Male black widow spider facts,large ants,fruit fly solution recipe,what bug killer kills bed bugs - Tips For You

Category: Bed Bug Bites | 08.10.2015
Both females and males have shiny, globular abdomens and are mostly black, and sometimes brown. Male black widows frequently have yellow and red bands and spots over their backs, as do both sexes of black widows in their immature stages. Newly hatched spiderlings are predominately white or yellowish-white, gradually acquiring more black and varying amounts of red and white with each molt. Black widow spiders inhabit most of the warmer regions of the world to a latitude of about 45 degrees N and S. Widow spiders (genus Latrodectus) are the best known and largest of the cobweb weavers (family Theridiidae). The female black widow spider, though it is the most venomous spider in North America, seldom causes death as it injects a very small amount of poison when it bites.
Anyone bitten by a black widow spider should seek medical care; an attempt should be made to catch the spider for identification. The brown widow spider (Latrodectus geometricus) is not as dangerous as some other widow spiders because the brown widow spider is less likely to bite someone, and injects less poison. Hundreds of Australians are bitten every year by the red-back spider (Latrodectus hasselti), a close relative of the black widow spider. Black widows are found on the underside of ledges, rocks, plants and debris, wherever a web can be strung. The Southern black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius), is a venomous spider found throughout the southeastern United States.
Various species of widow spiders can be found on every continent with the exception of Antarctica (reviewed by Garb et al. Adults: The female Southern black widow, as described by Mote and Gray (1935), is a shiny black spider with a distinctive red hourglass on the abdomen.
Typical outdoor habitats in which spiders are often found include wood and rock piles, rodent burrows, and hollow tree stumps. Black widows have been documented to be beneficial for controlling some pest populations such as red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Nyffeler and Sterling 1988), and harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery (MacKay 1982), through predation.
Southern black widows are normally predators, but under special circumstances they can serve as prey. In 2010, there were 2,168 self-reported black widow bites reported in the United States, with 892 cases treated in health care facilities (Bronstein et al. Treatment for all widow bites typically includes general wound care followed by calcium gluconate, muscle relaxants, and narcotic analgesics (Timms and Gibbons 1986, Handel et al. In nature, most bites occur while reaching under an object that the spider inhabits such as a woodpile or stones. I found this guy running across the building and got this one shot before another spider suddenly sprang out from under a lip and attacked him. The venom of the black widow spider is 15 times as toxic as the venom of the prairie rattlesnake.


Females may occasionally kill and eat a male after mating but this is more the exception than the rule. The female black widow spider is the most venomous spider in North America, but it seldom causes death to humans, because it only injects a very small amount of poison when it bites. Widow spiders received their name from the belief that they would kill and consume their mate following copulation.
The Southern black widow has a complete hourglass, while the Western species’ hourglass can vary from two connected triangles to separated triangles to a minimum of barely visible red blotches. Widows have potent venom, which contains the neurotoxin alpha-latrotoxin that causes adverse reactions in their victims (Orlova et al. Black widow webs are constructed in an erratic manner without a distinguishable pattern (Mote and Gray 1935).
The colony size reduction due to black widows feeding on harvester ants was low, but when the ants were preyed upon they demonstrated behaviors such as decreased foraging that indirectly reduced populations (MacKay 1982). Wasps, scorpions, and centipedes have been known to feed on black widows (Bogen and Loomis 1936). Antivenin is produced with antibodies in serum from horses that have been exposed to low levels of black widow venom. While working in or around areas of suitable habitat for these spiders, wearing gardening gloves can help prevent envenomation. The prevalence of brown widow and black widow spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae) in urban Southern California.
Black widows comprise about six species out of about 2,000 in the large Theridiidae family. After ensnaring its prey in the web, the black widow makes small punctures in the victim's body and sucks out the liquid contents. In Florida, Latrodectus mactans (Southern black widow), is found as well as Latrodectus geometricus (brown widow), Latrodectus bishopi (red widow), and Latrodectus variolus (Northern black widow) (Edwards 2002). The Northern widow typically has the hourglass on their abdomen but some individuals lack it completely (Kaston 1954).
Black widows exposed to environmental conditions with limited food resources have been shown to design a web that captures prey at a higher frequency than a web constructed by a spider that has an abundant food supply (Zevenbergen et al. It is believed that brown widows, which originated in Africa, may be competing with black widows, causing a decrease in the black widow population (Vetter 2010). Clinical presentation and treatment of black widow spider envenomation: A review of 1963 cases. The southern black widow spider, Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae), as a predator of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invita (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), in Texas cotton fields. The treatment of black widow spider envenomation with antivenin Latrodectus mactans: a case series. Aspects of the courtship behavior of the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae), with evidence for the existence of a contact sex pheromone.


The black widow spider is shy and nocturnal in habit, usually staying hidden in her web, hanging belly upward.
In the United States, the Southern black widow is found in the southeastern region and has been found as far north as Ohio and as far west as Texas. Brown widows have a higher reproductive rate than black widows, which may be contributing to the population decline. There have been many documented cases of bites in outhouses, so searching under toilet seats before using this type of facility may prevent a bite. Functional shifts in spider web architecture by the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus.
Male Southern black widows are smaller, typically with a 0.6 cm long body (Mote and Gray 1935).
The egg sacs are retained within the web, and after an incubation period of one month the spiderlings emerge from the egg sac (Mote and Gray 1935). Widow spider diet includes a wide range of insects such as flies, crickets, grasshoppers, moths, beetles, and various other arthropods that become trapped in the web (Bogen and Loomis 1936).
Brown widows also have more potent venom than North American black widows; however, the more timid behavior of the brown widow makes it less of a threat to people (McCrone 1964). Due to the similarity in clinical presentation, tetanus toxoid may be considered by physicians unless a spider is brought in or patient is able to positively identify a history of being bitten.
In indoor areas, bites frequently occur when spiders are hiding in shoes that have not been worn recently or while searching through old boxes. Male Southern black widows lack the characteristic hourglass of the female, but may have red spotting on the top or underside of the abdominal segment. The brown widow releases less venom when it bites and also has a tendency to curl up when disturbed, rather than attack (Vetter 2010, 2012).
Shaking out clothing and shoes and using gloves while working in areas that spiders may be found such as basements or attics can help prevent a bite.
The development time may be influenced by factors such as diet and temperature and may range from 26-103 days for males and 57-122 days for females (Baxter Deevey 1949). The displacement of black widows with a less aggressive species eventually may lead to a decrease in the annual number of bite cases.
The female Southern black widow typically lives an average of 1.5 years while the male survives between two to five months. However, research has demonstrated that a direct effect on the fetus from the spider venom is less likely because alpha-latrotoxin is a large compound and should not cross the placental barrier (Handel et al.




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