Generation transmission and distribution of electrical power ppt,house insurance online ireland,admin tools for ark survival evolved download - Plans On 2016

26.12.2015
As those of us working in the industry know, although the push for smart grid development is a global phenomenon, the definitions and drivers for it differ from country to country.
In addition to the trilemma there are also other drivers relating to the health of the British economy that the UK Government is also becoming increasingly aware of. Despite widespread consensus on the need for smart grid development in the UK due to the benefits cited above, amongst others, a number of challenges remain to rolling smarter grids out across the UK. Different companies are responsible for operating different parts of the energy system in the UK. In addition, in the UK, energy retailers are responsible for the country’s smart metering roll-out rather than network operators which have had this responsibility in many other countries, particularly across Europe.
This market model means the challenges of deploying smart grid technology in the UK differ to the issues many other countries face.
Like many other countries, smart metering is seen as a ‘stepping-stone’ to wider smart grid development in the UK. The Low Carbon Networks Fund (LCNF) is the Ofgem (the UK energy regulator) backed funding pot for network innovation projects that is worth ?500 million from 2010 to 2015. The LCNF comes to an end in 2015 but smart grid trails will be continued through a scheme called the Network Innovation Competition (NIC). The RIIO framework is the 8 year price control framework applied to the UK’s transmission and distribution network operators. Identify future challenges for electricity networks and system balancing, including current and potential barriers to efficient deployment of smart grids. Guide the actions that DECC are taking with Ofgem to address future challenges, remove barriers, and aid efficient deployment. Identify actions that DECC, the industry, other parties and Ofgem could be taking to facilitate the deployment of smart grids. Facilitate the exchange of information and knowledge between key parties, including those outside the energy sector. Help all stakeholders better understand future developments in the industry that they need to be preparing for. As part of the Smart Grid Forum’s work, in February 2014 the Smart Grid Vision & Route Map was published. Provide a framework to enable the tracking of progress in addressing the challenges to smart grid development by Smart Grid Forum members and wider stakeholders.
As highlighted above, a number of efforts have been made by the UK Government and regulator to address challenges for smart grid development. SmartGrid GB’s 2012 flagship report, ”Smart Grid: A race worth winning?” helped go some way toward filling this knowledge gap. The report highlighted that the costs of upgrading energy networks between 2012 and 2050 in a conventional way could cost up to ?46 billion pounds. In light of these figures the report revealed a ?19 billion cost saving from smart grid development.
In 2014, SmartGrid GB is taking the next step to ensuring the industry, policy makers, and all other interested stakeholders have a comprehensive understanding of smart grid development’s economic impact in the UK. We hope our work will provide other countries looking to develop a smart grid an understanding of the breakdown of smart grid benefits across the value chain and we welcome the thoughts of the Global Smart Grid Federation and its members on this work. The delivery of electricity from production to consumption requires efficient generating facilities, access to reliable networks, powerful transformers and relaying stations, accurate metering, and other procurement services such as scheduling and dispatching (Figure 1). At all points, the quality of electricity must be assured to maintain its frequency and voltage stability.
The Electricity Journal, Direct Science Elsevier Publishing Company, This journal addresses issues related to generating power from natural gas-fired cogeneration and renewable energy plants (wind power, biomass, hydro and solar). International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Direct Science Elsevier Publishing Company.
Conrad Eustis led of the class by presenting what he calls “Grid 101”, beginning with the basics of how electricity works. Thus the power that an electrical charge exerts (expressed in watts) is a combination of the voltage and the rate of flow (amps).
By definition a 100-watt appliance uses 100 watts in an hour, or 100 Wh, or 0.1kWh (zero point one kilowatt hours).
The 1st Law of Thermodynamics states that energy simply exists; it can neither be created nor destroyed. Such a digression into the Law of Entropy (2nd law of thermodynamics) is probably more relevant to a broader discussion of sustainability, but for now we are primarily concerned with the transformation of energy into power and the delivery of that power across the country to the end-users. As Conrad stated before, to produce power we must transform energy into a form that can be harnessed. Operating in 52 Oregon cities, Portland General Electric Company serves approximately 816,000 customers, including nearly 100,000 commercial customers.
PGE began back in 1889, when a generator at Willamette Falls in Oregon City produced power to light 55 street lamps 14 miles away in Portland — the first long-distance transmission line in the nation. The balance of Conrad’s presentation was a detailed explanation of the generation, transmission and distribution system that makes up today’s “dumb” grid. PGE is a vertically integrated utility owning both the generation, the transmission and distribution facilities. A giant ring of bulk substations surrounds Portland and Vancouver so that power delivery is redundantly supplied – power can circle to the customer in either direction.
The book value (what was originally paid for it) of all this hardware is between $3 – 4 billion, but after depreciation it’s only about $1 billion. What followed was a pictorial guide to the transmission and distribution system featuring enough poles and wires to satisfy any linesman’s nightmares.


After a break the class reviewed the mechanics of Small Group Learning, and the formation of said small groups. Jeff began his “History of Energy Policy and its Implications for the Smart Grid”, but was soon cut-off by the end of class. DonateSetting up and maintaining the information behind this site is a huge undertaking, and any contribution that you can make to cover expenses would be most gratefully accepted. The Electric Power Generation, Transmission, & Distribution gives concentrated and detailed coverage of all aspects regarding the conventional and nonconventional techniques of power generation, transmission and distribution systems, electric power consumption, and power quality. Whenever people speak about the electric power industry, the center of the conversation is generally on the power generation side of the business or on the utilities. A third and frequently overlooked part of the power and energy industry is the transmission and distribution space, a significant cluster of industries which involve the production of machinery, electric lines and transformers and also line management systems (like "smart-grid" technology) which improve effectiveness. Electrical power starts at the power plant, In almost all cases the power plant consists of a spinning electrical generator. The 3-phase power leaves the generator and enters a transmission substation at the power plant (see fig.6).
Transmission stage may include sub-transmission stages (secondary transmission) to supply intermediate voltage Levels. Primary distribution system (HV distribution): It is that portion of the network between the Sub-transmission substations and secondary distribution system. In the next topic, iI will explain some important and Basic electrical definitions & terminology.
In Britain, the long-term need for smarter grids is largely in response to the ‘energy trilemma’, the three pronged issue of reducing carbon, tackling escalating energy costs, and securing our energy supply. In particular, these relate to the benefits that smart grid development could deliver to the UK value chain, jobs market, and secondary industries. From an outside perspective many of these challenges could be attributed to the uniquely disaggregated UK energy market.
Generation, transmission, distribution and supply are owned and provided by different operators. Topical issues in the UK have included, who is able to use and own smart metering data, what entity owns the smart meter, and what clashes and impacts will smart grid techniques and technologies have on the different commercial players that make up the energy system. It will bring to an end estimated billing, provide users and the energy system with more granular detail about their energy usage and bring about simpler tariff structures.
Technology companies who have won the Government contracts to run the data and communications infrastructure needed for the rollout, are working to ensure it is effective and ready for use in 2015.
To win funding from the LCNF, the UK’s distribution network operators bid for it in consortia with technology companies and academic organisations. The electricity NIC commenced in 2014 and applies to both distribution and transmission networks. Due to its impact, RIIO is a hugely influential regulatory framework affecting smart grid development in the UK. This document comprehensively highlights the benefits and challenges associated with developing a UK smart grid. Despite these efforts, one large factor holding back smart grid development still remains; a lack of detailed understanding on the costs and returns associated with smart grid development across the UK. The report provided the broadest assessment to date of the economic impact that smart grid development could have for energy utilities and the wider supply chain in the UK. Alternatively, the deployment of ‘smart upgrades’ could cost ?23 billion, whilst the deployment of a fully-fledged smart grid could cost up to ?27 billion between 2012 and 2050. This is particularly important in large networks in which electricity is continuously added and consumed at various nodes within the grid.
Conrad Eustis provided a primer on electricity and the basic infrastructure of a “dumb” electric grid. Starting at the most basic level, he explained that electricity is the flow of electrons along a conductor such as a wire. However, as we know most voltages are fixed (for example 120 or 240 for households) thus watts are proportional to the current flow (amps). Kilowatts per hour, “kWh”, is the comprehensive unit of measurement for energy consumption since it combines amps, voltage and time. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be transformed from one from to another. For people in the electric industry power is also an attribute of the electrical delivery system or power conversion unit. When energy is transformed some of it leaves the system, often in the form of ambient heat. We can use kinetic energy, chemical energy, nuclear, potential, solar, wind, wave and geothermal energy, but for the purpose of supplying the grid we will need to produce a steady stream of electrical power.
PGE has a diverse mix of generating resources that includes hydropower, coal and gas combustion, wind and solar, as well as key transmission resources.
It is not self sufficient in power and depends upon long-term contracts and purchases on the spot market to fill in the additional demand.
This ring consists of 10 Bulk Power Substations that create 115 KV Transmission Feeds to about 90 Distribution Substations.
But requires that the power be “stepped down” as it is distributed to customers and households.
At PGE these feeder lines typically carry 7,200 volts in order to reduce line loss, and each feeder has a breaker.
Contributed by worldwide leaders beneath the supervision of one of the world's most appreciated and skilled authorities in power engineering, this cautiously crafted reference gives suitable access to both overviews and explained information.


The power generation side studies the extraction of fossil fuels, alternative energy generation, carbon emissions, oil spills, and nuclear power.
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This substation uses large transformers to convert the generator's voltage (which is at the thousands of volts level) up to extremely high voltages for long-distance transmission on the transmission grid.
Sub-transmission stages are used to enable a more practical or economical transition between transmission and distribution systems. The primary system consists of step-down transformers and sometimes embedded generation can be used at voltage levels which range from 33 KV to 6.6 KV.
The picture below illustrates the divisions between the different sections of the energy market.
The success of this infrastructure will be of paramount importance to smart grid development, as will the role of the UK’s Central Delivery Body (CDB) – the body tasked with delivering the consumer engagement strategy for the smart metering programme. The exact criterion for winning this funding is detailed but broadly speaking these consortiums need to prove how their project or projects will help deal with the UK’s aforementioned energy trilemma challenges. Like the LCNF it will require distribution network operators to bid in consortia to receive funding.
It rewards transmission and distribution networks who are cost effective, innovative, and sustainable, and financially punishes those who do not meet this criterion. This report will also take a detailed look at how these costs and benefits are distributed across major value chain participants (e.g. A flat pipe has no ability to exert power, whereas a pipe held at a 45° has some pressure, and a vertical pipe has the greatest pressure. Another way to say this is that Energy flows from an organized state to a disorganized state, from high availability to low availability. The generation plants are typically rated by the amount of energy that they can produce in a single day. PGE typically has higher household usage rates because of the demand for heating and cooling – so they are both winter and summer “peaking”.
All of this equipment must be mapped out and tracked to ensure timely maintenance and effective system repair.
You know, most people are seeking about because of this information and facts, you could possibly aid all of them greatly. The utilities side centers on the customer-oriented delivery side of the business, from electricity bill surcharges to outages in our electricity supply. Something has to spin that generator; it might be a water wheel in a hydroelectric dam, a large diesel engine or a gas turbine. Typical voltages for long distance transmission are in the 155,000 to 765,000 volt range in order to reduce line losses.
The secondary distribution system (LV distribution): It is that portion of the network between the primary feeders and utilization equipment.
Unlike the LCNF however, the NIC will allow distribution network operators to partner with transmission network operators on a project. Some time was spent on class communications logistics, the course textbook (Smart Power by Peter Fox-Penner), and the small group learning exercise. But as we all know homes are equipped with sockets that provide both 120 and 240 volts of power. The voltage refers to the “pressure” driving the electrons and their commensurate ability to do work. Applying too much energy reduces efficiency and increases the amount of energy lost through heat diffusion. PGE owns most of its own transmission and distribution equipment except where it uses BPA substations and lines. But in most cases the thing spinning the generator is a steam turbine (see fig.2) The steam might be created by burning coal, oil, natural gas or the fission of nuclear fuel. The secondary system consists of step-down transformers and secondary circuits at utilization voltage levels which range from 480V to 120V.
This blog will not concern itself with logistics or the small group learning exercise, but will focus instead on the substantive lectures focused on the Smart Grid, and partially on the readings for that week. Note :Residential secondary systems are predominantly single-phase, but commercial and industrial systems generally use three-phase power.
Through another system of cables forming the distribution network, the electricity is distributed over shorter distances to the users. An “anti-entropic” system benefits from external energy sources that replenish and increase the amount of available energy.
Thus Earth benefits from 174 billion MW of solar energy that radiates into our system every day.
Of particular interest was the slide that Conrad presented that showed the costs of new power plants. Most systems and living organisms progress from an anti-entropic state, to a state of equilibrium, and finally to an entropic state until all energy has escaped and the system ceases to exist. Note the rising cost of the pulverized coal (PC) and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, as the cost of carbon emissions rises. The carbon cost of the natural gas combine cycle (NGCC) turbines also rises, but because their carbon footprint is less the increase is not as dramatic.



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