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10.01.2014
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Use our Jandy plumbing layouts to visualize how the water is pumped from the pool under vacuum and the pumped through the filter and heater, and back to the pool, under pressure. Common pool plumbing layout for in-line Feeder with bypass Venturi, and bypass Feeder with in-line Venturi. These pool plumbing layouts are also useful for pool plumbing renovations, which is needed about every 20 years. The most common one considered is conduit used to provide cable access to equipment, such as breakers, transformers, instrument transformers, and motor-operated disconnect switches located in the yard of the substation.Conduit can be a means by which direct buried cable gets from the ground to the equipment, or it can be run directly to cable trenches, manholes, or to the electrical equipment enclosure. Conduit is also used to run the wiring within the electrical equipment enclosure.Utilization wiring would include AC power cable used for lighting receptacles and HVAC. These uses of conduit are in all substations and have a straightforward application of the NEC.Another application of conduit in the substation is for the protection of medium-voltage circuits.
The water heater comes equipped with a temperature and pressure relief valve (T&P Valve) that is designed to let off excess pressure from the water heater. Examples of these circuits include distribution cable leaving the substation and wind farm collector circuits entering the substation. This application of conduits results in some design challenges when applying the NEC.Conduit types include many different materials, each having its own advantages and disadvantages.
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There are several types of each metallic and non-metallic conduit that are specifically detailed in the NEC. NEC Articles 342 to 362 pertain to each of the accepted types of conduit.One common type of conduit used for the below-grade conduit in the substation is PVC. It can be direct buried or encased in concrete.Although PVC conduit can be used in exposed application as well, it is restricted to areas that are not subject to physical damage. There are other limitations to using PVC conduit that the design engineer and installer must consider, such as the fact that it will become brittle and difficult to work with in cold temperatures.
This is of particular concern in northern climates where maintaining systems that have PVC conduit installed in exposed areas is a challenge.At substation equipment, a transition from a non-metallic conduit to a metallic conduit is usually made.
Type RMC, or rigid metal conduit (generally galvanized steel), is used for the above-grade conduit connection to substation equipment in the yard. NEC Article 344 applies to rigid metal conduit.In northern climates, another consideration for conduit installations to equipment in the yard is frost.
However, running a separate equipment grounding conductor with the phase conductor(s) to lights or receptacles within the electrical equipment enclosure is preferred. While the NEC permits PVC conduit to be installed at a depth of 18”, consideration must also be given to local codes, frost depth, cable ampacity, and the conduit bending radius. The increased depth must also be taken into account when calculating ampacity of the cables within the conduit, see NEC Section 310.60(C)(2). Other considerations associated with the fill of the conduit and the ease of installation is the jamming ratio.
This section has several exceptions that should be examined for each application to reduce oversizing cable.As mentioned above, there can be challenges when applying the NEC to larger underground medium voltage circuits.


While manufacturers do produce 8” conduit, it is not acceptable to use it in conjunction with the NEC, and it will not usually be UL listed. Highly specialized for design of LV high power busbar trunking (<6300A) in power substations, buildings and industry fascilities.
The article as well as the comments by Mr George and Mr Alexander are quite helpful for budding engineers in this field.
Regards (reply) Alexander ArizaJul 28, 2014Hello, thanks for the article, was very helpful. I believe, for what I see of the picture that’s not PVC conduit, looks metallic conduit maybe IMC or RMC.
Most are oblivious to the NEC, CEC or IEC, as the respective codess and safety standards that any engineer or designer should know or know haw to use. Each application is unique as to ambient temperature, cable spacing, number of conductors, depth of raceway for underground, effects of ambient temperature on conductor derating, etc. We publish, we share and we spread the knowledge.You're welcome to read, write and contribute to EEP in any way!




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