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These interactions with students on a course in the pharmacy program, brought about situations involving dilemmas and learning opportunities for problem-solving and decision-making skills.
Analysis of the records from classroom observation and the interviews with students and the teacher showed the fundamental role of such reflective processes, which led to attainment of the intended objectives.
Since the theoretical reference point used was reflective teaching practice, the text firstly presents remarks regarding the theory to illustrate the concepts worked on, and to place this study in its context. Thus, the text starts with a comparison between technical rationality and practical rationality and describes what reflective practice is. The reflective processes are then presented, followed by a brief description of the postmodern scenario and its characteristics, which have brought new tasks and responsibilities for teachers. After introductory remarks, the text then presents the results from an investigative study: objectives, methodology, results, discussion and final remarks.
From this point of view, there is a clear separation between theory and practice: only after contact with scientifically proven truths (the so-called core facts) are students capable of applying the acquired knowledge (Pedroso and Cunha, 2008).
This is based on action and reflection together, in a process named reflective practice (Kinsella, 2006).
In this manner, in addition to theoretical knowledge, there is also knowledge that originates from practice itself, and this knowledge may be useful for reinventing wisdom, creating new techniques and reassessing practices (Alarcão, 1996). Therefore, there is constructivist value in practice, and this can be used to modify or improve the rules and processes evaluated by science (technical rationality).
Knowledge-in-action is a type of knowledge that is not derived from any intellectual operation and is embedded within the action itself. Reflection-in-action is triggered in situations of doubt, when unexpected situations are encountered. Subsequently, after the action has been completed, it is possible to think about what happened and how the action was undertaken, in an evaluative process named reflection-on-action. The availability of knowledge through the internet (Abreu and Nicolaci-da-Costa, 2003), together with the speed of information renewal in the postmodern era, has challenged the universality of knowledge that is postulated through positivist ideas.
Thus, real problems increasingly present new, interactive, uncertain, polemical and polysemic characteristics, including in the field of pharmacy (Chaud, Gremião and Freitas, 2004), which is the focus of the present study. This picture contrasts with the curriculum structure prevailing in universities (Lima, Castro and Carvalho, 2000), insofar as the latter compartmentalizes and crystallizes knowledge into disciplines.
In this way, there will be a greater possibility of clarifying the objectives to be achieved and selecting, from among the diversity of means, the most appropriate one for meeting these objectives. Knowing how to solve problems is just one of the essential characteristics for entering the current job market, which also requires people who know how to communicate, make decisions and work in groups (Petit, Foriers and Rombaut, 2008a, 2008b). For students to attain these objectives, which requires them to develop complex capacities, such as problem-solving and acting in cooperation with other people, teachers need to develop competencies that allow them to plan and successfully apply the curriculum components. For example, this includes clearly defining the objectives, the material content to be explored and what should be excluded, and the methodological and evaluative strategies (Zabalza, 2004; Zabalza, 1998). For this, it is fundamental to maintain attitudes and habits of reflecting on classroom practice.
Nonstop production of new information requires teachers and students to develop critical awareness (Freire, 1997) and learn to think and reflect on what has been learned and what has been done in practice. The reflective processes of knowledge-in-action, reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action are manifested by teachers (or tutors, as they were called by Schön, 1983) and by students, and they can be stimulated through facing situations of dilemmas.
In the view of Zabalza (1994, p.61), dilemmas are "the entire set of bipolar or multipolar situations that are presented to teachers over the course of their professional activities".
Such situations can be either bipolar or multipolar because, in the first case, a dilemma may present two clearly opposite choices, and in the second case, it may have a range of alternatives. Therefore, in day-to-day classroom activities, dilemmas are concrete situations characterized by a need for immediate decisions in unpredictable contexts like those of the classroom.


They should also respect students' knowledge, accept new things, reject discrimination of any type, be humble and tolerant and demonstrate professional competency and commitment (Freire, 1997). However, there is a certain degree of consensus among authors that this term involves correct mobilization of cognitive, affective and, sometimes, psychomotor characteristics (Perrenoud, 2002). Oral and written reports on reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action are important for improving classroom practice, and they also enrich the production and dissemination of research.
Furthermore, collective reflection among teachers is a question of habit and training in exchanging experiences through meetings, which may be the starting point for institutional changes. In addition, the issue of theory in teacher training is an integral part of the curriculum and focuses on aspects of the teacher-student relationship for teaching and learning. More concretely, this study sought to describe the teaching practices and reflective processes associated with these practices that would strengthen the competencies needed for university teachers to delineate the curriculum structure from the teaching objectives, with the aim of maximizing their students' learning opportunities. Thus, the aim of this study was to contribute towards reflections on the way in which teachers act in classrooms, through examining the reflective processes and competencies that guide teaching practices. This approach was chosen because it would supply data that would generate interpretations of greater significance than would the data obtained from quantitative studies. The selection was made based on a meeting on teaching experiences that took place in a public university, within the pharmacy course. At this event, several teachers presented innovative actions that aimed to improve teaching and students' learning.
Thus, it was possible to contact disciplines that valued reflection and critical thinking. The data gathering began with observations in the classroom between August and October 2000, totaling around 45 hours of observations. On all the days observed, the concrete ways in which activities were performed by the students were ascertained, and the activities that the teacher proposed and which could stimulate reflection were recorded. During the observation period, the students and the teacher were aware that the observer was monitoring the classes, but would not become involved in the activities (Minayo, 1999), in order that the observer would remain free to make written records.
The study subjects were the teacher of the discipline and the 32 students enrolled in the discipline.
The students were selected based on information supplied by their colleagues, of the type "he's a good student", and also based on classroom observations, to gain a perception of whether such students would be consistent sources of information.
Selecting three individuals out of a total of 32 students is coherent with the qualitative approach, since this does not following sampling logic, which would be inadequate for covering all the relevant variables for the case under examination (Yin, 1994). Thus, the number of interviewees was compensated qualitatively by drawing up a list of questions that enabled in-depth responses because they were open questions.
The teacher was asked to provide the same information with the aim of data triangulation. The interviews were recorded on cassette tape and subsequently transcribed and confirmed by the subjects, to whom anonymity was guaranteed. These codes were drawn up based on the features that drew most attention over the course of the classroom observation, particularly the teaching techniques used and the dynamics of the students' and teacher's reflective processes. After the codes had been established (see Table 1), the next step was to group similar codes as topics (corresponding to curriculum components of the discipline) and then as categories (see Table 2), in order to then proceed with data interpretation in the light of the theoretical framework adopted, i.e. Furthermore, the ethical risks associated with qualitative research on education are considerable, since it involves people and thus always places privacy at risk. Traditionally, the positivists have indicated that there is a lack of rigor in such research, along with unpreparedness among researchers and subjective influences. The greatest concern in educational research is precisely the rigor relating to preparing and conducting the study, in order to maximize the validity of the conclusions. In this manner, strategies that would provide the conditions for developing reflective processes among the students were planned and, at the same time, data that enabled inferences about the teacher's reflections were obtained. With the aim of organizing the large volume of information, the data gathered were grouped based on the curriculum components of the discipline (see Table 2). I'd like to imagine that they will be in a position to be deciding things, working on decision-making processes to participate in municipal policies in the city where they come from or where they live. In his view, students coming from the university at which he was giving this course need to adopt an active stance, be opinion formers (Saupe et al., 2005) and know how to position themselves securely in relation to polemical issues, such as transgenic food, breakage or registration of patents etc.
For this reason, students need to develop the capacity to think and demonstrate a critical sense: an ability for which there is little training in traditional school life. For this reason, some situations were created (Table 1, code 2) that would stimulate students to think about their future professional action: working in groups and stimulation for reflection through solving specific problems that simulated possible real situations, such as in discussing and solving test questions and in compiling a proposal based on financial support for a project relating to fermentation processes, directed towards the future mayor (in the year 2000, the time of data gathering for this study, there were elections for the mayor and city councilors).


Thus, the teacher created situations that linked the material content presented with the realities of the profession (Table 1, code 4). For example, issues relating to patients and culturing of microorganisms, etc., were discussed.
Day-to-day situations were used to illustrate the professional world (mega-mergers of food and pharmaceutical companies, microbe biodiversity and fermentation products). It was noticeable that the teacher was successful in transforming a technical subject (fermentation) into an agreeable and accessible topic for the students.
The problems may be interlinked, and the subjects may encompass data from other disciplines.
One widely used strategy was to form opposing groups to defend conflicting points of view, in polemical subjects like the right (or lack of right) to patent new species of microorganisms. Because he didn't say ?Do it this way', he said ?You have to do this; you'll discover how'. Because this is how we are going to have to work from now on (Interview with a student).
From this point of view, the teacher took an ethical stance in that he respected and took into consideration individual differences between the students and sought to frame his evaluation based on this context, thereby placing value on each student's learning style.
This teaching behavior contrasts directly with the technical rationality model, which denies the notion that students have different life histories. The model maintains that they experience, develop and incorporate their experiences, cultures and talents in a single manner.  Thus, the teacher started to present the discipline with a diagnostic assessment that consisted of surveying students' prior knowledge and opinions regarding the material content of the discipline. The following are examples of questions drawn up for the diagnostic assessment: 3- You will already have heard about biotechnology through talks, speeches and various means of communication.
What knowledge do you expect to acquire through the discipline of [name of this teacher's discipline] that might contribute towards your graduation? The summative evaluation consisted of a written test that was done in pairs, with consultations allowed. It caught students' attention: The classes generally aroused a critical spirit.
In this way, he identified each student's weak points and was then, later on, able to provide reinforcement for those who still did not understand the subject Aug 28, 2000 - classroom observation). The teacher's belief in his students' potential was clear: I think that you're the one who has to create the experience.
To decide how you are going to deal with a student who is used to being intelligent and having good marks, that is, he's intelligent in good marks.
So you need to know what type of challenge he's going to make, or whether he will make any, or whether he will hide away; who he is. For this reason, I'd say that the material content doesn't matter much: you're working on other factors" (interview with the teacher).
These made it possible to direct the curriculum towards achieving the intended objectives. In this respect, the work developed by Pedroso and Cunha (2008) in relation to a nutrition course needs to be highlighted. Their report on innovative teaching experiences brought out valuable information that reinforces many of the conclusions from the present study. Within this context of instability, individuals' reflections on their own practices form a fundamental condition for departing from the sphere of certainties provided by third parties to attain other levels (Zabalza, 1994), through considering reasoned decision-making, creative debate, learning that values mistakes and doubts (Ketzer, 2007), and the courage to propose new solutions. The best teachers are more aware of their practices, and this level of awareness depends on reflection on the complex process of teaching. Exploring the use of experiential learning workshops and reflective practice within professional practice development for post-graduate health promotion students. Constructivist underpinnings in Donald Schon's theory of reflective practice: echoes of Nelson Goodman. Educating the reflective practitioner: toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. O professor e a boa prática avaliativa no ensino superior na perspectiva de estudantes.



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