Electric power generation from tidal energy facts,safety car insurance massachusetts,bmw vin numbers search,can i get pregnant while on the mini pill and breastfeeding - Videos Download

01.04.2016
Swansea Bay tidal lagoon in the United Kingdom will be a 240MW tidal power generation facility. Salinity gradient power plants are based on the natural mixing of fresh and salt water (IEA, 2009).
Video 1Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)Reverse Electro Dialysis is another membrane-based technology that uses an electrochemical reaction rather than osmotic pressure. Video 2Hydrocratic ocean energyThe hydrocratic generator is a system capable of extracting power from salinity differences without the use of a membrane. The primary requirement of a salinity gradient power plant is the availability of both a supply of fresh water and a supply of salt water. There is limited information available on the local impacts of salinity gradient power plants on the environment.
Tidal energy is the power of electricity generation achieved by utilization of the variations in sea level caused primarily by the gravitational effects of the moon, combined with the rotation of the Earth by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides. In order to be practical for energy production, the height differences needs to be at least 5 meters.
The diagram shows how the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun affect the tides on Earth. When the sun and moon are in line their gravitational attraction on the earth combine and cause a ?°spring?± tide. When they are as positioned in the first diagram above, 90?a from each other, their gravitational attraction each pulls water in different directions, causing a ?°neap?± tide.
Hydroelectric power uses the gravitational force of water falling falling or flowing water to generate electricity.
In Southcentral Alaska, the Eklutna hydroelectric facility was brought on line in 1955 by the federal government.
The Cooper Lake hydroelectric facility is owned and operated by Chugach Electric Association. Hydroelectric power is the generation of electric power from the movement of water flowing from a higher to a lower elevation. Before a hydroelectric power site is developed, engineers must assess how much power will be produced when the facility is complete. A reaction turbine is a horizontal or vertical wheel that operates with the wheel completely submerged, a feature that reduces turbulence.
An impulse or Pelton-type turbine is a horizontal or vertical wheel that converts the fluid’s change in potential energy (hydraulic head) into kinetic energy by water striking its buckets or blades to make the extractable rotating shaft work. A low-head dam is one with a water drop of less than 65 feet and a generating capacity less than 15,000 kW. Run-of-the-river hydro facilities use the natural flow and elevation drop of a river to generate electricity.
Power stations on rivers with great seasonal fluctuations require a large reservoir in order to operate during the dry season. Run-of-the-river power plants typically have a weir or diversion structure across the width of the river.
Small hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale that serves a community or an industrial plant. A small hydro plant might be connected to a conventional electrical distribution network as a supplemental source of renewable energy. Non-recurring engineering costs are minimized, and development cost is spread over multiple units, so the cost of such systems is improved. Micro hydro plants may use purpose-designed turbines or industrial centrifugal pumps connected in reverse to act as turbines. Regulation of small hydro generating units may require water to be spilled at the diversion to maintain the downstream stream habitat. Since small hydro projects may have minimal environmental and licensing procedures, the equipment is usually in serial production. Small hydro and mini hydro can be used as alternative energy sources in off-grid communities with small loads. Run-of-the-river hydroelectric generators in Alaska do not provide the same seasonally consistent electric supply that larger hydroelectric projects do. When suitable hydraulic heads are not present or when power needs are substantial, dams are constructed across rivers to store water and create hydraulic head to drive the turbo machinery. In addition to the actual dam structure, there are a number of other major design considerations. Where the topography allows, several successful design concepts are available to help mitigate the environmental impacts of conventional storage hydropower projects. A strong attribute of conventional hydropower is the dispatchability that results from the ability to control the rate of power production through storage and release of water contained behind the dam.
Additionally, the scale of energy production attainable with hydroelectric storage lends it to connection with large electrical grids to displace conventional fossil fuel-based power sources with clean, non-carbon-based power. The wave energy devices being developed and tested today are highly diverse, and a variety of technologies have been proposed to capture the energy from waves. Wave technologies have been designed to be installed in the nearshore, offshore, and far offshore locations. Although wave power technologies are continuing to develop, there are four basic applications that may be suitable for deployment on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS):  point absorbers, attenuators, overtopping devices, and terminators. Terminator devices extend perpendicular to the direction of the wave and capture or reflect the power of the wave. Attenuators are long multisegment floating structures oriented parallel to the direction of the waves.
Overtopping devices have reservoirs that are filled by incoming waves, causing a slight buildup of water pressure like a dam. Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies” and at the Ocean Energy Systems Annex IV webpage. The idea is to have underwater turbines placed right in the middle of the Gulf Stream current. Now granted, installing all these turbines will take time and significant research, which is why the team is hard at work developing a considerably smaller prototype version that they hope will provide them with enough data to assess whether installing such a system will have an impact in the ocean current, and, just as importantly, all the sealife moving through the area. Please note that gratuitous links to your site are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments.
A submersible technology, which is called Optimset Turbo, for producing electricity from the channel, river, ocean or tidal water currents is disclosed. The turbine comprises an arrangement of two sets of paddles with asymmetrically fixed blades to increase the torque and power output.
The radial support members attach both sets of the paddles to the hub and provide the integrity and structural strength of the turbine. The first set of paddles with floatable blades is located above the radial support members, as the second set of paddles with sinkable blades is located below the support members.
A plurality of stops, built into the hub and support members, allow the free rotation of the paddles in the 90 degrees angle range.
Another concept which would use a traditional tension mooring system, but in tandem rather than mono point would be the tide trawl, which could potentially reduce the installation costs and ease the launch and recovery proceedure.
Could the university possibly use some of its grant money to create a web-based reference resource to provide pointers to existing projects, as well as to its own research? One final point, when we hide the means of production of energy, we allow ourselves the luxury of ignoring its impact. Actually, the Army Corp of Engineers studied this in the 50s and 60s and found that if you slow down the gulf stream, you not only disturb marine life but the entire climate!
Remember, swimming around objects in the water is what these animals do every day to stay alive! Collision of fresh and salt water provides large amounts of energy, which this technology aims to capture.
The generator consists of a tube mounted on the seabed that is filled with holes to allow the entry of seawater. This makes the technology relatively location specific, although there are still a large number of possible locations.The majority of components required for an salinity gradient power plant have already reached commercialization. The salinity gradient technologies are in their part-scale (tank) phase which means that the concepts and prototypes are undergoing tests in the laboratory environment (IEA, 2009). Due to the large number of operating hours and its reliability, the technology's annual energy cost per kWh might be a better measure (SPP, 2004).Uncertainties about the costs and technical performance of marine energy technologies must be overcome before significant commercial investment can be attracted.


Using a dam to trap water in a basin, and when reaches appropriate height due to high tide, release water to flow through turbines that turn an electric generator.
By 1908, southeast Alaska alone had over 30 developed water power sites with a capacity of 11,500 kW. Most hydroelectric power comes through the use of dams: the potential energy of dammed water drives a water turbine and generator. It began operation in 1960 and was recently relicensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
In contrast, hydrokinetic technology is a pre-commercial technology that uses river current to generate electric power. They also review the natural conditions that exist at each site: surface topography, geology, river flow, water quality, and annual rainfall and snowfall cycles.
The head and the discharge at the power site and the desired rotational speed of the generator determine the type of turbine to be used. It takes into account losses in the amount of head due to friction in the penstock and variations due to efficiency levels of mechanical devices used to harness the power.
Other types of turbines include fixed pitch propeller and crossflow (also called the Ossberger or Banki turbines). In theory, the reaction turbine works like a rotating lawn sprinkler, where water at a central point is under pressure and escapes from the ends of the blades causing rotation. Pelton or Turgo impulse turbines may have single or multiple nozzles that accelerate flow to produce high velocity jets that impinge on a set of rotating turbine buckets to transfer their kinetic energy. Large, high-head dams can produce more power at lower cost than low-head dams, but construction of large dams may be limited by lack of suitable sites, by environmental considerations, or by economic conditions. This weir contains an intake structure, often consisting of a trash rack, an intake screen, and de-sanding elements to conduct the water into the penstock. Spring breakup will create a lot of energy, while flow diminishment during winter and dry seasons will create relatively little energy. The definition of a small hydro project varies, but a generating capacity of up to 10 MW is generally accepted as the upper limit of what is termed small hydro.
Alternatively, a small hydro project might be built in an isolated area that would be uneconomic to serve from a network, or in areas where there is no electrical distribution network.
These water-to-wire packages simplify the planning and development of the site, since one vendor looks after most of the equipment supply. While synchronous generators capable of isolated plant operation are often used, small hydro plants connected to an electrical grid system can use economical induction generators to further reduce installation cost and to simplify control and operation.
While these machines rarely have optimum hydraulic characteristics when operated as turbines, their low purchase cost makes them attractive for micro hydro class installations.
Spilling will also happen when the natural flow exceeds the hydroelectric system capacity, since the project will generally have no reservoir to store unused water. This is a result of the seasonal changes in the flows of Alaska rivers, with diminished flow rates during the winter months.
Dams typically last for 50 to 100 years and so, are constructed of durable materials like reinforced concrete, roller-compacted concrete, earth, and crushed rock. For example, the penstock inlet manifold (usually with screens to keep debris and fish from entering the turbine) and the discharge or tailrace system must be designed to maintain the hydraulic head and minimize the effects of sedimentation, silt, and ice build-up. In regions with high-elevation natural lakes, lake taps may be utilized to feed a power tunnel bored in rock to carry water to the downstream powerhouse.
Given the general increase in electrification that is occurring worldwide, the demand for using hydropower reservoirs for both base-load and peaking applications is rising. Fuel switching to inexpensive hydropower may be possible in some situations for home heating and (someday) for plugin hybrid cars. In many areas of the world, the wind blows with enough consistency and force to provide continuous waves along the shoreline. Areas of the world with abundant wave power resource include the western coasts of Scotland, northern Canada, southern Africa, Australia, and the northwestern coast of the United States, particularly Alaska.
Some of the more promising designs are undergoing demonstration testing at commercial scales. While wave energy technologies are intended to be installed at or near the water's surface, there can be major differences in their technical concept and design. These devices are typically onshore or nearshore; however, floating versions have been designed for offshore applications. They ride the waves like a ship, extracting energy by using restraints at the bow of the device and along its length. Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database provides up-to-date information on marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, both in the U.S.
And while floating wind turbines and wave-powered generators are being explored throughout the world, there still remains one largely untapped power source, the underwater ocean currents. The real goal though should be to reduce energy consumption in combination with finding new sources of energy. If we can generate significant amounts of energy this way it will reduce our dependency on land and oil generated power. A turbine is mounted vertically in the tube and connected to a generator underneath the pipe. In PRO and RED, the two unique components are the pressure exchanger and the membrane (Sandvik & Skihagen, 2008). Moreover, the small number of projects, limited deployment times and small scale of these projects means that there is still a reasonable degree of uncertainty about the long term impacts of large scale deployment.At this moment, it seems that salinity gradient power plants will have minimal environmental impact.
International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems Annex I: Review, Exchange and Dissemination of Information on Ocean Energy Systems.
The moon has the greater effect on earth despite having less mass than the sun because it is so much closer.
The vast majority, built by private developers, provided power for industrial operations, mainly for the gold mining works in Juneau and on Douglas Island. The power that is generated at a hydroelectric facility depends upon the volume of water moving through the dam and the height difference between the water's source and outflow. As the cheapest energy source connected to the Railbelt energy grid, it currently produces power at a rate of a few cents per kWh.
A number of smaller hydroelectric projects owned by individual utilities are located across the state, mostly in Southeast Alaska. A hydroelectric facility requires a dependable flow of water and a reasonable height of fall of water, called the head. Extensive studies are conducted to evaluate the site’s environmental conditions, land status and other factors that may influence the configuration of the hydro plant and the equipment selection.
To determine how much electrical power can be produced, the mechanical measure (horsepower) must be converted into electrical terms (Watts). Francis or Kaplan turbines are reaction machines that utilize both hydraulic pressure and kinetic energy to create rotating shaft work. The wheel is covered by a housing, and the buckets or blades are shaped so they turn the flow of water about 170 degrees inside the housing.
The key to the usefulness of low-head units is their lower capital costs and the ability to satisfy local power needs with the available resource. Instead, some of the water is diverted from a river and sent into a pipe called a penstock.
These installations have a small reservoir behind the diversion to keep the intake flooded and reduce icing problems. A run-of-the-river power plant has little or no capacity for energy storage, and so cannot coordinate the output of electricity generation to match consumer demand. Small hydro projects usually have minimal reservoirs and civil construction work, consequently a relatively low environmental impact. For micro hydro schemes feeding only a few loads, a resistor bank may be used to dissipate excess electrical energy as heat during periods of low demand.
When compared with other renewable energy alternatives like wind and solar, run-of-the river hydroelectric generators are able to deliver a relatively consistent electric supply throughout the day. The dams and reservoirs of larger hydroelectric projects provide for energy storage, holding water to be used to generate electricity when flows are lower. Substantial effort goes into the design of the dam spillway to safely direct extreme flows downstream of the dam when the available reservoir storage is inadequate to contain it. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Power Resources Office, Hydroelectric Power, July 2005.


For example, they may differ in their orientation to the waves or in the manner in which they convert energy from the waves. The oscillating water column is a form of terminator in which water enters through a subsurface opening into a chamber, trapping air above.
The differing heights of waves along the length of the device causes flexing where the segments connect. Well researchers at the Center of Excellence in Ocean Energy Technology have developed what they believe is a technology to allow them to use the Gulf Stream currents that could conceivably cover all of Florida’s energy needs. Freshwater and seawater are placed on either side of a membrane, and the seawater side is pressurized.
Fresh water is injected at the bottom of the tube, and the mixing of the freshwater and saltwater results in an upward flow of brackish water larger than the initial fresh water injection. To commercialize osmotic power the improvement and scale up of these components is required.PRO and RED are both dependent on the salinity, volume and cleanliness of the water supply. The mixing of fresh and salt water occurs naturally at delta's of rivers with no negative effects. Unequal heating of the earth??s surface generates wind and wind blowing over water generates waves. The gravitational force of the moon causes the oceans to bulge along an axis pointing directly at the moon. There are also some very small private facilities, most of which are owned by fish processors. In a typical installation, water is fed from a reservoir through a conduit called a penstock into a hydraulic turbine. More head or faster flowing water means more power.4 The steep mountains, abundant rain and snow, and relatively mild winter temperatures in Southeast and Southcentral Alaska provide the ideal hydrologic conditions for hydroelectric power.
In order to optimize the power output and reduce capital costs, the specific turbine to be used in a power plant is not selected until all operational studies and cost estimates are complete.
In contrast to a reaction turbine, the fluid contained in the impulse turbine does not completely fill all available void space, and the turbine operates at ambient pressure. Micro hydro applications might serve for single families or small enterprises, while mini hydros might be appropriate for small communities. In a sense this energy is wasted, but the incremental fuel cost is negligible so economic loss is minor. Unfortunately, most Alaska electric loads are highest during the winter, the same time that river flow (and the electric power generation capability of small and run-of the-river hydro) is at its lowest.
They vary substantially in terms of height and storage volume, depending upon local topography. At other sites, natural barrier waterfalls can facilitate licensing of upstream hydro development through their function as fish migration barriers. The variable nature of other renewable energy sources like wind and solar makes pairing with hydro energy storage an attractive option for integrated supply systems.
The wave action causes the captured water column to move up and down like a piston, forcing the air though an opening connected to a turbine to generate power. The segments are connected to hydraulic pumps or other converters to generate power as the waves move across. The relative up and down bobbing motion caused by passing waves is used to drive electromechanical or hydraulic energy converters to generate power. Specially built floating platforms can also create electricity by funneling waves through internal turbines and then back into the sea.
The gulf stream carries billions of gallons per minute, so the impact of these turbines would be minimal if negligible to the current itself. While discovered and discussed in the 1970s, research has been slow and most of it only recently. As the seawater side increases in pressure and decreases in salinity, part of the water is discharged through a turbine while the rest is put in a pressure exchanger to pressurize the incoming seawater, as illustrated in Figure 1.Figure 1The pressure difference across the membrane is the main supplier of energy and can be as much as 200 meters of hydraulic head (IEA, 2009). Video 2 illustrates the RED concept and a conceptual idea of a salinity gradient power plant in the Netherlands. After turning the blades or buckets, the water falls to the bottom of the wheel housing and flows out.
Because of the difference in elevation, potential energy from the water upriver is transformed into kinetic energy and then to electrical energy.
This lowers the amount of run-of-the-river hydro capacity that can be installed without significant amounts of excess capacity in the summer.
There are several design approaches used for concrete dams, including solid and hollow, gravity and arch geometries. Fish protection and passage facilities and eco-friendly turbines can also be designed to mitigate fisheries impacts of hydroelectric facility construction.
These devices generally have power ratings of 500 kW to 2 MW, depending on the wave climate and the device dimensions. A transformer in the nose of the unit steps up the power-to-line voltage for transmission to shore. Designs that involve the coolant discharge of power plants or the discharge of waste treatments plants as the main source of fresh water have been created. This may alter the local marine environment and result in changes for animals and plants living in the discharge area. These power plants have proven to be long-term, reliable, and relatively inexpensive sources of power.
The rotating shaft is connected to an electrical generator, which converts the shaft motion into electrical energy. The water leaves the generating station and is returned to the river with minimal alteration of the existing flow or water levels. The gulf stream is a vital source for ocean circulation and weakening it to any degree will eventually have consequences.
The lifetime of the membrane also needs to increase to around 7 to 10 years before the technology can become commercial. Hydropower installations have the reputation for being robust and durable, operating successfully at some sites for more than a century. While an abundance of wave energy is available, it cannot be fully harnessed everywhere for a variety of reasons, such as other competing uses of the ocean (i.e.
I am all for this though as an ocean engineer but there are a few details that we still need to consider.
At the same time, it is important that the freshwater and seawater be as clean as possible. Membrane modules, pressure exchanger equipment and power generation are the main areas of focus (Sandvik & Skihagen, 2008). The Salinity Power Project: Power Production from the Osmotic Pressure Difference between Fresh water and sea water. Hydropower’s low operation and maintenance costs coupled with long lifetimes result in stable power rates. Mitigation measures, compliance monitoring, and environmental follow-up programs must be established. Substances in the water may get captured within the membrane’s support structure or on the membrane surfaces, reducing the flow through the membrane and causing a reduction in power output.
In Alaska, hydropower is currently the largest and most important producer of electricity from a renewable energy source.
At a capacity of 1 kW, a small RED pilot project has been installed in the Netherlands (OES-IA, 2009). International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems Annual Report 2009. With increased interest in replacing fossil-fuel-powered generation with renewable energy resources, the statewide inventory of installed hydropower capacity will continue to expand. As such, it is still unclear what the main operational necessities and areas of improvement are. Article to the 2008 annual report of the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems Annex I: Review, Exchange and Dissemination of Information on Ocean Energy Systems.




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