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17.08.2014
The 1783 map by John Wallis, The United States of America, was one of the first published in Europe to recognize the new nation’s independence. Often called the father of American geography, Jedidiah Morse was a New England minister who transformed geography books and maps into a best-selling genre. A spate of new atlases made in the United States greatly popularized the cartographic image of the nation. Map circulation in America increased to unprecedented numbers with the 1817 invention of machine-made paper by Delaware brothers Joshua and Thomas Gilpin.
Before the widespread use of photographic reproduction in the late 1800s, maps were either hand drawn or printed using the intaglio process (etching, engraving, woodcut) or planographic process (anastatic, lithographic, or offset).
Thomas Gilpin was the first to successfully produce machine-made paper in America at his mill on the Brandywine Creek, outside Wilmington.
Along with the new emphasis on map studies came the question of how best to test map knowledge. This rare silk embroidery celebrates the centrality of maps in the education of young Americans. One of the burning intellectual and policy issues of our day is the poverty in sub-Saharan Africa, attracting the attention of everyone from entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates through movie stars such as Madonna and Angelina Jolie to rock stars such as Bono and Bob Geldof. The form of property rights in Africa—and their absence, in many cases—is the root source of its poverty, which creates both good and bad news. When examining the role of property rights in African poverty, we should begin by looking at its history. In 500 AD, for example, the Kingdom of Aksum flourished in northern Ethiopia; it had a written language, minted its own coins, and enjoyed a diversified agricultural economy based on ox-drawn plows.
Nevertheless, in both technology and the development of political institutions, Africa’s trajectory seems to have been different from Western Europe’s. The economic problems created by absolutism are well illustrated by the history of the Kingdom of the Kongo (in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which took its name from the premodern kingdom). The Kongolese learned about plows and wheels from the Portuguese, who sent missions in 1491 and 1512 to encourage better agricultural practices. To have become more prosperous, the Kongolese would need to have saved and invested in plows, for example. Aksum and its successor, Ethiopia, may not have looked very different from contemporary European societies in 500 AD, even developing a form of feudalism at the same time as Europe did.
As eighteenth-century British historian Edward Gibbon (author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) put it, the Ethiopians “slept near a thousand years.” But something very different was happening in Britain. The political conflicts of seventeenth-century Britain, through the Civil War of the 1640s to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, removed the type of absolutist political rule that led to insecure property rights in the Kongo and Ethiopia.
Foreign policy toward Africa has been driven too much by short-term politics not focused on economic development.
Britain, then, was on a very different political trajectory, one with huge consequences for property rights and prosperity. Even more important than the early shock of the Black Death was the redistribution of land brought on by Henry VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries after 1536, the enormous economic opportunities created by the New World, and the expansion of inter-oceanic trade after 1492. It is no coincidence that Britain’s Industrial Revolution began within a century of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the ascendance of modern parliamentary democracy over the monarchy. The political developments in Britain that led to secure property rights and widespread economic opportunities were the outcome of conflict and the defeat of absolutism.
Give Africans more economic opportunities, not by throwing money at them but by opening markets to African exports and trade. As British North America developed, British elites tried time and again to create a relatively oligarchic society with heavily restricted economic and political rights for the vast mass of individuals. A good example of this is Sierra Leone, whose status as a British colony emphasizes that there was no advantage in such status. The economic backwardness of Africa made it vulnerable to colonialism, which replaced one form of absolutism with another.
Many Africans are struggling to change their situation, aspiring to be wealthy and live long and rewarding lives, as witnessed by the thousands who risk life and limb trying to gain access to Europe and a better future for themselves and their families. First, give Africans more economic opportunities, which doesn’t mean throwing money at them. Stephen Kotkin, in addition to being a Hoover research fellow, is the Birkelund Professor of History and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School and History Department of Princeton University.. Become engaged in a community that shares an interest in the mission of the Hoover Institution to advance policy ideas that promote economic opportunity and prosperity, while securing and safeguarding peace for America and all mankind. The opinions expressed on this website are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Hoover Institution or Stanford University. Since the Second World War, Western democracies have championed human rights, decrying the abuse of civil liberties in undemocratic states.
Australia operates under a Westminster system of democratic governance that is intended to provide checks and balances against the concentration and abuse of power. While Hope recognised that national security agencies need to operate under the cloak of secrecy to be effective, he established mechanisms to ensure proper oversight and accountability.
Since the turn of the millennium three major technology-enabled developments have significantly altered the balance between national security and civil liberties. The second development is that technology has dramatically increased the capacity of the state to remotely surveil its citizens under the aegis of national security. The third and arguably most significant development has been the rise of the threat of international terrorism, with violent individuals or groups able to engender global fear through the leverage of extensive real-time media coverage. In fact the threat of international terrorism was perceived as so serious that many long-standing international conventions governing the treatment of lawful combatants, use of torture, resort to extra-judicial killing, exceptional rendition and incarceration without trial were suspended. As noted earlier the goals of terrorism are to engender widespread fear and a disproportionate state response. This intense environment has made temperate and informed public discourse on appropriate risk-based national security priorities difficult, particularly in the context of the secrecy, misinformation and sense of urgency that inevitably accompanies consideration of counter-terrorism issues.
The hyper-politicisation of national security finds voice in the current discourse on the issue of border security, turning a complex humanitarian and policing challenge (asylum seekers arriving by sea) into an enormously controversial and expensive imbroglio.
Bill Calcutt worked in a range of intelligence roles in the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation and the National Crime Authority for more than 20 years.
Eureka Street is completely free of charge - however it costs a significant amount of money to provide our unique content. How are the Enlightenment ideas that influenced the Founding Fathers reflected in modern institutions? The diagram below shows that the colonists formed some of their political views from some historical documents. Why did Parliament eventually repeal the Stamp Act, which taxed goods such as newspapers and playing cards? The diagram below describes a cause that led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
What is one way that the ideas stated in the Declaration of Independence are evident today?
Why was the government’s authority to regulate commerce a weakness of the Articles of Confederation? Following the Peace of 1783, citizens demanded more maps showing North America and the new nation, and entrepreneurs responded in kind. In response, citizens took up the challenge, demanding more, better, and, above all, equal education.
Using write-in questionnaires to update information about states and towns, Morse developed a textbook series that easily adapted to the changing American landscape. For publishers such as John Reid, the national map worked like a table of contents at the beginning of the atlas, prefacing the maps showing the states. Once drawn or printed, mapmakers and consumers could choose to add color if they so desired. Earlier papermakers depended on labor-intensive manual work to create single sheets of paper from rags and other textile materials (usually cotton and linen). Public schools as well as private academies singled out map learning through public examinations, school fairs, and student projects that applied map knowledge to a range of educational goals. In a playful allegory of map learning, the imaginary figure of Wisdom offers guidance to a study group working on a large unframed map. The World Bank measures poverty levels by the number of people who live on less than $1 a day; the majority of those people, around 350 million of them, live in sub-Saharan Africa.
The good news is that Africa is not doomed to poverty; if its property rights institutions can be improved, Africa will grow and its people’s living standards will improve.
We know that, before the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain about two hundred thirty years ago, differences in the levels of prosperity among countries were much smaller than they are now.


The kingdom traded with the eastern Mediterranean, the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula, India, and Sri Lanka.
Outside Ethiopia, neither the plow nor the wheel was used in sub-Saharan Africa; the great urban centers of Aksum and Mali seem to have been the exception rather than the rule. The capital of the Kongo, Mbanza, had a population of around sixty thousand when it was first visited by the Portuguese mariner Diogo Cao in 1483, making Mbanza about the same size as Lisbon and larger than London, which had a population of about fifty thousand in 1500. But this would not have been worthwhile in that any extra output they produced by using plows and wheels would have been expropriated by the king and his lords.
Yet after this point, very different institutional dynamics took hold and the property rights institutions of Western Europe began to diverge from those of Africa.
Not only did labor market institutions and property rights for people change, so did property rights in ideas and people’s access to land change. Interestingly, the motivation behind the Statute of Monopolies was not to create a patent law but to stop the king from granting monopolies via “letters patent.” Thus the creation of a law that ultimately protected intellectual property rights and stimulated innovation was a by-product of the conflict between Parliament and the king, an attempt by Parliament to defeat absolutism. Indeed, we can see the political transition of Britain beginning with the decline of serfdom in the fourteenth century. The kings of the Kongo and Ethiopia also faced domestic opponents, but they were unable to triumph; even if they had, they most likely would have become absolutist kings themselves.
The Whigs who fought and defeated absolutism in 1688 did so to change state policy and institutions in ways that would promote their economic interests. The same was true in the United States; good British institutions were not transmitted to the Jamestown colony.
In each case this model broke down, just as it had in Virginia, because, as in Britain itself, those with an interest in secure property rights and widespread economic opportunities gained the upper hand, though they did so for different reasons than in Britain itself.
In Ethiopia was isolation and stasis; elsewhere, the insecurity of property rights was exacerbated by the slave trade, which distorted paths of political development and led to the emergence of states, such as the Kongo, based not on investing but on slavery. Six years after independence in 1961, Sierra Leone was taken over by Siaka Stevens, who pulled up the railway line to the south of the country and sold off all the track and rolling stock to isolate the Mendeland region where support for his opposition was strongest. First, let us be clear about foreign aid: foreign aid is not the cure, but neither is it the cause. Foreign policy toward Africa has been driven too much by short-term politics without focusing on economic development, but promoting prosperity in Africa is good long-run foreign policy. By this I don’t mean imposing democracy, though this could be good if the new democracy could be made to work.
A defining feature of the Cold War was trenchant Western criticism of the pervasive surveillance of citizens in authoritarian Eastern Bloc states. Justice Robert Marsden Hope showed great foresight in crafting Australia's unique intelligence architecture, institutionalising the separation of information collection and analysis, national and foreign intelligence, and advisory and decision-making functions. He emphasised the intrinsic fallibility of intelligence advice (intelligence always involves an element of interpretation and subjectivity) and its limited utility as evidence in legal proceedings or as the sole basis for executive action. The first is that virtually universal access to information and communication technology has empowered individuals and groups to communicate and organise. As revealed by US National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden, ubiquitous electronic linkages and a largely unregulated cyberspace make it technically possible for the state to monitor and collect virtually every single piece of personal digital data created knowingly or unknowingly by every citizen, potentially rending existing legislative frameworks regulating national security activities obsolete.
Terrorism explicitly seeks to elicit a disproportionate state response, catalysing major social and political change. States have developed paramilitary capabilities that can be deployed covertly virtually anywhere in the world, unconstrained by the international laws of war. Beyond the commitment of military forces to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, expenditure on our intelligence capabilities has quadrupled over the last decade to over $1.4 billion. Pressures for the integration of military, police and intelligence functions and for the inclusion of secret intelligence as evidence in public legal proceedings directly challenge the essential checks and balances that are an integral part of Hope's intelligence model. Counter-terrorism remains a potent rationale for many of the state's most secret activities, with ongoing demands from agencies for additional resources and unfettered access to increasing circles of data. Government has legislated to add the protection of border integrity from serious threats to the definition of security, potentially enabling the deployment of intelligence and military resources against people desperately seeking humanitarian refuge in this country.
More recently he has worked as an associate lecturer is postgraduate security studies at an Australian university.
A huge rally demonstrating our complete opposition to both Party's appalling policies , concerning human beings seeking asylum in Australia. Under the country's constitution, foreigners may not be detained unless they have broken the law in entering the country.
Eureka Street relies almost entirely on donations from our readers and organisations that support our endeavours. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Doug: I believe in making laws only when everyone can participate in public decision making. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
Based on this passage, with which complaint against the king from the Declaration of Independence would Thomas Paine agree? In 1790 alone, more than 90 percent of the maps made in the United States depicted only the nation’s territory.
Using the likenesses of George Washington (paired with the figure of Liberty) and Benjamin Franklin (paired with Wisdom and Justice), the Wallis cartouche quickly became a model for innovative transfer printings. Allegorical paintings such as Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences captured the public’s sentiment. His American Geography was the nation’s first encyclopedic book on geography, and it revolutionized the study of the subject itself. Always the largest map in the book, it reflected the new political model of checks and balances.
Colors made maps attractive but mostly served to emphasize boundaries or coded information, such as the designation of slave and free states before the Civil War. The mechanized process allowed for the creation of “endless” paper rolls that were up to sixty inches wide. Pointing to the map with one hand and with a spear to the architectural space of a classical temple, Wisdom enjoins the students to look at the map as a window to higher learning and the world. Moreover, Africa is the only part of the world in which the absolute number of poor people is increasing. Whereas today the average income of a citizen of the United States is about forty times that of a citizen of a country such as Ethiopia or Sierra Leone, in 1750 that difference was probably only two or three. The Roman emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 AD; Ezana, the king of Aksum, did so in 333 AD, a mere twenty-one years later. Moreover, the political institutions of both these societies could best be described as “absolutist” in that they were ruled by kings whose power was relatively unconstrained by checks and balances.
Most people’s property rights were also highly insecure; many moved their villages away from roads so as to reduce the incidence of plunder.
In Europe, domestic slavery had disappeared by 1400; around the same time, feudal institutions such as serfdom began to crumble. The 1623 Statute of Monopolies created the world’s first patent law; as serfdom eroded, private property rights in land developed.
After the Black Death of the 1340s, the English state passed the Statute of Laborers, an attempt to stop wages from rising. What is distinctive about the British experience is not just that absolutism was defeated but that one absolutism was not replaced by another. The answer is that British society had undergone a series of large shocks that not only greatly increased the number of those with an interest in secure property rights but also empowered them.
Because their coalition was so broad, what they wanted would benefit society as a whole, with no going back to absolutism. In the New World, where land was plentiful and labor scarce, the mass of people had power because they did not rely on elites for access to economic opportunities. Africa’s increasing economic backwardness made it vulnerable to colonialism, which replaced one form of absolutism with another. Sierra Leone got little in the way of aid in the 1970s and 1980s when Stevens was running the country into the ground.
In the seventeenth century, British trade was crucial for developing and strengthening those individuals who ultimately changed politics and property rights.
The historical evidence suggests that good political and economic institutions emerge from a balance of power in society.
In stark contrast Western democracies took great care in seeking to balance national security and civil liberties, often reflected in detailed legislation circumscribing the powers of intelligence agencies and upholding the rights of individuals.
This development, most graphically illustrated in the social revolutions in the Middle East (the Arab Spring), seems to represent the disaggregation of power from traditional state institutions to the broader community and diverse media outlets.


Recent revelations indicate that states have also developed powerful global surveillance capabilities under the auspices of counter-terrorism. At the same time the legislation governing the operations of the intelligence agencies has been amended to add additional powers to respond to prospective terrorism threats. Fear has great political currency here, and any suggestion of weakness on national security (or law and order) can be political poison. Since the asylum seekers are being sent there against their will they cannot be held to have entered illegally. Future generations who have been encouraged to think for themselves, to question and to criticise will be very different citizens to their forbears.
National Archives and Records Administration Which statement reflects the Enlightenment ideas of government as expressed by Montesquieu?
National Archives and Records Administration Based on the passage, where should governments get their power? By 1800, the image of the national map had become an easy-to-recognize logo decorating textile prints, furniture, and paintings. Everyday objects such as milk jugs and scarves presented a combination of the nation’s map and the Wallis cartouche in celebration of American independence.
Surrounded by symbols representing the arts and sciences, the figure of Liberty hails the new nation’s commitment to providing education for all, including African Americans. The people in this country, even the higher classes, have no correct knowledge of the United States. Although the map’s size allowed for the nation’s greater territory to encompass the relatively smaller states, it balanced the new federal principle of unity with that of state autonomy.
With the adoption of inexpensive wood pulp after the 1840s, the combination of machine-made paper and steam-powered printing presses was responsible for the dramatic increase in the output and range of printed materials available to the American public.
Handwritten statistical tables tallied the geography of states and the nation, and map samplers were worked by young girls everywhere. By 2015, despite all the attention given to the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, the number of poor people in Africa is forecast to be more than 400 million.
Some see African poverty as having deep roots in the geography and ecology of the continent. For example, throwing aid money at Africa may alleviate suffering but is unlikely to improve its institutions. Between 1750 and 2009, the United States experienced rapid economic growth, but African countries did not. The Kongo was governed by a king and an aristocracy whose wealth was based on slave plantations and the extraction of taxes. Those institutions, which subsequently spread to some European colonies, including the future United States, created a radically different set of economic incentives in Britain. The ensuing rebellion forced the king to rescind the statue, evidence that he lacked the power to enforce it. The institutions that protected the privileges of the king at the expense of his subjects, and that allocated monopoly rights for profitable lines of businesses to the elite aligned with the king, were torn down, to be replaced by institutions providing much greater incentives to save, invest, and innovate for a larger slice of society.
For another, the model of colonization that the settlers had in mind was inspired by Spanish conquistadores Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro- capture the ruler and exploit the indigenous people. Such aid can be siphoned off by corrupt politicians, giving them more resources to play with, but the roots of Africa’s economic problems long predate foreign aid. To achieve this, we should help civil society and the media promote de facto checks and balances on rulers. If you are a regular reader and are able to support us financially, please consider making a donation. National Archives and Records Administration Which purpose of government can be traced to these statements?
Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled. A set of broken chains at her feet not only comments on the recent liberation from England but promotes the liberation of American slaves. Such ignorance is not only disgraceful but is materially prejudicial to our political friendship and federal operations.
By placing the American map and chapters about the continent at the beginning of his books, Morse turned the academic world upside down by centering attention on the first modern republic. Advertised for the “Price of Thirty Dollars, Half Bound” (a whopping $547 today), the paper in the atlas was noted for its fine uniformity of texture and freshness of color. Overall, student projects engaged a broad spectrum of materials and skill sets, including drawing, penmanship, memorization, and needlework. Others argue that Africa is plagued by a culture that does not allow capitalism to flourish.
Worse, many of the problems with property rights in Africa stem from problems with politics and political institutions; these problems are not easy for either insiders or outsiders to fix. Even in 1750, however, there were important differences in the structures of the various societies.
Slavery, which was central to the economy, was practiced by the elite both to supply their own plantations and to sell to Europeans at the coast. But such a strategy was infeasible in the colonies; by 1619, the Virginia Company, having given up trying to exploit both indigenous peoples and colonists, created a general assembly based on universal male suffrage.
Such early conflicts created a society with widely dispersed political and property rights in which economic opportunities were probably more widespread than anywhere else in the world at that time, culminating in the U.S.
The Sierra Leone Produce Marketing Board expropriated farms; when the governor of the central bank complained about fiscal profligacy in 1980, he was thrown to his death from the roof of the central bank offices. First, many things we do affect Africa, even if unintentionally, so we are already involved.
This is likely to be much more effective in Africa than promoting what James Madison, principal crafter of the U.S.
Nauru has joined PNG in the Cohort of the Willing — willing, that is, to take dollops of Australian money to hide away an Australian problem. National Archives and Records Administration Based on this passage, how is the author’s view reflected in the U.S. Orations, sermons, and novels referenced the national map when debating American history or the nation’s character. A wall map and globe showing the nation’s outline illustrate the importance of maps for underscoring the symbolic message of liberty. Within a decade, paper machines generating sheets that were 1,000 feet long and 27 inches wide superseded hand-manufactured paper. The whiteness of the hand-painted map elevated by a modern reading stand not only illuminates the students but becomes a beacon of modern education.
I argue in this essay that the real reason that Africa has been poor historically and is poor today has to do with property rights. Although we don’t know when many of those differences emerged, we can open some windows on the past. Constitution and the economic success of the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Stevens and his successor, Joseph Momoh, created monopolies, expropriated assets, and looted diamond wealth. Second, we cannot help but be influenced by Africa’s poverty, which breeds discontent and false messiahs, such as Osama Bin Laden, that can lead to problems for the United States. Constitution, referred to as “parchment” institutions: those that exist on paper but aren’t reflected in the interests and goals of the people. Substitute 'asylum seekers' for 'convicts' and it recalls the way Australia was used by Great Britain in the 18th century to dispose of a British problem. For many citizens—ranging from statesmen to farmers, ministers to schoolgirls—it was the key for building a new society. Although the application of color was done by hand until the 1860s, machine-made paper made maps and atlases affordable to every man and woman. In short, African countries do not have the same type of property rights that are connected with economic progress in Western Europe or North America. Today most of Sierra Leone is controlled by 149 chiefs who are elected for life from “ruling houses.” People without connections to those chiefs and ruling houses can quickly find their land expropriated. Sierra Leone’s per capita income is far below what it was fifty years ago; it also has one of the worst life-expectancy rates in the world.



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