Keyboard instruments of the baroque era review,keyboard classes in vadodara news,keyboard voor beginners 2014,piano teachers that come to your house of - Step 2

Author: admin | Category: Piano Lessons Online | 30.08.2014

All Baroque members of the violin family use gut strings (or covered gut for the lower strings).
Inside the body of the violin the baroque instrument has a lighter soundpost and bass bar, and on the front, the bridge is slightly flatter. The left hand uses vibrato sparingly, generally as an ornament, and bow strokes, articulation and the musical shaping of the shorter motifs characteristic of Baroque music are the important musical elements that make the baroque sound so special.
The instruments are wooden, with fewer keys compared to a modern instrument, which makes the chromatic notes more difficult to tune, as well as giving these notes a special quality, different from the more open notes, where cross-fingering is not used. The bore of the double reed oboe and bassoon is wider, giving a timbre that is designed to blend with the baroque strings, rather than to contrast with them, as in the modern orchestra. All early brass instruments are natural; that is, having no valves to artificially alter the pitch of the harmonic series.
Natural trumpets, usually only in D, are able to obtain a greater range of notes only in their highest register. Salisbury Baroque uses the pitch which was generally current in later Baroque music, which is a semitone below our modern pitch, at A=415 Hz., rather than 440 Hz. The group plays to a harpsichord tuned in a baroque circular temperament (where the distance between each semitone is different), rather than the equal temperament of the modern piano and wind instruments (where each semitone is identical).
When listening to a piece of music, the artists that one is immediately aware of are normally the performing musicians and the composer of the piece. The main keyboard instrument of the period was of course the harpsichord, either as a solo instrument, accompanying other instrument(s) or playing continuo with an orchestra. The keyboard of the early Baroque usually had a compass of around 4 octaves, but by the end of the period this had grown to 5 octaves. It is fascinating to note that early harpsichords (particularly Flemish instruments of the Ruckers family) were so highly prized that, a century later, French makers would go to the trouble of basically cutting them in half and adding the extra notes required at the time! This process, called “ravalement”, often involved extending the case, adding to, or remaking, many parts of the action and adding an extra piece of soundboard, complete with painting!
By the mid 18th Century the non-expressive plucked sound of the harpsichord was under threat from a new invention which could play “piano e forte”. Salisbury Baroque's next concert is at 4.00pm on 25th September 2016 at the Guildhall, Salisbury.
Harpsichord (Italian cembalo; French clavecin), stringed keyboard instrument in which the strings are plucked to produce sound. In the 20th century the harpsichord was revived for performance of music of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, as well as for new compositions. The harpsichord is particularly effective in performing contrapuntal music -- that is, music that consists of two or more melodies played at the same time, such as that of the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach. The harpsichord usually has a wing-shaped body, or case, like a grand piano; however, its proportions are narrower and longer, and the case and its inner bracing are normally lighter. A second important school of building developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in Flanders, centered around the influential Ruckers family of builders. Members of the Bach Collegium Japan will offer a series of master classes on Saturday, March 26, before their performance that evening of Bach’s Mass in B minor. Gerd Turk, tenor, and Peter Kooij, bass (pictured at right in a photo by Marco Borggreve), will give a vocal masterclass featuring members of the Yale Schola Cantorum in the Great Hall of the Institute for Sacred Music. Gerd Turk is a sought-after soloist who tours Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan, North and South America, and Australia. Peter Kooij in an active soloist throughout the world who has made over one hundred recordings for Philips, Sony Classical, Virgin Classics, Harmonia Mundi, Erato, EMI, and BIS. Ryo Terakado, baroque violin, and Hidemi Suzuki, baroque cello, will give a masterclass on music for strings and keyboard instruments.
Hidemi Suzuki won first prize at the First International Baroque Cello Competition in Paris in 1986, following baroque cello studies with Anner Bylsma. Ryo Terakado has served as concertmaster and soloist with many Baroque orchestras in Europe and Japan, including Les Arts Florissants, La Chapelle Royale, La Petite Bande, and Bach Collegium Japan. Jean-Francois Madeuf, baroque trumpet, and Robert Howes, baroque timpani, will present a masterclass and discussion of historical brass and percussion on the stage of Woolsey Hall. Jean-Francois Madeuf is one of the few performers to revive the virtuoso technique of the natural trumpet, without any modern modifications. Robert Howes teaches baroque timpani at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, and directs Baroque Brass of London.
Please double check your phone number, if it is incorrect we will be unable to contact you.
We aim to get back to you within the hour, during shop hours (please see store details), to confirm your reservation. Unlike many anthologies of Baroque keyboard music, which include pieces that vary widely in merit, this excellent volume comprises only the greatest works of the era.
In Bach's Leipzig, there was an established tradition of Collegia Musica, secular musical organizations run mainly by the students of the city's famed university, and contributing music of the highest quality.
Himself an enthusiastic amateur musician, Gottfried Zimmerman frequently re-equipped his establishment with the latest musical instruments for use by the Collegium and other musical guests.
Recent musicological research has shown that Bach explicitly required a harpsichord with 16'-register for solo as well as for chamber music; he considered it important that music should have "fundament" - a good bass foundation. Bach would naturally have been familiar with the instruments of the major harpsichord builders of his time, preeminent among whom was the Hamburg builder Hieronymus Albrecht Hass (1689-1752).
The few surviving Hass harpsichords show an attempt to develop the instrument in a number of ways: one from 1723 has the unusual disposition 8' 8' 8' 4'.
Unlike the Flemish and French harpsichords, the baroque German harpsichord was a heavier, more solidly-built instrument with deeper sonority. A pedal-harpsichord, that is, a harpsichord with an organ-type pedal-board, would have been found in the home of most German organists during the baroque period. Recent research has established that for his weekly concerts at Zimmermann' s Coffee House Bach had a double manual harpsichord (16', 3x8', 4') mounted on a pedal harpsichord (2x16', 3x8') made by Zacharias Hildebrandt, who was both harpsichord builder, and organ builder under the direction of Bach's friend and colleague Gottfried Silbermann.
That Bach clearly preferred a mellow and substantial sound form his harpsichords is illustrated by his interest in the 'lautenwerck" or lute-harpsichord. The editor of these notes remembers having seen and heard a "Lautenclavicymbel" in Leipzig in about 1740, designed by Mr.
The inventory of Bach's possessions at the time of his death reveals that he owned two such instruments, as well as three harpsichords, one lute and a spinet.


The wars of the mid-eighteenth century in Europe and especially the Seven Years War (1756-63) drove many continental workmen to England, bringing their styles and influence with them.
In baroque Germany, organ and harpsichord builders - often one and the same - were excellent craftsmen and mechanics, fully capable of providing sophisticated devices to enhance the musical performances of their clients. The foregoing evidence clearly indicates the typical baroque German harpsichord as an instrument substantial in construction, specification and tonal characteristics, with 16', two or more 8', 4' and 2' choruses. For performance today, the instruments of Pleyel, Wittmayer, Ammer, Sperrhake, Neupert, Feldberg, Dolmetsch and Goff represent fairly accurately the depth of sonority and gravitas Bach would have expected from his own harpsichords.
BAROQUE MUSIC CLUB has always favored what they believe to be the proper, substantial and sonorous instruments for this music. The neck is shorter and square to the instrument compared to the modern violin which leans back. The bow is straighter, giving a clearer articulation than the modern in-curved bow established by Tourte. Thus horns have a selection of "plug-in" crooks in various keys to enable them to play their more limited range of notes in the required key. Baroque composers found equal temperament to be out of tune, so they used a tuning that was purer in the standard keys, though it could produce interesting colours in the remoter keys.
This raises an interesting “chicken and egg” question; did makers first add extra notes for which there was no music written, or did composers write pieces for which there was no instrument to play them?! It is interesting to note that, even at the time, such instruments were actually valued at twice the price of new instruments made by the very same craftsmen as were carrying out these ravalements. By replacing the quill plectra of the harpsichord with a hammer and a very clever escapement mechanism, a whole new sound world opened up. It was developed in Europe in the 14th or 15th century and was widely used from the 16th to the early 19th century, when it was superseded by the piano.
For each string a small piece of material, or plectrum, is set in a thin slip of wood, or "jack," which rests internally on the far end of the key.
These schools gave way in the 18th century to distinctive styles of building that developed in France (the Blachet family), Germany (the Hass family), and England (Jacob Kirkman).
Other builders sought to relearn historical principles of proportion and construction in an effort to duplicate the sound of historical instruments.
The three master classes will take place Saturday from 11 am to 1 pm at at various Yale venues. He has been a member of prestigious ensembles such as Cantus Koln and Gilles Binchois and is also an opera performer.
Held in the upstairs gallery at the Yale Collection of Musical Instruments, this class will feature members of the Yale Baroque Ensemble. He performed for many years with  the Orchestra of the 18th Century and La Petite Bande, and has been the first cellist of Bach Collegium Japan since its founding.
He also conducts the orchestra Les Boreades and collaborates regularly with distinguished colleagues in chamber music ensembles like Tokyo Baroque, Mito d’Arco, and the Kuijken Ensemble. Intermediate and advanced pianists will find that these carefully chosen pieces offer a rewarding and satisfying reflection of the glories of the Baroque.
The German baroque harpsichord was considerably more substantial, both in construction and sound output, with a wider specification including 16' stop, and optionally equipped with a separate, organ-style pedalboard used for domestic organ practice. In the spring of 1729, Bach took over directorship of the Collegium founded in 1702 by Telemann, its performances given weekly in Zimmermann's Coffee House on the fashionable Catherine Strasse, centrally placed close to the Marktplatz.
Our illustration above shows a 1734 harpsichord by the celebrated Hamburg builder Hieronymous Albrecht Hass (baptised 1 December 1689–buried 19 June 1752), now in the Musical Instrument Museum in Brussels. Thus he would most certainly have used the 16' register for the bass line when playing continuo or a sonata for harpsichord and violin or flute. The Hass instrument on the left was built in 1740, it has three manuals with couplers, five choirs of strings (1x16', 2x8', 1x4', 1x2') with a separate soundboard for the 16' choir, six rows of jacks, a lute stop and harp stop for the 16'. Hass also used a 16' set of strings (an octave below standard 8' pitch) and a 2' set (2 octaves higher than 8' pitch) for part of the keyboard.
Dated 1710 on the soundboard, it has two manuals with an extensive disposition of five choirs of strings (1x16', 2x8', 1x4', 1x2') with a separate soundboard for the 16' choir of strings.
The organ chorale, and organ music generally, played an important part in German religious life, and in terms of sonority the baroque German harpsichord could almost be considered as a domestic organ.
The harpsichord consisted of two choirs of 8' strings and one of 4', with a compass of six octaves. Organ practice in churches was difficult; some willing collaborator had to be found, and paid, to pump the organ, and the church could be very cold in winter. He clearly liked the combination of softness with strength which these instruments are capable of producing, and he is known to have drawn up his own specifications for such an instrument to be built for him by Hildebrandt.
Many of Bach's organ preludes for example, are planned like great buildings - a major theme element begins and ends the piece like supporting columns, while in between a noble arch decorated with recitative passages, a keystone forming the central point. This pitch is a compromise, as French pitch was even lower, as was English pitch in the 17th century. The Baroque period was a very exciting time for makers, as many orchestral instruments went through dramatic development during these times.
This tempted some makers to make new instruments that appeared to be old instruments that had undergone a ravalement!
Harpsichord makers made a valiant last ditch attempt to compete with the newfangled fortepiano, adding extra registers, different materials for plectra, knee levers for rapid changes of registration and even swell mechanisms. When the front of the key is depressed, the far end rises, and the plectrum plucks the string. Harpsichords of the different national schools varied in details of their proportions and construction, resulting in slight, although characteristic differences in tone color. Stimulated by the German-English builder Arnold Dolmetsch and exemplified by Martin Skowroneck, a German, this school relied on light stringing in a highly resonant case. He has made over 100 recordings on Sony, Erato, BIS, BMG, Virgin, and Harmonia Mundi France. Kooij  has taught at the Sweelinck Conservatorium (Amsterdam), Musikhochschule (Hannover), and the Tokyo University of Fine Arts and Music. These performances will feature the Collection’s 1881 Erard grand piano and its Blanchet harpsichord (pictured at left), made in Paris ca. He was a professor of the baroque cello course of the Brussels Royal Conservatory from 1994 to 2000, and now teaches at Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music.


Kujken), La Simphonie du Marais, and the Orchestre Revolutionnaire et Romantique, among many other ensembles.
It is nine feet long, and illustrates the way in which Hass included the 16-foot stop in his instruments. Indeed Gottfried Silbermann, famed Saxon organ-builder, friend and contemporary of Bach, also built harpsichords in his Freiberg workshops. One of the 8' set was on the upper keyboard, and the others played from the lower keyboard. Additionally, several present-day organists have confirmed that practice on the pedal-harpsichord is infinitely more demanding in terms of accuracy and precision than on the organ.
Zacharias Hildebrand, which was smaller in size than a normal harpsichord but in all other respects similar. Shudi's son-in-law, John Broadwood, was at first his workman-apprentice, later becoming his partner and then successor.
These architectural elements, together with fugal entries, a change of phrase or mood, were signalled by changes of registration; thus harpsichords were equipped with two or three manuals, several choruses, and buff or lute effects. Additional mechanical devices in the form of foot pedals might also be provided to assist quick tonal and registration changes. Pitch in early 17th century Italy, however, is thought to be about a semitone higher than modern pitch!
Composers were usually very quick to make use of these developments, such as the addition of valves on brass instruments and extra keys on woodwind instruments. We might now consider them forgeries, but it was so normal at the time the process was done fairly openly. However, the sound and dynamic range of the piano won the day and the composers of the day quickly latched onto it and the Classical period was born. From the 16th to 19th century the terms spinet and virginal were often used interchangeably, and in England during that era any harpsichord was called a virginal. The jack is pivoted so that, when the key returns to rest position, the plectrum slides by without striking the string.
Turk is a professor at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis in Switzerland and gives master classes throughout Europe and Asia.
The 16-foot bridge is seen closest to the curved side, on a separate, slightly raised section of soundboard. This fine instrument well represents the culmination of the German school, together with a fairly standardized specification. The sound board was so thick that it gave the impression of being unable to sound, and yet, I never heard an instrument which had a more beautiful sound than this one.
Bach wrote his Six Trio Sonatas to improve the pedal technique of his son Wilhelm Friedemann. A very fine harpsichord by Shudi and Broadwood dated 1770 can be found in the Fenton House Collection, London. The ability to change registration with a quick depression or release of a footpedal would certainly have been put to good use. Since the volume and tone of the sound produced by the plucking mechanism remain constant regardless of the forcefulness of the keystroke, various methods have been developed to alter the harpsichord's sound.
The first utilized recent principles of construction, such as are found in present-day pianos.
American instrument maker John Challis employed a different, more modern approach to construction of the instrument. To its left are (in succession) the 8-foot hitchpin rail (resting on an internal curved side, not visible), the 8-foot bridge, and the 4-foot bridge. The manuscript of Bach's Passacaglia and Fugue, which according to Albert Schweizer vanished in the mid-1800's, was apparently headed Cembalo e pedale, clearly indicating performance on the pedal-harpsichord. It is true that in its normal setting (that is, when only one stop was drawn) it sounded more like a theorbo than a lute. This two-manual instrument is interesting as it demonstrates an example of the mechanical devices to facilitate sound- and registration-changes which would have been available at the time. Many harpsichords have two strings for each key, with a row of jacks for each set of strings. Stimulated by the Polish harpsichordist Wanda Landowska, this style was exemplified by the French piano firms of Pleyel and Erard.
Though he based the decorative scheme of his designs on Dolmetsch's works, Challis experimented with new techniques and materials, such as metal and plastic, to produce harpsichords that were better adapted to the extreme climate changes in North America and maintained a rich tone quality. Jakob Adlung, in Musica Mechanica Organoedi (1768), describes clavichords and harpsichords with separate pedals like an organ pedal-board.
This instrument has three foot pedals, operating, from left to right: the machine stop, the buff stop and the Venetian swell. Stops, or registers, allow the player to move unwanted sets of jacks slightly out of reach of the strings, thus making possible different volumes and combinations of tone colors. Bach possessed three of these, and according to Forkel, Bach "liked to improvise on a two-manual clavier with pedal".
When the machine stop is engaged and the pedal is up, the lower manual sounds all three sets of strings and the upper sounds the front 8'.
With the pedal depressed, the lower manual sounds the back 8' (leather plectra) and the upper, the lute stop. Some 18th-century German harpsichords had a set of strings sounding an octave below normal pitch. Harpsichords often have two keyboards, or manuals, which can usually be coupled or used separately, allowing further variations of tone color and volume. A typical two-manual harpsichord of the 18th century had strings at normal and octave-high pitch playable on the lower manual, strings at normal pitch controlled by the upper manual, and a coupling mechanism.
The earliest school of harpsichord building developed in Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries. Italian harpsichords differed from others in that they normally were made of extremely thin wood and then placed in a stronger outer case of the same shape.



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