Gabion basket retaining wall design,retaining walls made out of old tires,wood retaining wall design example - 2016 Feature

For larger retaining walls and difficult sites, it is recommended that a soil investigation is undertaken and that the wall is designed by a qualified geotechnical engineer. The Applications sections within this web site have been configured to streamline the process of designing Terra Aqua gabion products and solutions. Go to the Technical Specifications page of this web site and choose Project Specifications to complete the specifications section for gabion scope of work.
Terra Aqua’s gabion gravity retaining wall systems are monolithic gravity mass structures and follow standard design methods for gravity retaining walls.
Terra Aqua always recommends that the soil data utilized for gabion wall design be based on a Certified Geotechnical Soils Report of the site location.
The total pressure of the gabion wall must be less than the anticipated bearing capacity of the soil under the base of the wall. Terra Aqua gabion gravity retaining walls are typically placed directly on a graded soil foundation. It may be determined, through an investigation and stability analysis, that additional stability of the gabion wall may be required to achieve acceptable factors of safety for sliding.
Terra Aqua gabion gravity retaining walls may be placed or keyed in below sub grade to prevent scour and wave action from undermining the toe of the structure. A flexible double twisted mesh Terra Aqua gabion is designed to settle without fracture and adhere to the ground as scour occurs. Backfill Material-Gabion gravity retaining walls, in comparison with reinforced soil walls, allows for a wider range of soil types to be utilized as backfill material. To provide the maximum resistance to soil forces the gabion baskets shall be placed with the length dimension of the gabion unit running from the back of the gabion wall to the front face of the gabion wall. Terra Aqua gabion retaining walls can be designed and configured with a stepped front face or a smooth front face.
SAMPLE CALCULATIONSProper design and construction of gabion retaining walls requires a thorough knowledge of the lateral forces acting between the retaining structures and the soil masses being retained.
Gabion walls designs, various permutations are avaiable in the construction of a wall using gabions, below are examples and information to help with the construction.
Please note: Gabions are a mass retaining system so merely need a firm base so the baskets do not sink.
The selection of rock or stone fill is very important, as the performance of gabion wall structures is dependant upon the mass.


The information below is a guide for more complex situations always consult a structural engineer to confirm the design.
A 1m high wall is very simple it can be constructed with 1m x 1m x 1m, or 2m x 1m x1m gabion baskets. In this example the top 2 rows are the same as a 2m wall,but increased by 0.5m in the depth of the bottom row. The following information is provided by Terra Aqua as a design guide to assist Professional Engineers, Government Agencies, Land Developers, and Contractors in the proper design, specification, construction and inspection of gabion gravity retaining walls. As drainage occurs soil particles are deposited into the small voids of the natural stone fill within the gabion wall allowing for pockets of vegetation to take root.
The contact pressure on a flexible gabion footing is not distributed in a planar fashion, but decreases from a maximum at the point of application of the resultant to lesser values at the edges of the footing. The error in assuming this is on the safe side, since the reaction is assumed to have a planar distribution, as in rigid walls.
One option to pursue prior to enlarging the gabion wall cross section for additional stability is to place the gabion gravity retaining wall on a 6 – 10 degree batter towards the retained slope. Generally the gabion apron is placed directly on the ground utilizing a geotextile filter fabric between the gabion apron soil interface to prevent and leaching of soils from underneath the apron.
The void ratio of the stone fill confined within the gabion baskets allows for free drainage of the retained soils and requires a filter fabric be placed between the gabion wall and the specified backfill soil interface. This will result in the internal diaphragms being placed perpendicular to the wall face and parallel to soil thrust. When utilizing a gabion wall with a smooth front face, the gabion wall shall always be placed on a 6-10 degree batter and is not recommended for wall heights above 18’. Terra Aqua has provided the diagram below to illustrate a starting point for design analysis to determine the base width relative to wall height. The specific gravity required for the stone fill shall be determined by the design and specified by the design engineer. Although the mass is the criteria for design, other factors to consider are the filling material - Grading of Fill - Angularity of Fill - see our pdf guide on filling materials.
But, it may be preferable to stagger the baskets back and hire a structural engineer to assess the stability of the site.
The pressure at the toe of a gabion wall is, therefore, generally less than for a rigid wall.


This will require the founding soils to graded and compacted to accommodate for the specified wall batter. Gabion aprons are commonly used to protect the toe of a gabion retaining wall structure from scour that could cause undermining in channel works applications. If the gabion apron is placed in relatively deep water, and efficient method of large scale placement is prefabricating the apron on a barge and then launching it into the water. Poor compaction of backfill materials can lead to structural settlement, lateral wall movement, and result in insufficient shear strength to perform as designed. When gabion units shall be placed with the length dimension of the gabion unit running parallel with the length dimension of the wall the vertical seams shall be offset. Therefore, analysis and determination of lateral earth pressure are necessary to design gabion retaining walls. In general, for every 1m increase in wall height, the bottom row gabion basket depth should increase by half a meter.
The size of the gabion apron that can be placed by this method is limited only by the deck area of the barge.
The length of the gabion apron shall extend beyond the toe of the structure a minimum of 2 times the anticipated depth of scour. Gabions or reno mattresses may also be connected together filled and then placed into the water with a sling arrangement.
This will ensure that the gabion apron reaches just beyond the outer limit of the anticipated scour hole that may form.
Gabion aprons may be fabricated using Terra Aqua standard PVC gabion units or with Terra Aqua PVC reno mattresses. The information provided in the above calculations including geotechnical data, dimensions and site conditions are assumptions made by Terra Aqua Gabions and should be reviewed and certified by a Professional Engineer.



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  • 26.09.2015, admin

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