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At Tekserve, Michael explained to me that the Mac Pro is designed around a workstation graphics model with dual GPUs, PCIe-based flash storage, 6 high-performance Thunderbolt 2 ports, new-generation Xeon processors, ultrafast memory, and it supports 4K video.
I had the opportunity to take a deeper look behind this small, powerful and yes very quiet computer and found out that the new-generation Intel Xeon E5 Processor is available with 4, 6, 8, or 12 cores of processing power. Get Tekserve's Newsletter for Technology Tips & Free EventsWe will never sell or rent your email address. Charging and discharging batteries is a chemical reaction, but Li-ion is claimed to be the exception. The Li ion charger is a voltage-limiting device that has similarities to the lead acid system. Figure 1 shows the voltage and current signature as lithium-ion passes through the stages for constant current and topping charge. Full charge occurs when the battery reaches the voltage threshold and the current drops to 3 percent of the rated current. Li-ion does not need to be fully charged as is the case with lead acid, nor is it desirable to do so. Certain industrial chargers set the charge voltage threshold lower on purpose to prolong battery life. Estimating SoC by reading the voltage of a charging battery is impractical; measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) after the battery has rested for a few hours is a better indicator. When lithium-ion batteries must be left in the charger for operational readiness, some chargers apply a brief topping charge to compensate for the small self-discharge the battery and its protective circuit consume. Chargers for these non-cobalt-based Li-ions are not compatible with regular 3.60-volt Li-ion. Lithium-ion operates safely within the designated operating voltages; however, the battery becomes unstable if inadvertently charged to a higher than specified voltage.
Turn off the device or disconnect the load on charge to allow the current to drop unhindered during saturation. Very usefull information here, good thing I fond this page first before designing a charger for my custom-made battery pack. The Batery is connected circuit 3,6 volt constant (regulable according to load) and this support a circuit for memory and a processor primary. Can lithium polymer cell phone batteries be over charged if left on charge to long and if left on to long will it diminish battery life. I would also like to brag of having had success restoring substantial capacity to the occasional cells that truly were worn. What i have believed is keeping my laptop plugged in all the time at my desk and using the battery power in case of power failure or so. A vendor of notebooks recently opposed and recommended to cycle discharges and recharges regularly to keep the battery healthy and prolong its life. What i have believed is keeping my laptop plugged in all the time at my desk and using the battery power in case of power failure or so does no harm to my battery pack. These batteries have been run down for some time now and do charge, the manufacturer cannot replace them.
How can the voltage be 2.4v when the minimum cell voltage for lithium batteries is 3.6v What should I buy to replace these? AFAIK Li-ion does not have memory effect and they have PMS circuit built-in so don’t overcharge. I have a simple ARM7 gadget and I want to run it on the Li-ion batteries which are available cheap.
Informative article but the voltage drop in stage 3 would indicate a cell in poor condition.
About 5 years ago I purchased 40 nearly unused 18X65 cells in 2 cell packs with protect circuit.
Why can the the battery pack in a Tesla automobile be charged considerably faster when the charging unit is 240v vs. Not all Li cells are the same so the numbers I use below are for the most common ones, some can be charged much faster.
I am unable to decide which is better - to select a Li-ion battery pack with multiple cells or single cell. We have limited information by how much lower charge voltages prolong battery life; this depends on many conditions, as we have learned.
I would connect the solar panel and the battery with a voltage regulator or with a MPP circuit that fixed the output voltage adjusting the output current of the solar panel catching always the maximum power from it.
In conclusion the charging of the battery is done with a small and variable charge current. One question: Would charging a Lithium battery with a higher amperage charger (but same voltage) cause any damage to the battery?
Hello, my protected 18650 cell faced a high current draw and the protection circuit went to sleep mode.. 2.?Its ok to charge to a safe level, say 80% (thus preventing minicycles and overcharging the battery) with the device on?
Despite the slow charging rate (longer time of course), would this work and would there be any other problems? So, basically i just want to make sure my method is basically correct.  Am i reading the correct voltage to determine when to stop fast charging and when i am fully charged should i just leave the charge line at high impedence or should i float it to some value? 3, there is no way you can tell; other than taking apart the charger and reconstruct the circuitry yourself. To send your question you'll need to ENTER THE CAPCHA CODE SHOWN ABOVE into the verification box! The Use of Potassium Permanganate in Fish PondsPotassium permanganate, KMnO4 , is a chemical oxidizing agent that will react with any organic matter in a pond including algae, bacteria, fish, particulate and dissolved organic, and organic bottom sediments. Estimating pond volume can be difficult when a pond has an irregular shape and varying water depth. The average water depth for ponds with a sloped and flat bottom can be determined by averaging the shallowest and deepest water depths. You have estimated a pond to be 5 surface acres, and the pond has an average depth of 5 feet. Another method to estimate the amount of potassium permanganate required for effective treatment is to determine the potassium permanganate demand or amount of chemical required to react with all the organic matter in a water sample.

A series of 1-liter pond water samples was treated with potassium permanganate stock solution. Guyot Bernardo Arocho Jr from BJ’s Technology News Blog recently paid us a visit to check out the new Mac Pro in person, interview our own Michael Truskowski, and review the new workstation from Apple. The Mac Pro is engineered with a single and larger fan that pulls air upward through the bottom intake. Battery scientists talk about energies flowing in and out of the battery as part of ion movement between anode and cathode. The differences with Li-ion lie in a higher voltage per cell, tighter voltage tolerances and the absence of trickle or float charge at full charge.
Full charge is reached when the current decreases to between 3 and 5 percent of the Ah rating.
A battery is also considered fully charged if the current levels off and cannot go down further. Although the battery reaches the voltage peak quicker, the saturation charge will take longer accordingly.
Table 2 illustrates the estimated capacities when charged to different voltage thresholds with and without saturation charge. The current drawn through the device is called the parasitic load and can distort the charge cycle. This allows the battery to reach the set voltage threshold and current saturation point unhindered. A fully charged battery has a lower thermal runaway temperature and will vent sooner than one that is partially charged. Lead- and nickel-based batteries are also known to melt down and cause fire if improperly handled.
The charge circuit is straight forward; voltage and current limitations are easier to accommodate than analyzing complex voltage signatures, which change as the battery ages. Battery University monitors the comments and understands the importance of expressing perspectives and opinions in a shared forum. You’re alwais talking about a 4,2V like they are the the standardwhat about 3,6V cells? I looked on the internet for the issue and located most individuals will associate with together with your website. For instance I’ve been letting it hover around 40% by continually plugging and unplugging it. I think a constant voltage charge can be done but it takes a long time and must be done at a lower voltage. It was designed that way to account for commonly available power connections, commonly limited to 20A (use at < 80% of limit) at 120v but commonly available at 50 A or more at 240V.
I know that my available curent and voltage at the time of charging will vary depending on the panel so in addition to overcharging I am wondering if capacitors to buffer power is necessary. When my current hits this low i simply cut out the charge.  Question - should i float the charge line at some value after charge? The author actually read these comments, but doesn’t reply to them, as he has deleted my previous post regarding the reliability of the info presented in this page. It has been used in fish ponds to treat common fish pathogens such as gill parasites and external bacterial and fungal infections. Actual treatment rates in ponds will vary depending on the amount of organic matter, or organic load, in the water.
Therefore, it is important to properly estimate water volume to achieve both a cost-effective and biologically effective treatment.
The surface area of a square or rectangular pond can be easily estimated by multiplying the pond length by the pond width. For example, a pond with a sloping flat bottom that has a maximum depth of six feet and a minimum depth of four feet would have an average depth of five feet. Potassium permanganate reacts with organic matter and becomes neutralized and unavailable to treat the target parasite.
If the pond remains pink to purple in color for 8--12 hours, then an effective treatment is assumed to have occurred, and no additional chemical is required.
The test treatment that has the slightest faint pink color after 15 minutes is the correct 15-minute potassium permanganate demand.
Multiply the 15-minute demand treatment by 2 to get the proper treatment rate for the pond. As air passes vertically through the center of the device, it absorbs heat and carries it out the top of the device. This claim carries merits but if the scientists were totally right, then the battery would live forever. While lead acid offers some flexibility in terms of voltage cut off, manufacturers of Li-ion cells are very strict on the correct setting because Li-ion cannot accept overcharge.
With higher current, Stage 1 is shorter but the saturation during Stage 2 will take longer. Choosing a lower voltage threshold or eliminating the saturation charge altogether, prolongs battery life but this reduces the runtime. State-of-charge (SoC) at this point is about 85 percent, a level that may be sufficient for many users.
Battery manufacturers advise against parasitic loads while charging because they induce mini-cycles.
A parasitic load confuses the charger by depressing the battery voltage and preventing the current in the saturation stage to drop low enough by drawing a leakage current.
The cathode material becomes an oxidizing agent, loses stability and produces carbon dioxide (CO2). All lithium-based batteries are safer at a lower charge, and this is why authorities will mandate air shipment of Li-ion at 30 percent state-of-charge rather than at full charge. Properly designed charging equipment is paramount for all battery systems and temperature sensing is a reliable watchman. The charge process can be intermittent, and Li-ion does not need saturation as is the case with lead acid. However, all communication must be done with the use of appropriate language and the avoidance of spam and discrimination.

We recommend posting your question in the comment sections for the Battery University Group (BUG) to share.
Since the charger uses a standard micro USB tip, there are a lot of available chargers out there with different Amp rating. But upon plugging the charger to the batteries the green light immediatley came on, indicating a fully charged pack. When the above charging is done and the battery sits 12 hours, measuring the voltage and setting the float voltage to that is safe and gives maximum capacity but that voltage goes down as the battery ages. I have also considered a 3000mAh battery with an integrated charging circuit would be better.
As with any chemical treatment, it is crucial to accurately estimate the volume of water that is to be treated.
Underestimating water volume will result in an insufficient concentration of chemical, and retreatment would be necessary. Your local Soil Conservation Service or County Extension Service Office can provide assistance in determining pond acreage for irregularly- shaped ponds. Determining the average depth for ponds with uneven bottoms and widely varying depths requires measurement of water depth at multiple locations in the pond using a simple grid or zig-zag sampling approach, in which all areas of the pond are measured. The greater the amount of organic matter in a pond, the more potassium permanganate required to achieve the desired chemical concentration. Add 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 milliliters (mL) of the stock solution (prepared in Step 1) into the five 1-liter samples.
If there is a question as to which rate has a faint pink color, choose the lower treatment rate. For small ponds (less than one acre), application of the chemical can be achieved by first adding a small portion of the total amount of chemical required for treatment to water in a five-gallon plastic bucket, and then broadcasting this solution over the surface of the pond while walking around the pond. They blame capacity fade on ions getting trapped, but as with all battery systems, internal corrosion and other degenerative effects still play a role. The so-called miracle charger that promises to prolong battery life and gain extra capacity with pulses and other gimmicks does not exist. Boosting the voltage increases capacity, but going beyond specification stresses the battery and compromises safety. Chargers for consumer products go for maximum capacity and cannot be adjusted; extended service life is perceived less important.
Note that a Li-ion battery that has received a fully saturated charge will keep the voltage elevated for a longer than one that has not received a saturation charge. A battery may be fully charged, but the prevailing conditions will prompt a continued charge, causing stress. This offers a major advantage for renewable energy storage such as a solar panel and wind turbine, which cannot always fully charge the battery. Is it advisable to get a low Amp rating such as 500mah, higher amp such as 1200mah or stick with the same 1000amp? I commonly pull cells that are totally flat: 0v, sometimes even with polarity reversed by a few millivolts. A float voltage of 4.1 is reasonable to get best capacity but as the battery gets old, that MIGHT make it age faster. That would offer me more consistent ouput to the device and be a contingency for a lack of or poor lighting. Overestimating water volume can result in a greater-than-desired concentration of chemical, and may injure or even kill fish. It is recommended that treatment begin in the morning so that the pond can be watched for the next 8- to 12-hour period, and any color change can be easily detected. Should the pressure rise further, the safety membrane on some Li-ion bursts open at about 3,450kPa (500psi) and the cell might eventually vent with flame. If your concern is about a battery(a standard battery rating will be in volts and mAh), go for either one but in reduction in back up, in case if you chose 500mAh.Hope it cleared your doubt.
In addition, some of the battery packs I ripped into were prehistoric by lithium chemistry standards (10 years+). Letting them set 24 hrs, I looked at the voltage drop and classified the lowest 10% as weak. I think charging with variable current is satisfactory if current is limited as specified on the data sheet and the voltage is limited to 4.1 volts.
Besides selecting the best-suited voltage thresholds, it is also important that the battery does not stay in the high-voltage stage for a long time and is allowed to drop after full charge has been reached. I now believe its because I always left the phone on while charging whereas he turns his off.
Pond volume is measured in acre-feet (surface acreage multiplied by the average water depth in feet). This method works well when the chemical can be dispersed evenly over the entire surface area of a pond from the shore. The stress level on the battery is high because the cycles occur at the high-voltage threshold, often also at elevated temperature. More often than not all cells would recharge to their FULL original rated capacity and perform as new.
So my question is; Why is the charger displaying a Green LED when in fact the batteries need charged. In larger ponds (larger than one acre), a boat equipped with a large take or container and motor is recommended for distributing the chemical.
And is there something I can do to make it start charging because the charger doesn’t charge when displaying a green light. The chemical mixture can be applied by means of a submersible pump or gravity fed from the container into the prop wash of the boat motor.

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