Rat bait stations suppliers,tick spray,what to do about bed bugs when traveling - You Shoud Know

Category: Bed Bug Bites | 12.10.2015
First introduced into the United States around 1775, the Norway rat has now spread throughout the contiguous 48 states. Rats have poor eyesight, relying more on their hearing and their excellent senses of smell, taste, and touch.
Norway rats have physical capabilities that enable them to gain entry to structures by gnawing, climbing, jumping, swimming, and other tactics. Studies indicate that during its daily activities, a rat normally travels an area averaging 100 to 150 feet (30 to 45 m) in diameter.
Rats constantly explore and learn about their environment, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter, and other elements in their domain.
Bait shyness can persist for weeks or months and may be transferred to nontoxic foods of similar types.
Because anticoagulant rodenticides are slow-acting, the rats’ subsequent illness is not associated with the bait even if a sublethal dose is consumed; thus, bait shyness does not usually occur.
Among the diseases rats may transmit to humans or livestock are murine typhus, leptospirosis, trichinosis, salmonellosis (food poisoning), and ratbite fever. The presence of rats can be determined by a number of signs described below: Droppings may be found along runways, in feeding areas, and near shelter.
Smudge marks (rub marks) may occur on beams, rafters, pipes, and walls as a result of oil and dirt rubbing off rats’ fur along frequently traveled routes (Fig.
Gnawing may be visible on doors, ledges, in corners, in wall material, on stored materials, or other surfaces wherever rats are present. Sounds such as gnawing, climbing in walls, clawing, various squeaks, and fighting noises are common where rats are present, particularly at times of the day when they are most active.
Rat sign and visual sightings are of limited value in accurately estimating rat numbers, but they are the simplest and often the only practical method available. Old droppings and gnawing common, one or more rats seen by flashlight at night, or no rats observed in daytime: medium numbers present. Fresh droppings, tracks, and gnawing present, three or more rats seen at night, or rats seen in daytime: large numbers present. Since rats are normally nocturnal and somewhat wary of humans, usually many more rats are present than will be seen in the daytime. Physical barriers can prevent rats from gaining entry to structures where food and shelter are available. In addition to the above-mentioned techniques of excluding rodents from sources of food and shelter, sanitation can play an important role in controlling rat populations (Fig. Regular removal of debris and control of weeds from around structures will reduce the amount of shelter available to rats.
Rats are wary animals and can be frightened easily by unfamiliar sounds or sounds coming from new locations. Tests of commercial ultrasonic devices have indicated that rats may be repelled from the immediate area of the ultrasound for a few days, but then will return and resume normal activities. Rats find some types of tastes and odors objectionable, but chemical repellents are seldom a practical solution to rat infestations.
Ro-pel® is registered for use in repelling Norway rats and other rodents from gnawing on trees, poles, fences, shrubs, garbage, and other objects. Other solutions to rat problems, including rodent-proof construction and methods of population reduction, are usually more permanent and cost-effective. Rats poisoned with anticoagulants die from internal bleeding, the result of loss of the blood’s clotting ability and damage to the capillaries. All anticoagulants provide good to excellent Norway rat control when prepared in acceptable baits. Because of their similarity in mode of action, all anticoagulant baits are used in a similar fashion. Brodifacoum and bromadiolone baits, because of their potential to be lethal in a single feeding, can be more effective than the other anticoagulants in certain situations. Pindone (Pival®, Pivalyn®) is also less potent than chlorophacinone or diphacinone, and it is regarded as slightly less effective than warfarin against Norway rats. Resistance, if and when it occurs, is of little consequence in the control of Norway rats, especially with the newer rodenticides presently available.
At present, four non-anticoagulant rodenticides (Table 2) are registered by EPA against Norway rats: bromethalin, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), red squill, and zinc phosphide. Of these active ingredients, bromethalin and cholecalciferol are formulated to serve as chronic rodenticides, applied so that rats will have the opportunity to feed on the baits one or more times over the period of one to several days. Non-anticoagulant rodenticides, particularly zinc phosphide, remain useful tools to achieve quick reductions in rat populations. Bromethalin (Assault®, Vengeance®) is formulated in a ready-to-use bait as a chronic rodenticide, applied so that rats will have the opportunity to feed on the bait one or more times over a period of one to several days. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, Quintox®) is similarly formulated in a ready-to-use bait, serving as a chronic rodenticide. Prebait rats for a minimum of 3 to 5 days to get the rats accustomed to eating the nontoxic bait material.
Avoid handling the toxic bait or rodenticide concentrate with bare hands; use rubber or latex gloves. Confine or restrain any pets, livestock, or other animals that may otherwise gain access to and feed on the bait.
Following toxic bait application, pick up and dispose of available dead rats and all uneaten bait by incineration or deep burial.
Contrary to popular belief, rats prefer fresh, high-quality foods and will reject spoiled or inferior foods item when given a choice. To determine bait preference in rats, conduct a bait-choice test by placing about 4 ounces (115 g) of each of several nontoxic baits about one foot (30 cm) apart in several locations where rats are present. Sodium salts of anticoagulants are available as concentrates to be mixed with water, making a liquid bait (Fig. Bait boxes can be built from scrap materials, and homemade stations can be deigned to fit individual needs.
Where buildings are not rodent-proof, permanent bait stations can be placed inside buildings, along the outside of building foundations, or around the perimeter. Because the amount of material a rat may ingest while grooming is small, the concentration of active ingredient in tracking powders is considerably higher than in food baits that utilize the same toxicant.
Place tracking powders in rat burrows, along runways, in walls, behind boards along walls, or on the floor of bait stations.
Fumigants (toxic gases) are most commonly used to control rats in their burrows at outdoor locations. To fumigate rat burrows, close the burrow opening with soil or sod immediately after introduction of the fumigant. Trapping can be an effective method of controlling rats, but it requires more skill and labor than most other methods. Set traps close to walls, behind objects, in dark corners, and in places where rat activity is seen. Leaving traps unset until the bait has been taken at least once reduces the chance of rats escaping the trap and becoming trap-shy. An alternative to traps are glue boards, which catch and hold rats attempting to cross them, much the same way flypaper catches flies. One rat will eat approximately 20 to 40 pounds (9 to 18 kg) of feed per year and probably contaminates 10 times that amount with its urine and droppings. Rats seldom travel farther than 300 feet (100 m) from their burrows to obtain food or water. Rats will quickly find them and after a short period of avoidance, will cautiously investigate them.
Pre-baiting, that is, training rats to feed repeatedly on nontoxic bait for a period of days prior to applying the toxicant in the bait, will largely prevent sublethal doses and thus bait shyness.


Plague is a disease that can be carried by a variety of rodents, but it is more commonly associated with roof rats (Rattus rattus) than with Norway rats. Under certain conditions, rats may become quite bold in the presence of humans, and then a high percentage of the population may be visible.
You can do this by feeding the rats for a while on finely ground grain (whole grains or pelleted foods may be carried off uneaten).
Warehouses, granaries and grain mills, silos, port facilities, and similar structures may provide excellent habitat for rats. A proper refuse storage container is heavy-duty, rust-resistant, rat- and damage-resistant, and equipped with a tight-fitting lid. Sanitary landfills and incinerators seldom have conditions that will allow rat populations to exist. In some instances, a strip of heavy gravel placed adjacent to building foundations or other structures will reduce rat burrowing at these locations. Substances such as moth balls (naphthalene) or household ammonia, in sufficient concentration, may have at least temporary effects in keeping rats out of certain enclosed areas. The anticoagulant rodenticides have been the most preferred materials for controlling rats since their initial development following World War II. Label directions commonly instruct the user to “maintain a continuous supply of bait for 15 days or until feeding ceases,” thus ensuring that the entire rat population has ample opportunity to ingest a lethal dose of the bait. It is effective against Norway rats, although some products may contain small quantities of contaminants that apparently can reduce bait acceptance. Within any population of Norway rats, some individuals are less sensitive to anticoagulants than others. Resistance is only one (and perhaps the least likely) reason for failure in the control of rats with anticoagulant baits. In some situations, stations may have to be within 20 to 30 feet (7 to 10 m) of one another.
Although this is unlikely, it should be suspected if about the same amount of bait is taken daily for a number of weeks. The older rodenticides, formerly referred to as acute toxicants, such as ANTU, arsenic trioxide, phosphorus, and Compound 1080, are no longer registered for rat control. When rat numbers are large, the cost of baiting with these materials may be lower than for the anticoagulants.
Because it is a slow-acting in comparison to zinc phosphide or red squill, bait shyness is not usually a problem, nor is prebaiting necessary to get good control in most situations. It acts as an emetic, which provides some degree of protection to certain nontarget species that might accidentally consume the bait. It is available in ready-to-use dry baits and also in concentrates for use by persons trained in rodent control who may wish to prepare their own baits. Where rats have access to abundant amounts of grain, meat such as canned fish-flavored cat food may be a good substitute.
Remove any uneaten prebait and place the toxic bait at the same locations that the prebait was applied. Clean thoroughly any tools or containers used in bait mixing, or safely dispose of them as well as bait packaging materials. Normally, bait should be exposed for only 1 or 2 nights; the greatest consumption occurs on the first night. They came into general use after the development of the first-generation anticoagulants, which require that a continuous supply of bait be made available to rodents. The two holes should be on opposite sides of the station because rodents can see an alternate escape route as they enter the station. Rats will not visit bait stations, regardless of their contents, if they are not conveniently located in areas where rodents are active.
In swine confinement buildings, it may be possible to attach bait boxes to wall ledges or the top of pen dividing walls. Bait stations will help keep rodent numbers at a low level when maintained regularly with fresh anticoagulant bait. Toxic dusts or powders have been successfully used for many years to control rats and mice.
Rat burrows often have multiple entrances, and all openings must be sealed in order for fumigants to be effective. Traps should be baited with a small piece of hot dog, bacon, or nutmeat tied securely to the trigger.
Place the traps so that when rats follow their natural course of travel (usually close to a wall) they will pass directly over the trigger (Fig. When rats have access to a structure through only one or a few entrances, it may be possible to drive them out en masse. There are few situations, however, in which they will do so sufficiently to control rat populations.
It is not uncommon to find rats living in close association with cats and dogs, relying on cat and dog food for nourishment. Estimates of losses of foodstuffs, structural damage, and the amount of labor and materials expended to control rats are usually only educated guesses. Also called the brown rat, house rat, barn rat, sewer rat, gray rat, or wharf rat, it is a slightly larger animal than the roof rat (Fig. Therefore, for safety reasons, baits can be dyed distinctive colors without causing avoidance by rats, as long as the dye does not have an objectionable taste or odor.
Thus, objects such as traps and bait stations often are avoided for several days or more following their initial placement. Baited but unset traps will aid in overcoming rats’ fear of them; expanded-trigger traps set directly on travel routes may immediately catch rats.
Rats also may gnaw on electrical wires or water pipes, either in structures or below ground. When offered over a period of time, the ground grain will usually be accepted and eaten by rats. Poor sanitation is one of the basic reasons for the continued existence of moderate to high rat populations in urban and suburban areas.
These drain holes should be fitted with a wire mesh screen or a removable plug; otherwise, the container becomes a huge feeding station for rodents (Fig.
Since Norway rats are excellent swimmers, water traps do not impede their movement; in fact, they can travel upstream against a current.
They are quite acceptable to rats, do not cause bait shyness, are easy to apply, and if used properly, are relatively safe to use around livestock, pets, and humans. Chlorophacinone and diphacinone may kill some rats in a single feeding, but multiple feedings are needed to give adequate control of an entire rat population.
Where anticoagulants have been used over long periods of time at a particular location, there is an increased potential for the existence of a population that is somewhat resistant to the lethal effects of the baits. In such instances it is likely that the remaining rats never accepted the bait either because of its formulation or placement. Zinc phosphide and red squill differ in that prebaiting (offering rats similar but nontoxic bait prior to applying the toxicant-treated bait) is recommended to increase bait acceptance. Rats, which cannot vomit, are unable to rid themselves of the toxicant once it is consumed. Usually, the amount of toxic bait needed will be about half the amount used on the last day that prebait was applied. Baits similar to foods rats are accustomed to eating are often a good choice, particularly if their normal foods are limited or can be made less available to them. Keep in mind that rats are suspicious of new objects and novel foods; therefore, they may not accept a new bait until the third or fourth day. Grain-based baits in a loose meal or pelleted form are available in bulk or packaged in small, 4- to 16-ounce (112to 454-g) plastic, cellophane, or paper “place packs” (Fig.


These are particularly useful in sewers or where moisture may cause loose grain baits to spoil. Since rats require water daily, they can be drawn to water stations where other water sources are scarce.
Where children, pets, or livestock are present, be careful to construct the stations so that the bait is accessible only to rodents.
Since rats are often suspicious of new or unfamiliar objects, it may take several days for them to enter and feed in bait stations.
Bait boxes may be placed in attics or along the floors or alleys where rodents are active (Fig. It is the preferred method to try first in homes, garages, and other small structures where there may be only a few rats present. Wire-mesh cage traps such as the National®, Tomahawk®, and Havahart® can be used effectively to capture rats alive (Fig. Around most structures, rats can find many places to hide and rear their young out of the reach of such predators. Rats frequently live beneath dog houses and soon learn they can feed when the dog is absent or asleep. One study found that a small colony of Norway rats (10 to 26 animals), when given access to a ton of sacked wheat, would contaminate 70% of the grain after 12 to 28 weeks. A 1973 estimate states rats may cost the United States between $500 million and $1 billion annually in direct economic losses. Although they can climb, Norway rats tend to inhabit the lower floors of multistory buildings. The average female rat has 4 to 6 litters per year and may successfully wean 20 or more offspring annually. Prebaiting will almost always increase control success when zinc phosphide or red squill baits are used. Rats keep their paired incisor teeth, which grow continuously at the rate of about 5 inches (13 cm) per year, worn down by gnawing on hard surfaces and by working them against each other. Consumption may gradually increase to a maximum level over the period of a week or so as the rats’ natural fear of novel foods is overcome. In agricultural environments, proper sanitation cannot always eliminate rat populations, but it can often prevent rats from flourishing in large numbers. Stack sacked or boxed foods in orderly rows on pallets in a way that allows thorough inspection for evidence of rats. Racks or stands prevent corrosion or rusting of containers, reduce rat shelter under containers, and minimize the chance of containers being overturned (Fig.
The problem of rats in sewers is usually greatest in places where sanitary sewers are interconnected with storm sewers, thus providing multiple entry points for rats.
In any event, keep the perimeter of buildings and other structures clean of weeds and debris (including stacked lumber, firewood, and other stored materials) to discourage rat activity and to allow easier detection of rat sign. Such resistant populations of rats have been identified at a number of locations throughout the United States. These two rodenticides are not designed to be left available to rats for more than a few days, as continued exposure is likely to result in bait shyness within the population. Where bait is completely eaten overnight, double the amount of prebait at that location the next day.
It may be helpful to wait one day between the last application of prebait and application of toxic bait. Rats accept paraffin block baits less readily than loose or pelleted grain baits, but acceptance of extruded bait blocks is high. Water baits are particularly useful in grain storage structures, warehouses, and other such locations. Tracking powders are useful in controlling rats where food is plentiful and good bait acceptance is difficult to achieve. Currently, the only tracking powders registered for use against Norway rats contain anticoagulants. Cats probably cannot eliminate existing rat populations, but in some situations they may be able to prevent reinfestations once rats have been controlled. In most cases, the cost of rat control—particularly when it is done in a timely fashion—is far less than the economic loss caused by rat damage. Today, only two rodenticides registered for Norway rat control, red squill and zinc phosphide, possess characteristics that make bait shyness a potential problem. Considerable damage to insulated structures can occur as a result of rat burrowing and nesting in walls and attics. Modern incinerators completely burn refuse, and the resulting residue does not provide food for rats. The domestic sewage of an average community provides enough food to sustain a large number of rats; this problem has increased as a result of the recent prevalence of garbage disposal units in most newer homes. Although not common, resistance may be underestimated because documentation of resistance is usually not pursued by persons involved in operational rat control programs.
An effective bait is made from mixing zinc phosphide with meat such as canned fish-flavored cat food. These packets keep bait fresh and make it easy to place baits into burrows, walls, or other locations. Rodents are more easily able to detect anticoagulants in water baits than in food baits; therefore, up to 5% sugar is sometimes added to liquid baits to increase rats’ acceptance of the bait solution. Rats are more likely to ingest a lethal amount of a poorly accepted toxicant applied by this method than if it is mixed into a bait material. Do not place tracking powders where rats can track the material onto food intended for use by humans or domestic animals. A 12-inch (30-cm) white band painted on the floor adjacent to the wall will aid in detecting rodent droppings and other rat sign (Fig. Rats will readily accept this bait, especially if adequate prebaiting has been done beforehand. Mix the toxicant into the bait ingredients according to label directions, if preparing your own baits from a concentrate.
Since water is attractive to most animals, use water baits in ways that prevent nontarget animals from drinking them.
More elaborate stations are completely enclosed and can contain liquid as well as solid baits (Fig. Seasonal variability of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) infestation of agricultural premises. Certain anticoagulants, as well as zinc phosphide, can be purchased in concentrate forms for use in formulating baits.
If the bait becomes moldy, musty, soiled, or insect-in-fested, empty the box and clean it, and then refill it with fresh bait. Under some conditions, baits made with fruits, vegetables, meat, or fish may be highly accepted.
If so, use only bait boxes or stations which are so designated, and also be sure to secure them to buildings by nailing or gluing them to walls or floors in a way that will not permit a person or animal to knock them over or shake the bait out.
A hinged lid with a childproof latch can be used for convenience in inspecting permanent stations. Use of such bait materials, however, may increase the risk of poisoning cats, dogs, domestic animals, and other nontarget species. It may result in amounts of bait being moved to places where it is undetected or difficult to recover and may, if accessible, be hazardous to nontarget species.



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