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No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under any educational programs or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Civil rights laws have historically been a powerful mechanism for effecting social change in the United States. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bolsters this national agenda and prohibits sex discrimination in federally assisted education programs.
Twenty-five years after the passage of Title IX, we recognize and celebrate the profound changes this legislation has helped bring about in American education and the resulting improvements in the educational and related job opportunities for millions of young Americans. Substantial progress has been made, for example, in overcoming the education gap that existed between men and women in completing four years of college. As this report makes clear, many barriers have been brought down that once prevented girls and women from choosing the educational opportunities and careers they would have liked to pursue. As the women's civil rights movement gained momentum in the late 1960s and early 1970s, Americans began to focus attention on inequities that inhibited the progress of women and girls in education.
Virginia state law prohibited women from being admitted to the College of Arts and Sciences of the University of Virginia, the most highly rated public institution of higher education in the state. Congressional activity on the issue increased, and in 1971 several education bills that included sex discrimination proposals were introduced in the House.
Luci Baines Johnson, the daughter of President Lyndon Johnson, was refused readmission to Georgetown University's school of nursing after her marriage: in 1966, the school did not permit married women to be students. Title IX was adopted by the Conference Committee and sent to the full Senate, which approved it on May 22, 1972. Title IX prohibits institutions that receive federal funding from practicing gender discrimination in educational programs or activities.


It is strongly recommended that faculty add information about Title IX to their course syllabus. Legal Citation: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and its implementing regulation at 34 C. In accordance with the requirements of the Title IX Education Amendments of 1972 BC’s designated Title IX Coordinator, Rachel Wellman and Deputy Coordinator, Aaron Hilliard, VP of Human Resources shall be responsible for coordinating the College’s effort to comply with and carry out its responsibilities under Title IX. Content on this website does not necessarily reflect the opinions or views of Bellevue College. This is the statement declared in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (renamed in 2002 as the Patsy T. A three prong test is used to determine compliance if girls are being provided equal opportunities to participate in sports activities.
In 2005, the Bush Administration allowed schools to use just a single survey to measure the interest of girls lumping together both unreturned responses and negative replies as a sign of lacking enthusiasm.
On April 20, 2010, the Obama Administration rescinded the 2005 directive calling for schools to show greater efforts in determining whether boys and girls are being given equal opportunities in sports. The US Education Department issued guidance as a reminder to schools that an employee must be appointed to oversee efforts concerning the compliance of Title IX on the campus, which prohibits sex discrimination.
The letter states that not only must a Title IX coordinator be hired at each school, but that those coordinators must be protected in order to best perform their job duties.
A Title IX resource guide was also released by federal officials in an effort to help schools better understand their obligations, in addition to helping Title IX coordinators understand their role. The efforts come as the latest intent from the Obama administration to bolster Title IX, which makes it illegal to discriminate on the basis of sex in K-12 schools and colleges.


According to Maatz, the guidance was issued after cases such as the one in Anoka-Hennepin School District in Minnesota came about. A record number of complaints have been filed by students across the country, alleging that colleges are continuously mishandling sexual assault cases. An athletics program can be considered gender equitable when the participants in both the men's and women's sports programs would accept as fair and equitable the overall program of the other gender.
They represent a national commitment to end discrimination and establish a mandate to bring the excluded into the mainstream. The issue of sex bias in education moved into the public policy realm when Representative Edith Green (Oregon) introduced a higher education bill with provisions regarding sex equity.
In the Senate, amendments by Senators Birch Bayh (Indiana) and George McGovern (South Dakota) to an omnibus education proposal outlawed sex discrimination in higher education programs. In total, five proposals--all different--in the House, Senate, and White House proposed to end sex discrimination in education.
First signed into law in 1972 as part of the Education Amendments Act, Title IX was not intended to redefine the world of amateur sports, yet, that is its reputation. Although there was growing agreement that sex discrimination in education should end, there was little agreement as to the best methods for reaching that goal. Over forty years Title IX has been battled over and batted about, but this simply-stated treatise on sexual equality opened the door to decades of successes for American girls and women.



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