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Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations.
The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. Methods for accurately reproducing and eventually printing maps in sufficient quantities to enable cartographical knowledge to a€?penetrate very deepa€™ are in fact a feature only of modern times.
It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the earth's landmass with data from ancient texts. Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials.
Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Where once such maps would not have been admitted within a general history of cartography, a new view of the meaning of the map can embrace them.
By no means do all ancient Near Eastern maps display metrological finesse or even the use of measurement, though some characteristically do, such as the agrarian field and urban plot cadastral surveys. The maps of cities with their waterways and surrounding physical landscape combine cartography of sacred space, seen in the temple plans, with that of economic space, seen in the field surveys. The Babylonian world map is an attempt to encompass the totality of the eartha€™s surface iconographically: land, ocean, mountain, swamp, and distant uncharted a€?regionsa€? This said, it represents more of an understanding of what the world is from the viewpoint of historical imagination than an image of its topography against a measured framework. The diversity of cultures that have sought to preserve their maps, putting them on clay, papyrus, parchment, and other writing media, points to a near universality of making maps in human culture. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia.
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102).
It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down.
Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records.
It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came.
From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps.
The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps. The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography.
The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire.
When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life.
Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. We walked back down Spring Garden, to Barrington, passing the old cemetery and continued on to Morris and the HH. A half carafe of Valpolicelli, some wonderful panini bread and olive oil, set the stage for a delicious plate of frutti di mare. The evening was warm and pleasant, so we walked down to the water and along the Ocean walk. On his advice, we set off along the highway and followed signs that indeed said A’West Mabou Beach.A“ The road to the beach is sort of primitive, but we managed to find the ocean-side parking lot. We were dining at the Inn this evening, so all we had to do was walk next door to the main building. The Maitland River basin gave us our first glimpse of the tidal phenomenon that is the Bay of Fundy. At Walton, we stopped, at this bend of the road, to admire one of the now familiar triangular white light houses, with red tops. In the Annapolis room, we were seated by the picture window, with a fine view out over the ocean. We got a score card from the pro shop, looked around a bit and then drove over to Digby on the water.
The sun was shining brightly outside and we had an hour to wait for our plane, so we ventured outside to enjoy the day.
Soon enough, the time came for us to venture inside and board our West Jet for the two-hour flight toHamilton, Ontario. WILLIAM BENJAMIN (BILLY BEN) COZENS TRIED HIS HAND AT MINING AND PROSPECTING BUT SOON AFTER HIS ARRIVAL HE WENT TO WORK FOR JACK KEELER, WHO WAS IN THE MERCHANDISE AND SALOON BUSINESS. He takes a turn at the wheel for the ride north to Francinea€™s parentsa€™ cabin, along the Peak to Peak Highway. Benjamin is not the kind of person who reads Michael Crichton, particularly not the trashy stuff about sex and airplanes, but the commotion had somehow recalled Jurassic Park, then Airframe. INDIANS CUT OFF COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN a€?THE STATESa€? AND DENVER DURING THE FALL OF 1864. At the park entrance, a brown and shriveled ranger leans into the Subaru to warn Benjamin about the trail report. Much latera€”months and months and even years into the blackness, out of the bluea€”when Francine calls Benjamin to say that advertising a hike with a woman nobody recognizes is fucking inconsiderate, and that shea€™s had to explain their breakup to most of Colorado singlehandedly, friends hea€™s probably forgotten about, and that shea€™s lost some weight over the stress and quit selling cheese but keeps writing all the same, writing just acres and acres of poetry teeming with new language, and that one of these poems, the one about the dead butterflies (the dead what? He thought she was pretty, looking down from his grading in the attic bookstore on College Avenue last autumn.
An important-looking man in coveralls and a Stetson stands astride Central City Parkway, hailing traffic. The spiraling descent leaves Benjamin a little dizzy, then grateful for a burst of sunshine and the waving arms of the Stetson man.
This had happened once before, during his freelancing days in Washington, before he went back to teachinga€”in the vast, unfinished basement on Georgia Avenue that hea€™d shared with a luggage boy from the Marriott. The gallerya€™s upper floors, Benjamin discovers, advertise expensive photographya€”horses, windmills, battered pickups. A A A  At the door, before he steps into the sunlight, Benjamin finds a series of older prints he hadna€™t noticed before. At the overlook where they get out the bagels, Emerald Lake is radiating a whole spectrum of greena€”jade, turquoise, sea green. The audio isn't the greatest and it's a little hard to hear Myles but giver a whirl friends.
Nonpoint's drummer, Rob "Low Blow" Rivera has insisted to me on several occasions that "Nonpoint is NOT a metal band". Dan Swano's Witherscape released the truly excellent story-telling album"The Inheritance" in 2013. This will be the last time I mention Opeth's departure to the world of prog in this article, I swear. The death metal void they left is just begging to be filled, and Black Crown Initiate is VERY up for the task! If you're not familiar with the band, you might be thinking that you're listening to another Scandinavian export, but these guys are all-American, proving that us Yanks know how to do death-prog right too. Dig into Black Crown Initiate ASAP, lest they decide to go the "2nd coming of Frank Zappa" route too. Much like Periphery, Revocation is ridiculously prolific, especially given the top-notch quality of every release.
Revocation mastermind Dave Davidson continues to be a shining example of what you can accomplish with a quality education (Berkley College of Music).
There are a couple of fun surprises on the record as well, including guest guitar work from Marty Friedman on "The Exaltation", and a brutal cover of Slayer's "Altar of Sacrifice". If you haven't dug into Revocation by now, this is a perfect time to find out what you've been missing out on. Luckily, we have a comments section below where you can show mad love for your favorite stuff.
DISCLAIMER: All Images are used for identification in the context of critical commentary of the work for which it serves as cover art.
Fair use of these images within the context of criticism and comment are covered under Section 107 of U.S. Guns n' Roses are currently making the rounds on their 'Not In This Lifetime' tour with the reunited lineup of Axl Rose, Slash, and Duff McKagan. I can't be the only person that was sold a vintage Axl moment was coming out but the singer seems to handle it like a champ.
North Carolina's efforts to drag the state into the 20th, or maybe even 19th century, haven't gone unnoticed by the world of metal.
It's been a looooooooooooooooong time since Opeth released an album with death metal vocals.
That said, the title track to their new album "Sorceress" is MUCH heavier than much of their recent output. Last night in Western New York Disturbed met some members of the Mansfield Police Department who honored the band with gifts for the impact their Sound of Silence Video has had on them and their families. During the show lead singer, Stephan Jenkins, changed the set list to play a bunch of deep cuts and intentionally avoided playing some of the bands biggest hits. A statement after the show was posted to the band's Twitter account and on Stephan Jenkin's official Twitter.
So far we don't have any details about the upcoming new album but if they're busting out songs live, hopefully this bad boy is getting close to being set. It's the month that brings us summer, so it should come as no surprise that when it comes to metal, June brings the HEAT! When HELLYEAH decided to drop all the Southern rock nonsense from their first two records and become a straight-up METAL band on 2012's "Band of Brothers", I was THRILLED! On "Unden!able", HELLYEAH continues to prove that they can bring the HEAVY like a only a band with their musical pedigrees can.
Sure, there's a little radio-friendliness to be found, and some interesting electronic effects on the first big single "Human".
Hell, Pantera had "Cemetary Gates" and troo kvlt jerkwads managed to get over that just fine. Speaking of Pantera, how cool is it to hear the late great Dimebag Darrell shredding again on this kick ass cover of Phil Collins' "I Don't Care Anymore"? If you're still pining for Pantera, Mudvayne, and Nothingface to be things again, get the **** past it. Over the past three albums, HELLYEAH has given and continues to give you some of the best metal of their careers. Any troo kvlt haters that I didn't already alienate with my first pick are totally out the door now.
If metal's going to continue to evolve and grow, it's going to need to keep its sonic palette open.
Thankfully, Dark Funeral didn't subscribe to that "Our album has to sound like hot garbage for it to be 'troo'" on "Where Shadows Forever Reign"!
If you've always avoided Black Metal because you're as adverse to terrible production values as I am, give Dark Funeral's "Where Shadows Forever Reign" a shot. A couple years ago, I had the opportunity to interview one of my musical heroes, Max Cavalera (ex-Sepultura, Soulfly, Cavalera Conspiracy).
With the exception of the 8:14 album closer "They Come Crawling Back", most of the songs on this record clock in at well under the 2-minute mark, with 3 coming in under 1 minute. If you're looking for excessive noodling, guitar wankery, prog for prog's sake, or dubstep, look elsewhere. If you're looking for the most intense album you could have bought in June 2016, get Nails.
Not to sound like the South Park Ski Instructor meme, but if you go into this record expecting a copy of the last one, you're going to have a bad time.
But if you go into "Magma" with an open mind (PBR & fire pit optional), you're going to find one of metal's most top quality bands venturing into some pretty cool new musical space. Ice T and his Body Count cohorts just dropped a SICK cover of Slayer's "Raining Blood" on Periscope! But up until my first kid was born, I gave between zero and zero times infinity ****s about Fathers Day. Today, I can feel sorry for him and find forgiveness, but it took A LOT of processing to get to that point. I'm not that only one who's had to work through that sort of thing, or something MUCH worse than that sort of thing. There isn't a single kid from a messed up home who hasn't yelled this stanza at the top of their lungs.
It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. But the trans-local culture did not penetrate very deep The high culture owed this peculiar combination of wide expanse and superficiality to the nature of communications in the preindustrial world, in combination with scarcity and political factors.
Ancient a€?educated mena€? covered huge distances in both place and time to debate scientific questions about geography.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training.
Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art.
It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C.
In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India.
Cuneiform texts provide several varieties of evidence for the ancient Mesopotamian efforts to express order by describing, delimiting, and measuring the heaven and earth of their experience, producing house, temple, plot, and field plans, city maps, and, with respect to the celestial landscape, diagrammatic depictions of stars. The historiography of maps and cartography has emerged from criticisms similar in nature to those made against the modernist or presentist historiography of science, namely, that in reifying science or sciences such as cartography, false evolutionary histories are liable to be constructed. Concern for orientation is attested in a number of maps, but not always in the same way, although with a tendency toward an oblique orientation northwest to southeast.
The cities of Nippur and Babylon had a religious and cosmological function as well as a political and economic one. It offers a selective account of the relationship of Babylon to other places, including those that were at the furthest reach of knowledge.
Cognitive psychologists claim that we come into our physical world mentally equipped to perceive and describe space and spatial relationships. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years.
There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).
The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion.
Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii.
That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general.

Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences.
The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps.
Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping.
In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. We paid our $3.75 toll(CDN), passed through customs and followed the Queen Elizabeth Expressway North, to Prudehomme Bay, on the Westernmost edge of Lake Ontario. Room # 201, on the ground floor of the second building, is large and comfortable, with a sitting area.
We had noticed two Italian restaurants on South Street, two blocks over, and decided to try one for dinner.
The kilted, scots guardsmen were just emerging from their barracks, for the dayA•s tour, as we walked along the ramparts and enjoyed the view far out over HalifaxA•s harbor.
We sat for a time, at the front of the gardens, and watched the various streams of people walk by.
The choices of food here are many, but we settled in on very large bowls of seafood chowder. We enjoyed a glass of Merlot, listening to the rhythmic lilt, of a guitar and fiddle player, performing.
It is a wonderful collage of pastels, of the sea front Inns and restaurants all looking out to sea. Last, we saw even larger A’scallop draggers.A“ These behemoths dragged the seabed for scallops.
One anomaly was a curious old codger, wearing a foot ball helmet and riding a A’dartA“ that was equipped with mirrors, a horn and a windscreen. It is a huge salt-water lake,on Cape Breton Island, that is popular with fishermen and boaters. Later, we sat on the porch, overlooking the ocean, and sipped a glass of cabernet in the late afternoon. We checked out and then walked one last time around the grounds of the Keltic Lodge, admiring the sea views all around us. The sea-views, from Pleasant Valley to Chetticamp, are beautiful and much worthy of the ride down the trail. We continued on to Dunvegan and stopped at the A’Glenora Distillery.A“ It is reputedly the only single-malt, scotch distillery in North America. Mary dropped off some post cards in the Canada Post building and then we stopped for sandwiches and tasty fries at PinnochioA•s.
We drove back to the Duncreigan Inn and settled in, with a glass of Mondavi Cabernet, to write up our notes, chill out and recover from the days journey. A small sitting room, with six tables upon a patio over looking the inlet, sufficed for the dining area. There are absolutely no gas stations, cafes or even rest rooms in this area for a two and one half hour stretch.
The town had originally been settled by Americans who were dissatisfied with the results of the American Revolution, after the 1784 Treaty of Paris. The Pines, like the Keltic Lodge, is an A’end destination,A“ a place that we would love to spend several days, playing golf and enjoying the amenities.
We walked the grounds again, enjoying the ocean air and the crisp smell of approaching Fall. We walked through the town, admiring the quaint architecture and enjoying another day of sunshine. For $8.50 each, we entered the small botanical sanctuary and walked through the quiet 10 acre grounds. They timed each flight between commercial take offs and landings at the Halifax air terminal. The emerald green of Nova Scotia, and the deep blue, of the Bay of Fundy, passed beneath us as we gradually climbed to 40,000 feet. Imagine a sufferer reporting to the clinic for treatment, knowing that the first thing he will have to do, at the reception desk, is give them the name of his complaint. This becomes obvious near Loveland, where I-25 jogs through a couple of really tight S-curves. Red lights have begun to twinkle and also to curl Francinea€™s lips, but not in the same manner as her boss. His mother, he was about to add, might have vomited back there, all over the upholstery and the manuscripts and a thick layer of cat litter trapped in the floor mats.
Then, as now, her ponytail sprouted from a knot at the back of her skull, and her jeans and leather boots, entwined on an ottoman, looked elastic. Certainly tired of the bag of peppered jerky hea€™d found wedged under his ass, at the junction with I-70.
The stairwell smells of piss, but Francine is nervous about losing the Subarua€™s perch on the battleshipa€™s rooftop, a parking lot of staggering breadth. Hea€™s got the Subaru today but Francine says the crowd on the rooftop is getting out of hand.
MINERS, CITIZENS, AND DESPERADOES ALIKE HAD FULL RESPECT FOR HIM AND ALTHOUGH NOTED AS AN EXPERT WITH A REVOLVER HE NEVER SHOT ANYONE IN ALL HIS CAREER. She found the job on the MFA listserv, and, after studying the ad and Francinea€™s penciled notes for several minutes this morning, Benjamin has a new understanding of things. Benjamina€™s thoughts had returned to Michael Mooney, who might pass on a good word about his legacy ideaa€”one writer tracing the steps of a man who shared his name, in another century.
Sales figures, airplay, buzz, and whether the album is something that's actually interesting to listen to, are all figured in. A However, it does mean that if we want proggy death metal with death metal vox, we're going to have to look elsewhere.
A The lyrics dig into humankind's failings (which have been very much on display as of late). It makes a significant contribution to the user's understanding of the article, which could not practically be conveyed by words alone. A Watch the vid, and give one of the most kick ass bands in rock today your undivided attention! A Do we boycott the state in protest of discrimination, or do we show up and get in their faces about it? The study used the website Dark Lyrics to gather the words in more than 220,000 songs by more than 7,000 bands. A The "leaders" elected to fix those conditions proven feckless at best, malevolent at worst. After that David Draiman, stopped the show to deliver a message of peace and solidarity to the crowd. Between songs asking the audience if they believe in science and declaring love and support for the LGBTQ community.
A Metal musicians have been able to incorporate funk, rap, hardcore, jazz, classic, country, polka, and everything else under the sun and moon into cool new heavy sounds. A Besides, if some EDM kid digs this, and ends up moving on to Slayer, that's a good thing, right?
A The trash can production values of the average Black Metal record is an instant turnoff for yours truly. A If you have one of those dads, here are 5 Anti Fathers Day metal songs you can crank up to help you deal with the parental figure with whom you've been doomed. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
They communicated in the same a€?learned languagea€?a€” Greek a€” and discussed a€?the same body of ideasa€?.
The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material.
Only Senefeldera€™s invention of lithography in 1796, and the innovative use of it for the mass printing of graphics, including in color, In the century that followed, allowed maps to be printed and distributed in quantity. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms.
Various orders of power are implicit in the expression of these aspects of order in the environment. Some originating point is identified, such as the origins of science in Greece, or of mapmaking in Babylonia, from which a continuous history may be written from a presentist perspective, a tale of a discipline's inexorable progress from its originating moment to the present. Ancient Near Eastern maps may not have invariably been meant as exact or direct replications of territory, but there can be little doubt that they distinctively reflect the conceptual terrain of their social community and culture at large.
In the periods of their supremacy each was viewed as the center of the universe, as the meeting ground between heaven and the netherworld. The linguistic act of spatial description is perhaps a proto-mapmaking function of our very desire and attempt to place ourselves in relation to the physical world.
The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. We flew along the North Shore of Lake Ontario, and then across New England, before we saw the deep blue waters of the Bay of Fundy and began our approach to Halifax airport.
We found the restaurant that we were looking for, A’il Mercato,A“ but it was closed for the holiday. Large groups of students were chanting something or other as they walked by in funny costumes.
It houses small exhibit on the Titanic and a much larger one on the Halifax Harbor Explosion.
The RumrunnerA•s Inn, The Admiral Benbow Inn and others vied for the many tourists who come here. Tee shirt shops and art galleries competed with the A’Spinnaker InnA“ and many other small restaurants for tourist dollars.
The bright green of dampened algae, newly exposed by the lowering tide, sparkled in the sunlight. A Wolf Blas Cabernet led us into two dozen mussels and some Ingonish Chowder, then some wonderful halibut covered in poppyseeds.
It starts out high in the headland of Cape Smokey, and meanders downward over hill and dale, through scenery that makes your eyes glad. Some times we would be headed up some steep ascent, with stunning views of a treed vale behind us. We did rescue some decent coffee from a Tim HortonA•s, before setting onwards towards the Canso Causeway.
The end of that road also took us to a wild and wooly cape, with a few upscale vacation homes perched on a steep and grassy hillside that looked out onto the ocean. Two well-constructed, two-story and wooden-shingled buildings sit in a leafy defile, just off the highway and looking out onto the small watery neck of Mabou Inlet. I managed to trade some pleasantries with her in German, but it had been some time since I had used the language and was verbally rusty. A small blockhouse, similar to the French Castle at Fort Niagara, sits in a levelled depression.
As if from nowhere, a supersonic F-18 fighter plane screamed over the airport terminal above us, roaring skyward in a vertical spiral that was awe inspiring to watch. We missed the turn off for the A’Queen EA“ and got a tour of the industrial areas of HamiltonA•s waterfront, before finding our way back South. Their engineer had artistic differences, in Benjamina€™s daydreaming, with the usual Eisenhower Interstate. Yet at this moment in our story she refuses to look his way, so that the devil incarnate, despite the obvious, remains for him anonymous. The occasional convertible bolts past, but Benjamin notices, in shading his eyes, that these bleached-looking heads wind up making U-turns farther up the valley, at a stoplight. But Francinea€™s lolling head seems unconcerneda€”after the silent rocket ride through Westminster, Arvada, and Golden, and the makeup talk that followeda€”about whether this is actually Fortune Valley Casino. But Francinea€™s voice has gone just as soft, and Benjamin hears a trace of curiosity in the modulation of her indignation.
Fortune Valleya€™s after-hours party, billed A Midsummer Nighta€™s Dream, wona€™t get underway until sunset. SOON, BILLY BEN MET MARY YORK, THE FIRST WHITE WOMAN TO ARRIVE IN WHAT WAS THEN MOUNTAIN CITY. It is believed that most cases can be traced back to a specific traumatic incident involving enforced exposure to the genre. The moon is mostly gone from the pines, the screen porch, the woodstove, the upright piano-cum-liquor cabinet, and the point above Benjamina€™s nose where something is traveling with surprising speed.
He lifts her knee, counts to onemississippi as the bata€™s orbit clears the bedroom, and springs for the first door.
While watching your butterfly-hunting cousins gassing and impaling their catch for the day, you could perhaps engage them in light conversation, in the course of which you might express genteel surprise that lepidopterists are themselves so rarely lepid. HE WAS COMMISSIONED CAPTAIN OF COMPANY C AND SPENT THE WINTER ON THE PLAINS ESCORTING MAIL AND EMIGRANTS.
And down at the end of the boardwalk, the sheriff himself, his gut protruding like a sowa€™s. HIS VALUE AND JUDGEMENT OF MEN AND HIS STAND FOR JUSTICE ARE UNDIMMNED IN THE ANNALS OF THE STATE, AND HE REMAINS FOR ALL AN ILLUMINATING EXAMPLE.
Francine insists on asking a hairless, pimpled teenager and his girlfriend, in soccer cleats, which way to Bear Lake.
Namely that this company should be paying his girlfriend for copy editing, not running her car into the ground. Hea€™s not sure where to find coffee in a town strung out on cocktail shrimp, from the look of the other purple-shirted people, and the Budweiser girls. DO NOT SPIT ON THE SIDEWALK BY ORDER OF THE HEALTH BUREAU.) The air in the old house smells stale and undisturbeda€”just a slight, watery gurgling coming from somewhere unimportant. That's just a long-winded way for me to say, "This all just my opinion so if you don't like it, whatever. Kochmit finally gets to drop his work on record with Rasheed Thomas, proving that he was absolutely the right pick for the lead guitar spot.
The image is placed in the infobox at the top of the article discussing the work, to show the primary visual image associated with the work, and to help the user quickly identify the work and know they have found what they are looking for. A I had to find out what it was about these guys that could influence a guy of Max's caliber. A They did a killer version of Suicidal Tendencies "Institutionalized" a little while back. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. Their debate a€?did not penetrate very deepa€? within the culture, which is why one should draw a sharp distinction between descriptive geography, with its wide application, and mathematical or scientific geography, for which no such application was envisaged or achieved. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art.
Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. Administrative and economic powers support, or even require, the making of maps, as well as determining overtly the topographies that maps depict. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), a€?a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romansa€?.
The maps of buildings and fields focus on the urban and agricultural environment, matters of critical importance to whatever political and economic powers prevailed. The map of the principal temple in Babylon, E-sagil, which was the earthly abode of the national deity Marduk, represents the terrestrial counterpart to the celestial residence of the great god Enlil, designed, figuratively speaking, on the blueprint of the cosmic subterranean sweet watery region of the Apsu.
By extension, we should not doubt that mapmaking too, in all its historical subjectivity, is a universal feature of human culture.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes.
We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science.
With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors.
Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances.
If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators.
We would see tomorrow that the beautiful Halifax Public Gardens and the pricey Hotel Lord Nelson sat nearby, at the top end of this street. We could see several Canadian Coast Guard cutters and a submarine in dry dock, just beyond the walk. It was still sunny and gorgeous out, so we decided to walk down to the Alexander Keith Brewery on Lower Water Street. Just across the road, sits the A’Old Fish Company and Nautical Museum.A“ It had formerly been a fish processing plant. We stopped for coffee and sat in the sun,on a small seaside patio, admiring the harbor area and the sparkling turquoise sea.
It features winding seacoast roads that are fun to drive and a visual feast on a sunny day. Finally, we turned into one of the more famous resorts on the Atlantic seashore, The Keltic Lodge.
We stopped first in the sitting room and listened to a lone folk singer play mournful ballads. We prepped for the day, packed our bags and had coffee in the room, while watching the morning news shows. We could see steep red bluffs across the bays, then far sea-scapes sparkling in the morning sun. At other times, we would be careening around a very steep bend and come upon the blue flash of the ocean in one of those A’wowA“ moments you get when touring, when you come upon fabulous scenery. The wind-swept sea grass and rural character of the area has the appeal of a Wyeth painting.
We encountered only four other people, on the mile long beach, as we walked its length and back, enjoying the wind, the waves and the sun. We were glad that we had chosen to explore to day and see the area beyond the borders of the highway. We waved goodbye to a slice of beautiful earth that we might never see again and will always want to return to. Gentle rolling farm land sprouted clumps of sparse population, amidst the greenery and furrowed fields of farm country. It was fascinating to think of the titanic surges of ocean water that ran back and forth through here every day. Two rest rooms were also located conveniently for tourists and maintained by a volunteer lighthouse preservation society.
We were tiring from the day, so we headed back to the room, to write up our notes, relax and chill out before dinner.
We returned to the room and read our books, before being carried far away but the sand man.
The commercial harbor area, where the shrimpers and other fisher men berth their craft, extends out into the small neck of water that leads out to the Bay of Fundy. Blueberries, honey,maple syrup and home made crafts drew in the locals and tourist in droves. It is surrounded by earthen breast works and a series of cannon emplacements that look out on and dominate the entrance to the bay. A wild marsh area sits near the riverside end of the property, for enjoying the avian life that sheltered here.
The U.S Navy A’Blue Angels aerobatic teamA“ were joining a Canadian military air show at the airport.

I can only imagine the feeling of soaring through space and time, at supersonic speeds, high above the earth where only the wind and dreams venture. We passed over New England, then followed the South Coast of lake Ontario across all of the cities so familiar to us.
The A’Queen EA“ was loaded with traffic hurrying Southward, to Niagara Falls or Niagara on the Lake, for Saturday night revels. But as this commentary takes shape Benjamin detects a certain potential for unimaginable violence. But with Francinea€™s mouth crumpling, and her gums bared, Benjamin notices once more the patch of darkness rooting between her incisors. An extra-chilled, 8,000-foot breeze rustles a sheet covering Francinea€™s legs, clamped vise-like over Benjamina€™s thigh.
The bat gone, completely vanished along with the open Camembert hea€™d chucked down the disposal in the morning, just in case.
When he turns back, he spots the backs of Francinea€™s gaiters kicking through the next switchback. Also that lactose intolerancea€”Benjamin is lactose intoleranta€”holds about as much water for Francine as the Mormon Church. But there, look, a Starbucks just a half-mile out, pulsing like a landing strip on his Kyocera.
The clapping is rhythmic and lulling, so much so that hea€™s begun to enjoy ita€”joining in with wavering arms from a hammock in Olympia, back in 1980, watching his father fix a pair of sprinklers to their overheated trailer.
Use for this purpose does not compete with the purposes of the original artwork, namely the artist's providing graphic design services to music concerns and in turn marketing music to the public.
A Take Napalm Death at their most furious punk-infused moments, add a bunch of crustiness to it, and you'll have a pretty good idea of where Nails is at.
Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. The reasons for this divide include the limited quantity of scientific geographic scholarship, the nature of communications and scarcity, and political factors.
But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion. Any assumption that maps were widely available in the preindustrial world thus derives from anachronistic thinking based on later developments.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing.
Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. The interest of the cuneiform maps lies in their rich articulation of such a feature, uniquely shaped by the particular social norms and forces that emerged and changed within ancient Mesopotamian history.
However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on.
The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase.
Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth.
In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive.
Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.
On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. A road runs around the perimeter of the citadel and afford beautiful vistas of Halifax harbor. It is a two-mile stretch, of wooden board walk, that runs from the Casino to the cruise ships docks, just past Morris St. We walked back along the ocean walk, enjoying the bright warm sun and the deep blue beauty of the ocean beside us. The Canadian Government had ordered three of its Coast Guard Vessels, with divers and supplies, to the Gulf of Mexico to help out the Hurricane Katrina Victims. Then, we side tracked onto Rte # 333, into one of the more storied sights on the coast, PeggyA•s Cove.
At the Cape Breton end of the causeway, a narrow, dredged channel allowes ships of all sizes access to both coasts.
We decided that any number of delays were possible on a ferry and took the longer land route around the Bay. It was as pleasing a ride as Big Sur in California, a new and grander vista around every bend. It features gentle rolling hills, dotted with conical silos and prosperous farms, along the ocean. A tasty spinach salad, then a salmon filet, in dill sauce, was followed by a blueberry glace and great coffee.
We could see 35 foot red bluffs out across the river and marveled at such an ebb and flow of water every six hours.
We were nearing the head of the Minas Basin of the Bay, where the tidal drop can swing as much as 53A• in a single day.
Her husband had poked some jelly into a hunk of Camembert, then fed it to his wife with startling sincerity, everyone watching. As the Subaru draws closer, Benjamin realizes the false fronts arena€™t shops at alla€”just variations in the casinoa€™s faA§ade, bearing signage.
He wonders about a missing serial comma, whether the writer was more accustomed to bad news copy.
Benjamin thought he was being robbeda€”was about to offer the boy some real moneya€”when the sock took flight. He mulls this over on the drive south, listening to his girlfriend read aloud from Peter Bowlera€™s The Superior Persona€™s Second Book of Weird and Wondrous Words.
Central City from on high, dated 1872, the valley stripped naked of everything but mud and tenements. The kid points downhill, into the blackening dusk, and shows her the topography from his Garmin. Francinea€™s inventory, Benjamin has learned, includes three soft cheeses wrapped in special cheese wrapping paper imported from France. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge. Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world.
There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem.
I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions.
By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. Students, bums and transients abounded as we walked up Morris and over Queen Streets, to the central shopping district on Spring Garden. We walked back, along Lower Water to Morris, and then to the Halliburton House, to settle in and read.
The fortification had been constructed in the mid 1800A•s to protect Haligonians from the A’cantankerous AmericansA“ to the South. It is lined with shops, sailing ships at berth, restaurants, markets and all manner of things that attract tourists. She was a late 19th century fishing fleet vessel and could hold up to 300,000 lbs of cod in her holds.
With all of the guide book hype that we had read, we figured this area for a real disappointment. The metal bridge over the channel is one of those swivel bridges that are engineering marvels.
It is two lanes, with wild twists and turns, in a Monte Carlo -style, 30 km run through the pine forests. An 18 hole golf course, a condo complex and The Atlantic Restaurant lead into the two-story wooden splendor of the Main lodge.
We retrieved our books and sat out on the lawn, in wooden Adirondack chairs, reading and gazing far out to sea. We packed up, checked out of this beautiful hotel and drove over to the 18 hole, 6,000 yard, golf course, just down the road. An American, from Texas, was speaking with a drawl so heavy we could hardly understand him.
Two hundred years of weather had wiped clean the names on the slate gravestones, another lesson of history.
We stopped to fill the thirsty metal monster with gas,($45) and then drove the last few miles to the airport and the Alamo rental center.
He braces, feels a sweat gathering beneath his ball cap, reflected now in the passenger mirror. The stultifying interim facing Francine and other vendorsa€”tie-dyed shirts, ornamental crockery, dream catchers, wines infused with fruit, and a Budweiser tenta€”has a singular explanation, Benjamin is realizing: the casinoa€™s crew boss. First Los Lagos, then the sheen off Barker Reservoir, Mud Lake, Lakewood, Glacier, Duck, Tumblesom, Silver Spruce, and with Estes Park coloring the sky, Lily and Mary.
He prefers bedding down like this: sleep comes easier, but mostly because naked Francine winds up clinging to him through some horrible dreams they both try to ignore. Therea€™s a second mockup down from the jail cell, this one depicting Central Citya€™s mining and prospecting years.
Ita€™s Cozensa€™ desk, an oak behemoth, the first judgea€™s bench in the West, says the woman.
Crouches against the lower bunk, then runs a hand along the edge of the bedding and plunges deep, just to be sure. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings.
Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface.
Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps.
The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. We enjoyed glasses of Cabernet as we munched on Caesar salads and a delightful A’seafood medleyA“ of halibut, salmon, scallops and shrimp.A“ Coffee and a sinful blueberry and ice cream dessert were wonderful ($134). We read for a time and then surrendered to the sandman, pleased with a full day in Halifax. The changing times of the day, the different shades of light and shadow would keep him busy forever.
We sailed through Eastern NS and arrived at the small town of Antigonish, some two hours later.
Then, we were driving along the coast and the views were spectacular, like the big Sur area in California. How they ever got this talented a chef, in a small hamlet like this, is a mystery, but this woman could cook!! We ambled along, at a much slower pace, enjoying the palliative of the gentle surroundings. Almost exactly like a Village Voice writer in whose periphery Benjamin has been wandering for a couple of years now. Ita€™s from the Department of Journalism and Technical Communication: a bad marriage but the bill is breaking nicely.
He asked her once whether she couldna€™t get some ideas for her poetry from the hundreds of faces that will by now be crowding in close.
There are signs Francine cana€™t read and doesna€™t need; she and Benjamin have memorized the topographic map on College Avenue, the one in the sandwich shop across from the bookstore. Just long enough for something fast and brown to seize hold, then crash to the linoleum, where it flapped for a while.
WHEN HIS TERM EXPIRED, BILLY BEN, MARY AND THEIR CHILDREN MOVED TO A 320-ACRE RANCH THAT BECAME A POPULAR STOPPING PLACE FOR PEOPLE TRAVELING TO AND FRO. A miniature, rock-strewn hillside bathed in amber light, with real water flowing from somewhere offstage. Francine pretends to love them all but prefer Truffello, which contains trace amounts of real truffle oil. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas.
It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate.
It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him.
Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. The noisy and ungainly craft took us up the hill, around the Citadel and past the Public Gardens , feeding us a steady stream of information, laced with tongue in cheek humor. The two fish processing plants had closed and much of the remainder of the fleet was headed for the scrap yard. A narrow road leads into a rocky point, with a large and picturesque, angular,white light house, with a bright red top, standing upon a rather large pile of huge boulders. We enjoyed some wonderful Ingonish seafood chowder and crab cakes for lunch, on the patio over looking the Bay. We unpacked our gear, checked the mail and messages and then crashed, tired with the dayA•s travel.
A MOB APPROACHED THE JAIL, LOCATED IN WASHINGTON HALL WHICH HE ALONE CONSTRUCTED OF HAND-HEWN TIMBERS, AND DEMANDED THE KEYS TO THE JAIL. All those red-faced men snatching at the soft cheese and the silk tablecloths meant for decoration.
Her poetrya€”from the few pages Benjamina€™s seena€”deviates only slightly from Bowlera€™s oeuvre.
He runs his hand through the flow as it hits a ladder and empties into Cozensa€™ sluice box. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date.
The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps.
Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries.
A series of ascending, switch-back roads made for a nerve tingling ascent of 800 feet, in a short space of road, to the top lookout area of Cape Smokey. We came upon a whole squadron of cyclists tooling along the back roads, in all of their colorful new-era biking gear.
It had been an interesting trip, to a land of sea, sky and beauty that we will long remember.
Mooneya€™s visage hadna€™t changed last month in Texas, at the long-form journalism conference where Benjamin won a minor award for an essay on frozen food that might contain human hair. He had remarked, without much tact, that from a distance it looked a bit like Japanese bukkake. Resigned to strafing the vent above the headboard, then out to the front room, then back to the bedroom through a second door. Benjamin wasna€™t sure if it could be true, but it made his column that weeka€”all about harmless Chiroptera, his place in literature and his good work in your backyard. Anyway, she is in facta€”positively, verifiablya€”a a€?cheesemonger.a€? The various social networks made it so. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night.
There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. We read some of the interpretive sign-boards, explaining the ebb and flow of the tides, and enjoyed the seascape. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. We had to shift our seating, to trim the boatA•s balance, before setting off on our harbor tour. The A’ollies (oldsters) had finally left, so we stopped by Tim HortonA•s for coffee and muffins. Francine goes livid, pounding her thin wrists against as much Japanese molding as her arms can reach. Not so much at the comparison, Benjamin realizes now, but at the reminder that her future now depends on poetry.
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
We chilled out for a bit and even caught a brief afternoon nap, like Ozzie Nelson, my hero. Francine pries open the refrigerator, begins adding sample wheels to a half-box of retail wheels. Her gaze shifts to a tiny monitor flashing live videoa€”the banner on the sidewalk, the jail cell, the back of Benjamina€™s head.
Again Benjamin had overslept, refusing to guzzle diet cola and listen to Mooney opine about middle-aged people who prefer to copulate in horse costumes.
Prohibitive, even for the high country, except that six wheels can be bought for just $12 with an online coupon that has everyone worried.
The guy who actually, positively, verifiably hunts deer in Mississippi, and films other black men doing the same. The coupon was the scissors womana€™s idea, Francine explained, after some vigorous sex last weekend. Would laugh courteously on Sunday, at appropriate moments, whilst Mooney downed pitchers and steaks and regaled a girl from the Dallas Business Journal at the shopping center not quite within walking distance from the Hilton. And his companion, the taller fellow in cutoff jeans whoa€™s muscled into the glare just now, stirring up a canyon wind with his gesticulating.
Benjamin can only make out wisps of their conversation, but he decides it involves marijuana.

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