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06.10.2014
Hydroelectric power plant: plant that produces electricity from energy generated by flowing water. Assembly of bars placed in front of the water intake to hold back anything that could hinder the operation of the turbine. Basin formed by the construction of a dam; it holds back a very large volume of water so that the flow rate can be controlled. Large aluminum conductor that transmits electric current from the alternator to the transformer. Conduit at the base of the turbine that increases the runner’s output by reducing the pressure of the water as it exits. Device with a turbine that transmits the water’s mechanical energy to the generator’s rotor to make it turn to produce electricity. Channel that discharges water toward the afterbay in order to return it to the watercourse. Duct shaped like a spiral staircase that is used to distribute water uniformly around the turbine to make it turn smoothly. Underground passageway that provides access to various parts of the dam so that it can be inspected and maintained.
Hoisting device that travels along aboveground parallel rails; it is used to lift and carry heavy loads. Device that allows the conductor to pass through the wall of the transformer and separates it from the latter. Device used to alter the electric voltage; voltage is increased as the current leaves the power plant so that it can be carried over long distances. Open burning of trash, as seen here in General Santos, Philippines, is a global phenomenon that has significant effects on air quality. Unregulated trash burning around the globe is pumping far more pollution into the atmosphere than shown by official records. The new study provides the first rough estimates, on a country-by-country basis, of pollutants such as particulates, carbon monoxide, and mercury that are emitted by the fires. The researchers also estimated emissions of carbon dioxide, the most common greenhouse gas produced by human activity. Unlike emissions from commercial incinerators, the emissions from burning trash in open fires often go unreported to environmental agencies and are left out of many national inventories of air pollution.
Quantifying the extent of burning trash may change how policy makers track emissions, as well as how scientists incorporate air pollution into computer models used to study the atmosphere.


Because trash burning is unregulated and unmonitored, Wiedinmyer said that actual emissions could be larger or smaller than the study's estimates by a factor of two. The new study, published in Environmental Science & Technology, was funded by the National Science Foundation, which is NCAR's sponsor. The amount of garbage burned in remote villages and crowded megacities is likely on the rise, as more people worldwide are consuming more goods.
Wiedinmyer began wondering about the impact of burning trash while visiting remote villages in Ghana.
To estimate emissions from trash fires, Wiedinmyer and her co-authors compared population figures and per capita waste production with official tallies of trash disposal for each country in the world. The countries that produce the most total waste, according to the study's methods, are heavily populated countries with various levels of industrial development: China, the United States, India, Japan, Brazil, and Germany.
By analyzing consumption patterns in each country, the research team then estimated the type and amount of pollutants from the fires.
The study concluded that as much as 29 percent of human-related global emissions of small particulates (less than 2.5 microns in diameter) come from the fires, as well as 10 percent of mercury and 40 percent of a group of gases known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Trash burning in some countries accounts for particularly high quantities of certain types of pollutants. The global impact on greenhouse gas emissions appears to be less, though still significant, with burning trash producing an estimated 5 percent of human-related carbon dioxide emissions.
Wiedinmyer said the next step in her research will be to track the pollutants to determine where they are having the greatest impacts.
Global Emissions of Trace Gases, Particulate Matter, and Hazardous Air Pollutants from Open Burning of Domestic Waste, Christine Wiedinmyer, Robert J. Environment Canada has issued a high health risk warning for Yellowknife and surrounding area because of heavy smoke in the region due to forest fires.
It has long been known that biomass burning a€“ burning forests to create agricultural lands, burning savannah as a ritual , slash-and-burn agriculture and wildfires a€“ figures into both climate change and public health. Black carbon pollutants from wood smoke are known to trap heat near the earth's surface and warm the climate.
The amount of sea level rise in the Pacific Ocean can be used to estimate future global surface temperatures, according to a new report led by University of Arizona geoscientists. A team of British climate scientists comparing today's environment with the warm period before the last ice age has discovered a 65% reduction of Antarctic sea ice around 128,000 years ago.
A Purdue University research team has found that the center of tornado activity in the United States has shifted in recent decades, and this shift is possibly influenced by climate change.


A trio of researchers has found evidence to suggest that a very large gorge in an eastern part of the Himalayas is moving slowly northward due to pressure from tectonic lift. AT SUBSTATIONS the voltage is decreased and the power is distributed to homes and businesses. A new study led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research estimates that more than 40 percent of the world's garbage is burned in such fires, emitting gases and particles that can substantially affect human health and climate change. Still, the analysis represents the most comprehensive effort to date to account for emissions from trash burning. But it is most prevalent in developing countries where there are fewer trash disposal facilities, such as landfills and incinerators.
The trash often contains discarded plastics and electronics as well as traditional materials such as food scraps and wood.
The villages were shrouded in smoke caused in part from trash fires that smoldered all day. They estimated that 1.1 billion tons, or 41 percent, of the total waste generated worldwide is disposed of through unregulated burning every year.
But the nations with the greatest emissions from trash burning are populous developing countries: China, India, Brazil, Mexico, Pakistan, and Turkey, the study concluded.
These pollutants have been linked to such significant health impacts as decreased lung function, neurological disorders, cancer, and heart attacks.
In China, for example, 22 percent of larger particles (those up to 10 microns in diameter) come from burning garbage. Although not quite as the adage says, although still true, where there's fire there's smoke. Environmental Protection Agency who were also involved in measuring the composition of trash-burning emissions.
This discrepancy can be important in international negotiations over reducing greenhouse gas emissions.



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