Electric power generation by ocean energy resources,storage of water in medieval india vs,foods you shouldn't eat when you have gout attack - Easy Way

04.05.2016
The idea is to have underwater turbines placed right in the middle of the Gulf Stream current.
Now granted, installing all these turbines will take time and significant research, which is why the team is hard at work developing a considerably smaller prototype version that they hope will provide them with enough data to assess whether installing such a system will have an impact in the ocean current, and, just as importantly, all the sealife moving through the area. Please note that gratuitous links to your site are viewed as spam and may result in removed comments.
A submersible technology, which is called Optimset Turbo, for producing electricity from the channel, river, ocean or tidal water currents is disclosed. The turbine comprises an arrangement of two sets of paddles with asymmetrically fixed blades to increase the torque and power output.
The radial support members attach both sets of the paddles to the hub and provide the integrity and structural strength of the turbine. The first set of paddles with floatable blades is located above the radial support members, as the second set of paddles with sinkable blades is located below the support members. A plurality of stops, built into the hub and support members, allow the free rotation of the paddles in the 90 degrees angle range. Another concept which would use a traditional tension mooring system, but in tandem rather than mono point would be the tide trawl, which could potentially reduce the installation costs and ease the launch and recovery proceedure. Could the university possibly use some of its grant money to create a web-based reference resource to provide pointers to existing projects, as well as to its own research? One final point, when we hide the means of production of energy, we allow ourselves the luxury of ignoring its impact. Actually, the Army Corp of Engineers studied this in the 50s and 60s and found that if you slow down the gulf stream, you not only disturb marine life but the entire climate! Remember, swimming around objects in the water is what these animals do every day to stay alive! Tidal energy is the power of electricity generation achieved by utilization of the variations in sea level caused primarily by the gravitational effects of the moon, combined with the rotation of the Earth by capturing the energy contained in moving water mass due to tides.
In order to be practical for energy production, the height differences needs to be at least 5 meters. The diagram shows how the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun affect the tides on Earth. When the sun and moon are in line their gravitational attraction on the earth combine and cause a ?°spring?± tide.
When they are as positioned in the first diagram above, 90?a from each other, their gravitational attraction each pulls water in different directions, causing a ?°neap?± tide. Salinity gradient power plants are based on the natural mixing of fresh and salt water (IEA, 2009). Video 1Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)Reverse Electro Dialysis is another membrane-based technology that uses an electrochemical reaction rather than osmotic pressure. Video 2Hydrocratic ocean energyThe hydrocratic generator is a system capable of extracting power from salinity differences without the use of a membrane.


The primary requirement of a salinity gradient power plant is the availability of both a supply of fresh water and a supply of salt water. There is limited information available on the local impacts of salinity gradient power plants on the environment. And while floating wind turbines and wave-powered generators are being explored throughout the world, there still remains one largely untapped power source, the underwater ocean currents.
The real goal though should be to reduce energy consumption in combination with finding new sources of energy. If we can generate significant amounts of energy this way it will reduce our dependency on land and oil generated power. Using a dam to trap water in a basin, and when reaches appropriate height due to high tide, release water to flow through turbines that turn an electric generator. Collision of fresh and salt water provides large amounts of energy, which this technology aims to capture. The generator consists of a tube mounted on the seabed that is filled with holes to allow the entry of seawater. This makes the technology relatively location specific, although there are still a large number of possible locations.The majority of components required for an salinity gradient power plant have already reached commercialization.
The salinity gradient technologies are in their part-scale (tank) phase which means that the concepts and prototypes are undergoing tests in the laboratory environment (IEA, 2009). Due to the large number of operating hours and its reliability, the technology's annual energy cost per kWh might be a better measure (SPP, 2004).Uncertainties about the costs and technical performance of marine energy technologies must be overcome before significant commercial investment can be attracted.
Well researchers at the Center of Excellence in Ocean Energy Technology have developed what they believe is a technology to allow them to use the Gulf Stream currents that could conceivably cover all of Florida’s energy needs. The moon has the greater effect on earth despite having less mass than the sun because it is so much closer. A turbine is mounted vertically in the tube and connected to a generator underneath the pipe. In PRO and RED, the two unique components are the pressure exchanger and the membrane (Sandvik & Skihagen, 2008). Moreover, the small number of projects, limited deployment times and small scale of these projects means that there is still a reasonable degree of uncertainty about the long term impacts of large scale deployment.At this moment, it seems that salinity gradient power plants will have minimal environmental impact.
International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems Annex I: Review, Exchange and Dissemination of Information on Ocean Energy Systems. The gulf stream carries billions of gallons per minute, so the impact of these turbines would be minimal if negligible to the current itself.
Unequal heating of the earth??s surface generates wind and wind blowing over water generates waves. The gravitational force of the moon causes the oceans to bulge along an axis pointing directly at the moon.
Freshwater and seawater are placed on either side of a membrane, and the seawater side is pressurized.


Fresh water is injected at the bottom of the tube, and the mixing of the freshwater and saltwater results in an upward flow of brackish water larger than the initial fresh water injection. To commercialize osmotic power the improvement and scale up of these components is required.PRO and RED are both dependent on the salinity, volume and cleanliness of the water supply. The mixing of fresh and salt water occurs naturally at delta's of rivers with no negative effects. While discovered and discussed in the 1970s, research has been slow and most of it only recently. As the seawater side increases in pressure and decreases in salinity, part of the water is discharged through a turbine while the rest is put in a pressure exchanger to pressurize the incoming seawater, as illustrated in Figure 1.Figure 1The pressure difference across the membrane is the main supplier of energy and can be as much as 200 meters of hydraulic head (IEA, 2009). Video 2 illustrates the RED concept and a conceptual idea of a salinity gradient power plant in the Netherlands.
The gulf stream is a vital source for ocean circulation and weakening it to any degree will eventually have consequences. Designs that involve the coolant discharge of power plants or the discharge of waste treatments plants as the main source of fresh water have been created. This may alter the local marine environment and result in changes for animals and plants living in the discharge area. I am all for this though as an ocean engineer but there are a few details that we still need to consider.
The lifetime of the membrane also needs to increase to around 7 to 10 years before the technology can become commercial. At the same time, it is important that the freshwater and seawater be as clean as possible. Membrane modules, pressure exchanger equipment and power generation are the main areas of focus (Sandvik & Skihagen, 2008). The Salinity Power Project: Power Production from the Osmotic Pressure Difference between Fresh water and sea water. Substances in the water may get captured within the membrane’s support structure or on the membrane surfaces, reducing the flow through the membrane and causing a reduction in power output. At a capacity of 1 kW, a small RED pilot project has been installed in the Netherlands (OES-IA, 2009).
International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems Annual Report 2009. As such, it is still unclear what the main operational necessities and areas of improvement are. Article to the 2008 annual report of the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems Annex I: Review, Exchange and Dissemination of Information on Ocean Energy Systems.



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