keeping adequate spare parts on hand, and in the proper location, to enable prompt repairs to be made.[22][34][49] The United States EMP Commission did not look at the civilian infrastructures of other nations.
The laser was mounted onto the deck of the Navy's self-defense test ship, former USS Paul Foster (DD 964).

Other tests of solid state lasers for the Navy have been conducted from land-based positions. Having access to a HEL weapon will one day provide warfighter with options when encountering a small-boat threat, Morrison said. This test provides an important data point as we move toward putting directed energy on warships. Yes it might have taken a few shots to get the engine to start fire, but it would have been much cheaper, and probably quicker no? It features a reliable Kohler 25 hp gas engine with dual element air cleaner and electric start. All our machines are always fully serviced (including replacement of blades etc) prior to going out on hire and we offer a full backup service in the unlikely event that something does occur.
This process has been running for over 10 years in Europe and is now available in New Zealand.
The safety latch located in front of the battery carriage is used to lock the battery in place while it is being transported.
The PowerPuller is ideal for 20 to 40 battery changes per day.and is operated from the easy to use joystick controls. The PowerPuller is the heavy duty solution to handling problems associated with battery charging. The unit allows qualified forklift truck operators to safely andeasily change their own lift truck batteries.
The unit has an electromagnetic attachment to.safely transfer the battery back and forward. It is the safest and most cost effective way to change industrial batteries, particularly whenbatteries are at different heights. Together we can tap into MTCs experience and come up with a Battery Handling solution for any site. These new calculations, combined with the accelerating reliance on EMP-sensitive microelectronics, heightened awareness that the EMP threat could be a very significant problem. The E1 component causes most of its damage by causing electrical breakdown voltages to be exceeded. In the absence of a magnetic field, this would produce a large pulse of electric current vertically in the upper atmosphere over the entire affected area. When these gamma rays collide with atoms in the mid-stratosphere, the gamma rays knock out electrons.
Near the equator, where the Earth's magnetic field is more nearly horizontal, the E1 field strength is more nearly symmetrical around the burst location. These initial electrons are stopped by collisions with other air molecules at an average distance of about 170 metres (a little less than 580 feet). The magnitude of this pulse typically decays to half of its peak value within 200 nanoseconds.
The strength of the E1 pulse is also somewhat dependent upon the altitude of the detonation. The E2 component of the pulse has many similarities to the electromagnetic pulses produced by lightning, although the electromagnetic pulse induced by a nearby lightning strike may be considerably larger than the E2 component of a nuclear EMP. These electrons are then trapped in the Earth's magnetic field, giving rise to an oscillating electric current. A large device detonated at 400–500 km (250 to 312 miles) over Kansas would affect all of the continental U.S. Thermonuclear weapons are also less efficient at producing EMP because the first stage can pre-ionize the air[27] which becomes conductive and hence rapidly shorts out the electron Compton currents generated by the final, larger yield thermonuclear stage.
For a surface burst, absorption of gamma rays by air would limit the range of gamma ray deposition to approximately 10 miles, while for a burst in the lower-density air at high altitudes, the range of deposition would be far greater. The effect of small e-bombs has proven to be sufficient for certain terrorist or military operations.
Although this report was directed specifically toward the United States, most of the information can obviously be generalized to the civilian infrastructure of other industrialized countries.
The survey of open sources over the past decade finds that knowledge about EMP and EMP attack is evidenced in at least Britain, France, Germany, Israel, Egypt, Taiwan, Sweden, Cuba, India, Pakistan, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran, North Korea, China and Russia. The unique characteristics of high-altitude nuclear EMP have been known since at least 1962. The E1 component, in particular, is proportional to prompt gamma ray output; but EMP levels can be strongly affected if more than one burst of gamma rays occurs in a short time period. There is still much work to do to make sure it's done safely and efficiently," the admiral said. The difficulty in hitting the target would be similar or even more difficult for the laser as it would have to hit the same spot on the target during the bobbing for an effect to take place, the gun would only need to be properly aligned once. Chances are good that what you see in a video for public consumption may not be the whole story. A powerful hydrostatic transmission and large wheels and tires navigate over obstacles and difficult terrain. Via a network of field and workshop engineers, we are able to provide essential backup across South East England.
We stock a large range of common parts and most other parts can usually be sent within 24 hours (excluding weekends). The large hookchain through the battery lifting hole ensures the battery can be securely and safely manoeuvred.
The EZPuller is the safe, low cost solution to handling problems associated with battery changing. The PowerPuller has an electromagnetic attachment to safely transfer the battery back and forward. The system is a self contained battery puller unit, operated from the easy to use joystick controls, and is powered from it’s own battery, (battery not supplied) so no additional power source is needed. E1 is the component that can destroy computers and communications equipment and it changes too quickly for ordinary lightning protectors to provide effective protection against it. The Earth's magnetic field acts on these electrons to change the direction of electron flow to a right angle to the geomagnetic field.
This is known as the Compton effect, and the resulting electrons produce an electric current that is known as the Compton current. Because of the similarities to lightning-caused pulses and the widespread use of lightning protection technology, the E2 pulse is generally considered to be the easiest to protect against.
This current is asymmetric in general and gives rise to a rapidly rising radiated electromagnetic field called an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Hence, small pure fission weapons with thin cases are far more efficient at causing EMP than most megaton bombs.
I see some great things we could do with a laser based weapons system, but i am not sure of why we would have it on a boat as opposed to satellites.Then again if you want to take out a few satellites just launch a bag of gravel into space with a small explosive to spread out the gravel. And ita€™s made to fit through a 30a€? gate, so the RG25HD can get to just about any stump. Our main office is near Guildford, Surrey but we also operate from depots in Kent, Hertfordshire and Essex. The adjustment height of this unit is dependant on the pallet truck on which it is mounted,and keeps the cost of battery changing to a minimum by adapting to existing equipment.
The gamma rays transfer about half of their energy to the electrons, so these initial electrons have an energy of about 1 MeV. Because the electrons are trapped essentially simultaneously, a very large electromagnetic source radiates coherently.
This multi-stage process is completed within a small fraction of a second, but it nevertheless requires a finite length of time. Adjustable handlebars, parking brake, operator presence bail handle, and an electric clutch are standard features on the RG25HD. This causes the electrons to begin to travel in a generally downward direction at about 94 percent of the speed of light. The first fission reaction is usually of relatively small yield, and the gamma rays produced by the first stage pre-ionize atmospheric molecules in the stratosphere.

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