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There are 3 ways to charge your battery bank and they are listed below in order of best to worst (most efficient to least efficient) methods of charging your battery bank. Ideally you would have enough solar, wind or micro-hydro power (but that can be almost impossible in some climates). The second best would be a DC generator made from a fossil fueled engine and 3 phase alternator that is rectified to DC. If you were to take four of these L16s and place them in series you would now have a 24 volt battery bank rated at 370 amp hours. In the above example you should try to put 37 amps (370 multiplied by 10%) at 24 volts  into your battery bank. If you charge with more than 10% of C20, you risk damaging the batteries due to over heating and over gassing.
All of the above terms like absorption, daily charge and bulk voltage are all referring to the bulk voltage setting. Once you know how many cells you have simply multiply the volts per cell by the number of cells you have.
As it is a 48 volt battery bank we simply multiply the cell voltage by 24 to get 58.8 volts.
Bulk charging is when you apply a predetermined amount of current (10% of C20) to your batteries until a specific voltage is reached.
If you are using solar, wind or micro hydro to charge your batteries, the three stage charging is great, but if you are using your generator, you SHOULD only be performing a bulk charge. The bulk charge (when done correctly as shown above) will bring your battery bank to 80% state of charge (SOC).
It would be better to use your generator as a bulk charger and your solar, wind or micro hydro to bring the batteries to 100% SOC. If you follow the steps above you can get the most energy input for the least amount of fuel. Inexpensive generators that can be purchased at your local big box store are great for the camping enthusiast, carpenter, RV dry camper but they are a horrible waste of money and fuel for the off grid homesteader. Instead, spend the money and buy an industrial, water cooled, low rpm (1800 rpm, 1200 rpm, 900 rpm) generator like Kubota, Onan, John Deere etc..
Your generator’s manufacturer will recommend what maintenance needs to be done and how often.
In your world, your generator is working like a dog and often producing as much power as it was designed to for hours at a time with no break. DO NOT BE FOOLED LIKE 99% OF US INTO BUYING A CHEAP WALMART, HOME DEPOT TYPE PORTABLE GENERATOR.
If you referring to the 12 volt alternator charging a 48 volt battery bank it is a different matter.
There is a limit of how much voltage an alternator can produce and that is only due to the limitations of the insulation on the windings and other wiring inside the alternator. Hello, I planned on putting together a 24V battery bank to power my basement and work shop and run portable heater. The systems have been designed using brand products Jinko Solar 260W panels, German manufacturered QCell or Sunpower solar panels (USA).
We offer Zeversolar inverters, SMA Sunnyboy (German made) and Enphase Micro Inverters (USA).
We endeavour to supply sufficient information with our systems so the client can get a comprehensive overview of all the components, their function, interaction and the potential challenges of an offgrid solution. All our documentation is compliant with AS5033 and Clean Energy Council Requirements – see sample commissioning and testing check list below. For most microhydro systems, a simple and inexpensive, self-cleaning intake right in the stream flow can do the trick.
Hydro-electricity is fundamentally the combination of water flow and vertical drop (commonly called “head”). People have been tapping the energy in flowing water for centuries, first for mechanical power, and, in the last hundred years, for electricity.
Within this formula is the understanding that systems with low vertical drop (head) need more flow to generate the same amount of energy. Low-head systems may have less than 5 feet of vertical drop—sometimes they may have only 10 or 20 inches. Off- or on-grid, low or high head and flow, here’s help in finding the right small-scale hydro turbine for your site. We are building a new house in Auckland and it is my vision to go off the grid in the next year. I am however considering using some of the surplus energy at day to pump water into a storage tank up a nearby hill as potential storage and then release this energy at night back into a bottom tank. If you just want to recoup the energy available in the 1000gpm with the 2 ft drop, to lesson the load on your pump, you can do that easily.
Looking for info on a hydro coil , How do you keep fish from going through the hydro coil.
Finding an experienced hydro installer is much harder, since there are so few people and companies who do this work. See our many hydro articles for more information on the specifics of system specification, design and installation.
Suncases and Suntrunks have been improved with higher efficiency solar panels and more battery capacity. SunTrunk portable solar power system applications include recharging cell phones and radio batteries, solar powered camping, construction power, recharging portable tools, night time lighting, laptop computers, small refrigerators, water pumping, water purification, and other emergency power needs. The SunCase and SunTrunk portable solar power systems are simple, rugged, transportable, expandable, and economic when compared to gas or diesel electric generators. With CMD's triple-fuel system this generator operates on LP Gas, Natural Gas and Gasoline right out of the box.
The only choice you might have is to charge your batteries using your fossil fueled generator. Most efficient just means you get more kWhs per dollar spent (or liter of fossil fuel consumed). Obviously there will be times when this is not possible such as having too small of a generator or too small of a charger. There are two banks of eight batteries that are paralleled to make 450 amp hours (C20) at 48 volts.

Forty five amps is approximately 2160 to 2700 watts depending on the real voltage of the battery bank. Any less will result in excess generator run time and fuel consumption, any more can result in damage to your batteries.
There are two banks of eight batteries that are paralleled to make 48 volts at 450 amp hours (C20). The absorption charge gradually reduces the current while holding the bulk voltage steady until the batteries are full.
Use the generator to keep the batteries from going dead and use the solar, wind or hydro to top off the batteries later. Normally we would use the absorption charge to add the extra 20% to your battery bank but to save fuel we will not. They cost a lot more money but will last your entire lifetime if maintained compared to anywhere from 6 months to a couple of years with a cheap 3600 rpm air cooled gen-set. If you are abusing your gen-set you NEED to perform maintenance even more than the manufacturers recommend. Automotive alternators without internal voltage regulators are only current limited, not voltage limited.
I would not want to push any more than about 500 volts from a typical old style Ford alternator as I assume they are using 500-600 volt insulation on their windings. We believe that this setup offers an efficient, versatile and expandable solution which can grow with an increasing power demand. Our solar panels are very high quality and the installation will comply with AS5033 and ASNZS 3000 standard and Clean Energy Council requirements. This technology was developed and brought into market by the worlds largest inverter manufacturer SMA. Only quality electrical component are used to ensure ongoing reliability and optimum performance.
With the right situation and implementation, you can have a low-impact, low-maintenance, reliable system that supplies clean energy over the long haul. Vertical drop creates pressure, and the continuous flow of water in a hydro system gives us an ongoing source of pressurized liquid energy.
Take the head in feet, multiply it by the flow in gallons per minute (gpm), and divide by a factor of about 12. Typically, low-head systems will have high flow, and high-head systems will have lower flow. Large wooden overshot and undershot wheels tend to be less efficient for generating electricity, though they may be appropriate for mechanical work.
In this case, most or all of the water in a small stream will run through the turbine to maximize output.
Common runners are Turgos on the low end, and the most common, Pelton, for medium to high heads. I am looking at 10kW of solar panels and through installing multiple check meters throughout my distribution system to establish a good load profile for the house.
I'd start by finding renewable energy (primarily solar) installers in your region and asking who has done hydro before.
Though it is used in pumped storage schemes, most hydropower is used directly, and is renewable energy made from the natural combination of vertical drop (gravity) and flow. I live on an island with many mountains and countless rivers and streams, yet we have ( like so many ) shortages. These systems have all the components built in to a rugged transportable trunk, which can be set up and operating in 5 minutes. The systems can be precharged during storage then transported and set up quickly for emergency power in disaster situations. They are much lighter than lead-acid batteries and are safer than standard lithium ion batteries.
The SunTrunk 126 weights about the same as 12 galons of gas, yet it can provide energy for many years. Exceeding 80 decibels in some instances, there are a number of generators that are louder than the alarm clock that wakes you up in the morning and they can run constantly! Most fuel powered generators have no or very little emissions controls and are made to wear out in a matter of months when used to charge batteries in an off grid power system. If your battery bank is low all of the charging capability (amps) will go into the batteries. You can obviously complete the absorption charge, and float charge if you wish to add the extra 20% to your batteries but it is a waste of fuel. Cold batteries need a higher bulk voltage and warm batteries must use a lower bulk voltage. Doing your own maintenance is always preferable to shipping your generator out for repairs or paying someone to make the repair on site. If you keep your oil super clean and keep your air filter super clean, you generator set will last longer and use less fuel.
You need at least 60 volts available to charge a wet lead acid 48 volt battery bank as voltage flows from highest to lowest and depending on the battery and ambient temperature you could need up to 60 volts just to bulk charge a 48 volt battery bank. If you allow the voltage to go higher than the insulation allows, you will eventually get a short circuit and meltdown. Or there is an option to use sealed VRLA (valve regulated lead acid) batteries which do not require topping up with distilled water we use BAE German or Sonenshine batteries for our sealed VRLA systems.
Pressurized, flowing water is a very dense resource, and hydro-electric systems convert a very large percentage of the available energy into electricity because the resource is captive in a pipe or flume. Unlike wind and sun, the right hydro resource can be available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Adapting the example above, if we have 400 hundred feet of head, we only need 3 gpm to generate the same 100 W. The runner (the part of the turbine that receives the water and turns its energy into rotation in a shaft) for low-head turbines may be a Turgo or Francis type. These systems may have hundreds of feet of pipeline to develop the head (pressure), with the water delivered to the runner via multiple nozzles. My question is can I decrease the need for head by controlling the flow rate through the hydro? I realise that the system is not very efficient from past commentaries and posts, however as the surplus energy that will be used for the pump is Free (from solar system) surely this could be a way of "shifting" renewable energy in time from day to night?

Using deep cycle batteries is much more efficient than pumped storage, and cheaper per KWH too.
The "suction" from those two feet will reduce the load on the pump without all the costs (efficiency and monetary) of putting in a little 2 ft hydro system. Who you choose will depend on the size of your resource and energy need, the specifics of head and flow at your site, as well as other factors such as price, availability, and your preferences.
If you don't find someone locally, you can either bring someone in from outside the area, or you can educate yourself and get involved in the installation directly, perhaps in collaboration with a solar electrician. While large-scale hydro can have a heavy impact, it has less impact than fossil fuels and nuclear. The root of the mismanagement of natural resources is to be found at the doorstep of successive governmental bodies. Check the specifications of each new and improved solar power generator on the product line up page. Solar charging is provided with mono-crystaline back surface contact solar panels for maxium surface area and the use of a Maxiumum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) electronics to transfer the maximum available solar energy into the battery bank. As the batteries begin to fill up, the voltage will rise until the bulk voltage is reached. It will take about 4 hours (if using 10% of C20) to bring your bank to a full state of charge once the bulk voltage is reached.
If you can make minor repairs and perform basic maintenance yourself, you will be able to catch problems before they become a big deal and make sure the repairs are done right. Engine oil is inexpensive compared to the extra cost of fuel, extra repairs and the cost of replacing your generator set. When you connect them to a 12 volt battery bank they are a 12 volt battery charger with a 100 amp current limit. Even using them for 12, 24 and 48 volts, the insulation can fail and short the windings but this is more due to the environment (rain, snow, dirt, duct) and vibration than voltage. This allowed pioneers to run irrigation pumps and grain mills, and allows people today to make clean, renewable electricity at a reasonable cost.
For example, if you have 30 gpm available and 40 feet of head, you will be able to generate something in the range of 100 watts [(30 ? 40) ? 12 = 100). These systems typically have short pipelines or sluiceways that then allow the water to drop through the runner. Once I know what my load profile is we will install a control system to manage loads during the day and also size battery banks for night storage so as to optimise on my return on investment(ROI). The intention would be to then use this energy to either charge batteries or small back up power or to say feed small loads like lighting etc. Just be sure that the water still has an easy discharge to free air; that is, don't make the pump have to work to push that velocity of water against the ground or a pool of unmoving water.
The best you can do is to save energy by not pumping as much, assuming you don't need that full 1,000 gpm. Yet are they really to be blamed as it generally takes half to three quarters of a term to develop a plan, leaving them almost no time at all to get it off the ground unless they are popular enough to stay in for a second term.
The 120 Volt AC Inverters produce pure sine wave output that can reliably power devices that may not work well with modified sine wave inverters.
This unit is perfect for outdoor events like concerts, races, parties, trade shows, public events and more. Temperatures change many times a day inside a battery depending on ambient temperature, how hard the battery is working and how many amps are going in or coming out.
When connected to a 48 volt battery bank, they become a 48 volt charger with a 100 amp current limit assuming you have a large and fast enough engine to turn it. That is why we like using a Ford alternator for these kinds of projects as you can increase or decrease the field of the rotor (the spinning part with the magnetic field) using a rheostat. You can find a quiet solution to your power needs today!What Does the Best Chart for Quiet Generators Have To Say?With the best chart helping you compare and contrast generators, you’ll be able to quickly find the best quiet generators to meet your needs. This unit features ultra-clean power (a sine wave equal to or better than the current from your household AC wall outlet). Install the temperature sensor below the electrolyte level and on one of the batteries in the middle of the bank. I have seen people operate 120 volt incandescent lights with a small lawnmower engine connected to an alternator (without an internal voltage regulator.
This genset automatically adjusts engine speed to the optimum level (for better fuel economy and ultra-quiet operation) and is equipped with AC and DC ouput, USDA-qualified spark arrestor muffler, low oil alert shutdown and intake fuel gauge. Some PMAs have a mechanism that will bring the magnets closer or farther from the stator (wire windings) which you can use to match the PMA to the output of the steam engine.
There is generally a limit of 75 decibels or less in many areas because prolonged noise at higher decibel levels can create physical discomfort for people. If you need a generator to run at night, a loud generator can make it incredibly difficult to sleep! It can power most appliances, but it is important to remember that a generator of this size won’t power everything at the same time. With the Duromax 4400, you’ll get the power you need for most situations and a couple appliances when you need them. What this quiet generator does do, however, is provide extreme portability for all of your travel needs. It is extremely lightweight, coming in at just over 21 pounds, so it can literally be taken anywhere without any issue whatsoever!Although you’ll only be able to power one laptop or one small digital TV with this generator, it is a way for you to keep working when powered outlets are at a premium.
Running on a 4 stroke, 420cc overhead valve engine, we really loved the fact that the electrical starter on this generator is extremely reliable.This generator would work in an RV for some portable needs, but this generator is mostly designed to provide power in a home when it is needed. Thanks to the best quiet generator reviews, you’ll be able to find the perfect solution to meet all of your needs quickly, efficiently, and affordably. Share this Story   Previous PostThe Best Portable Generator ReviewsNext Post   Discover High Quality Machinery With These Champion Generator Reviews!
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