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The resource may also contain words and descriptions that could be culturally sensitive and which might not normally be used in public or community contexts.
Good nutrition (getting enough of the right nutrients) is necessary for growth, and for physical and mental health.
Vitamins and minerals are required by the body's cells and organs, and lack of particular vitamins or minerals can lead to illness or disease. It is difficult to know how much poor nutrition is involved in the development of these diseases (whether poor nutrition has a large part or a small part), because there are so many other factors that play a part in the development of disease. In the past, as hunter-gatherers, Indigenous people needed to work together and be physically active when finding food. The hunter-gatherer method was the way of life of all humans until about 12,000 years ago, when human groups started to experiment with growing plants. Indigenous groups in Australia lived in many different climates and locations, varying from tropical to more moderate climates, from coastal to central areas. There is very little known about the health of Indigenous people before Europeans came to Australia, but it is understood that they were very healthy, fit and strong.
Torres Strait Islander people generally ate more seafood than the Aboriginal people, because seafood was so easy to collect and was always available.
The hunter-gatherer lifestyle of Indigenous people changed after the arrival of Europeans in Australia in 1788. Many Indigenous groups settled on cattle stations, government settlements or missions (run by religious groups) where they ate mostly European food.
This dependence on the European bosses gradually led to most Indigenous people converting to a ‘Western' diet, with much less physical activity involved.
The result of this was that many of the men were no longer working, leading to less physical activity, an increase in energy intake (food and alcohol), and continued lack of nutritious foods.
The fast rate of change of the Indigenous diet has increased the risk of diet-related diseases such as obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes). The effects of a mother's diet and nutrition when she is pregnant can have lifelong effects on her child. Of particular concern is babies who do not weigh very much when they are born (known as ‘low birthweight'). A baby who has a low birthweight is at a higher risk of childhood death and many health problems. An Australian study done in 2005 showed that the average weight of babies born to Indigenous mothers was lower than that of non-Indigenous mothers (3158 grams for Indigenous babies and 3375 grams for non-Indigenous babies). A study was done in Darwin between 1987 and 1990 which looked at birthweights of 503 babies born to Aboriginal mothers.
To calculate BMI you need to know a person’s weight (in kilograms) and height (in metres). Measuring a child's growth is an important way to measure their overall health and development.
Charts of children's heights and weights have been produced by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the US Centre for Disease Control. Growth charts are developed by getting information on heights and weights of lots of children at different ages. Healthy babies are more likely to grow into healthy adults, so encouraging good health early, through breastfeeding, is a wise thing to do. The Australian Dietary Guidelines for children and adolescents has ‘encourage and support breastfeeding' at the top of its list of guidelines. These days Indigenous people have lower breastfeeding rates than non-Indigenous people (less Indigenous people breastfeed their babies), except for those still living in remote areas.
When a child is being weaned, the risk increases of them developing infections and malnutrition. For a long time the Australian government has recognised that there needs to be a strategy to encourage mothers to breastfeed for longer, and to promote appropriate foods for Indigenous infants. More recently (in 2007) the Australian Parliament had an inquiry into breastfeeding, with special attention on breastfeeding by Indigenous mothers. For a long time it was believed that this growth pattern was genetic, that it was the way all Indigenous babies grew. Studies in the 1970s and 1980s identified this same pattern of growth in Indigenous children in rural and remote areas of the Northern Territory and Western Australia. Results from this study in 1987-1989 showed a similar pattern of growth for Indigenous babies as was seen in the Kimberly, but after 11 years the growth of urban-dwelling children had improved while that of the remote children had not. The results of this study led the government in the 1990s to set up the Growth Assessment and Action (GAA) program.
The most recent review by the GAA in April 2007 measured the growth of 3000 children aged less than five years (out of a total number of 4064 children), living in rural and remote communities. According to the international organisation UNICEF (the United Nations Children's Fund), wasting rates of 10% or more require urgent action. Although there are many factors involved in the poor rates of growth of Indigenous children, the most important appear to be living in overcrowded, unhygienic conditions, with repeated infections and poor nutrition.
When the amount of food eaten by a person (measured as energy in kilojoules) is greater than the amount of energy being used (through daily activity and exercise) the extra energy is stored as fat and the person puts on weight. Obesity is often caused by eating too many refined carbohydrates (foods made from white flour or containing lots of sugar), drinking too much alcohol, and not getting enough exercise.
A recent survey by the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Service (NATSIHS) in 2004-05 found that obesity is an increasing problem in the Australian Indigenous population.
In the non-Indigenous population more than half the population (52%) was also found to be overweight or obese. The diets of many Indigenous people are high in energy, fat, refined carbohydrates and salt, and low in fibre and certain essential nutrients (such as folate, retinol and other vitamins).
The 2006 Census compares the employment status of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.
The living conditions for many Indigenous people, especially those living in remote areas, are not very good.
A discrete Indigenous community is a community with physical or legal boundaries, and one which is to be used by mostly Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people.
The freshness of the food and its variety are affected by the need for food to be stored suitably and protected from contamination. There has not been any information collected on cooking arrangements and food storage conditions in Indigenous communities, but these are thought to be ‘inadequate, and sometimes dangerous' for many Indigenous people living in remote areas.
Many Indigenous people live in rural or remote areas where fresh, nutritious food is not always available, and the community store is the only place to shop.
After long journeys in trucks, the food arrives in poor condition and some has to be thrown away.
Those foods that don't need much or any preparation (and are less nutritious) are often preferred because they are convenient.


A similar survey in the Northern Territory found that prices at remote stores were higher than in supermarkets and corner stores in Darwin.
Store managers have a big influence on what foods are available in remote Indigenous communities and so play a big part in improving the nutrition of the customers. The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition Strategy and Action Plan 2000-2010 was developed as part of the nutrition strategy for all Australians called Eat Well Australia: a national framework for action in public health nutrition, 2000-2010. The federal government recognised that poor diet is a major reason why many Indigenous people have poor health and why so many Indigenous people suffer from chronic diseases.
Throughout their lives, many Indigenous people suffer from major health problems because of poor nutrition. After birth most Indigenous babies grow well until they can no longer survive on breast milk alone.
From the time they become young adults, many Indigenous people start to gain a lot of weight, eventually becoming overweight or obese. The main reason for these problems of growth and nutrition is the social disadvantage many Indigenous people experience, namely low levels of education, high levels of unemployment, low incomes and an unsatisfactory environment. Two of the targets for ‘closing the gap' between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians - to increase Indigenous life expectancy and to reduce child and infant mortality - are related to nutrition and diet.
Todaya€™s dressage exhibits many of the training practices, skills and maneuvers present in classical dressage founded over 2000 years ago.
A horse and rider are evaluated initially at the Introductory Level dressage competitions in their local community. Although Kohlberg’s stages of moral development do not directly parallel Piaget’s stages, Kohlberg was inspired and informed by Piaget’s work. At the post-conventional level, children have learned that there is a difference between what is right and wrong from a moral perspective, and what is right and wrong according to the rules. Like Piaget, Kohlberg has come under fire in recent years from cross-cultural psychologists who believe his theory is simply a codification of Western (post-modern Western liberal, to be precise) notions of justice and morality. There are also some studies that indicate that children as young as 6 can attain vague concepts of universal ethical principles – they may be able to distinguish between a rule that says “no hitting” (universal and moral) and one that says “kids must sit in a circle during story-time” (conventional, arbitrary, and non-moral). I think whilst its true that Kholberg was inspired by Piaget, its important to note that Piaget had a Moral Development Theory (which was built on his cognitive development theory).
For example, some information may be considered appropriate for viewing only by men or only by women. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are used by the body in everyday general activities, as well as assisting our bodies to recover from injuries or illness. These other factors include behaviour, the environment in which a person lives, and what genes a person has inherited from his or her parents. Changing to a European diet and lifestyle has changed all this, and has caused problems for many Indigenous people with healthy, affordable food often being difficult to get.
The men mostly hunted the large animals, while the women collected the small animals and plants. The traditional diet was high in protein, complex carbohydrates (those that are digested slowly) and nutrients, and low in sugars.
They were very knowledgeable about the sea, about the feeding patterns of the animals, tidal movements and such like. When their traditional lands were taken over by farmers and graziers, many Indigenous people were forced to live in settlements and to get food and other necessities from the Europeans. One result of this was that mothers had less responsibility for feeding their own children and lost a lot of the knowledge they had about food and feeding.
Women no longer needed to gather and prepare the food and spent more time sitting around camps and settlements.
The change has been from a fibre-rich, high protein, low-saturated-fat traditional diet to one high in refined carbohydrates (like white flour where most of the nutrients have been removed during processing) and saturated fats (which come from animal foods). It also found that Indigenous mothers are more likely to have low birthweight babies than non-Indigenous mothers. The study looked at the babies of mothers who were underweight, that is had a body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 (see box for an explanation of BMI). BMI can tell you whether a person is under weight, has a healthy weight, is overweight or is obese.
From 2001-2004, babies born to Indigenous women who smoked were, on average, lighter than babies born to Indigenous women who did not smoke (3037 grams compared with 3290 grams). These can be used to follow a child's growth and weight over years to see whether they are developing as expected. The child can then be identified for treatment to improve their nutrition, which leads to better growth and improved long-term health. Information from whole populations can be used to work out the ‘usual' weight or height of children at a particular age.
The recommendations are that babies should be breastfed only (no food) for the first six months, with breastfeeding continuing to 12 months or beyond along with solid food. In some Indigenous communities where living conditions are not very hygienic or there is a lot of contamination (e.g.
Studies carried out in the 1980s, however, showed that Indigenous children brought up in good living conditions showed similar growth patterns to non-Indigenous Australian children.
The aim was to collect information (height, weight, and health information) on Indigenous babies born in NT from 1987 to 1989 and to continue to collect information over a long period of time (after 11 years, 20 years and 25 years). The GAA keeps track of the growth of Indigenous children up to five years of age in about 80 remote communities in NT and takes action if the growth rate seems to be falling. Excess body fat leads to being overweight (a bit too much fat) or being obese (too much fat).
It can lead to high insulin, cholesterol, lipid and blood pressure which are all risk factors for heart disease.
Over a quarter (28%) of Indigenous people aged 15 years or older were overweight and over a quarter (29%) were obese. The main difference between the two populations was the greater proportion of obese Indigenous people (29%) than non-Indigenous people (17%).
Their homes are overcrowded, they do not have safe, clean drinking water, the plumbing is not safe, there is little room to store food, and no proper equipment to cook it on. This means that if there is no refrigeration fresh meat and milk will not be available, only canned meats and long-life milk. In many cases the store gets new supplies only once a week, or, as in some areas of the Torres Strait, even less often than that. The fruit and vegetables are less popular because they have been bruised and damaged during the trip, and also need more preparation.
A project at Minjilang (Croker Island, Northern Territory) showed that improvements of this kind only work when the community members are involved. Both strategies were endorsed (put into action) by the Australian Health Ministers' Conference in August 2001.


Being overweight or obese is linked to many chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, improvements in nutrition will need to be accompanied by improvements in social disadvantage (mentioned above). Excluded material owned by third parties may include, for example, design and layout, images obtained under licence from third parties and signatures. As a horse progresses through its training, the levels below are refined as a means of improving the current level. These competitions usually require the riders to perform a series of movements transitioning between walk and trot. By examining these two theories side by side, it is possible to get a sense of how our concepts of the world around us (our descriptive concepts) influence our sense of what we ought to do in that world (our normative concepts). They learn that there are certain “conventions” that govern how they should and should not behave, and learn to obey them. Although they often overlap, there are still times when breaking a rule is the right thing to do. Other moral and political cultures may not believe, for example, in universal principles independent of the social order.
Since Kohlberg’s theory questions whether even teenagers can attain this level of moral reasoning, these studies throw considerable doubt on his conclusions. Reading this, I would presume that piaget had no theory about moral development and only a cognitive development theory. The notes are very good and helpful to me in my studies of Masters of Science in counseling in Zambia, Africa. The HealthInfoNet respects such culturally sensitive issues, but, for technical reasons, it has not been possible to provide materials in a way that prevents access by a person of the other gender. Those living in coastal areas were less likely to move around because food was always plentiful. In places where there was plenty of food and water large groups might camp for weeks or months before moving on. The types of foods that were eaten depended a lot on where the people were living and the time of year.
The foods available in the Torres Strait varied between the islands, and the Islanders depended partly on simple forms of agriculture and trade.
Other groups that have been through similar rapid lifestyle changes include the Pima Indians and Native Americans. Almost double the number of women who smoked had low birthweight babies compared to women who didn't smoke, in both Indigenous and non-Indigenous women.
If necessary, other women who were also breastfeeding could feed a child whose mother could not feed for some reason.
This type of study, known as a longitudinal study, allows the researchers to investigate causes of diseases and other health issues.
By providing a wider variety of healthy foods and healthy ideas in their stores, the store owners also benefit by selling more of these products.
Sometimes what they are given is not enough or not healthy, or perhaps is contaminated if they live in areas where there is inadequate housing, no sewerage, or no fresh water. From here, horse and rider progress to the Training Level, and then First Level, Second Level, Third Level and Fourth Level.
Kohlberg theorized that there were 6 stages of moral development, separated into 3 levels: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional.
They begin by avoiding punishment, and quickly learn that by pleasing others they can secure positive benefits as well. These critics charge that Kohlberg’s ideas are simply an attempt to make his own moral beliefs appear to be psychological facts.
The best conjecture, however, may be that Kohlberg’s stages describe not a one-way process of psychological growth for an individual, but a categorization of different types of moral values, which may be developed and prioritized differently for different individuals and moral cultures. I mean Piaget had 2 stages of Moral Development, namely heteronomous morality and morality of Cooperation. Some of these foods were highly processed (manufactured) so they could survive long periods of transport and storage, but they were often very high in fat, sugar and salt. Individual children can then have their weight and height compared to these charts to see if they are less than, the same as, or greater than the charts.
The traditional way was to breastfeed for up to four years, sometimes longer, gradually introducing nutritious bush foods.
Upon successful completion of the lower levels, the horse and rider are ready to perform at the FEI (Federation Equestrian International) levels of dressage consisting of Prix St. Age ranges are considerably more vague in Kohlberg’s theory, as children vary quite significantly in their rate of moral development. His theory also seems to have a troubling normative aspect – that is, it seems to suggest that certain kinds of moral reasoning are better than others. Some notes may kindly be given on OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) which is a general phenomenon now-a-days.
These are not mentioned, and I think they are important given there is reference here to Piaget’s Cognitive Development model.
When they did not receive enough food from their bosses, the Indigenous people would collect bush foods. This can develop into a vicious cycle: the children are undernourished so their bodies cannot fight the infections, so they get sick, and when they are sick they are at risk of getting more infections because the food they eat is not making them strong enough to fight the infections.
The parallel with Piaget’s sensorimotor phase is obvious – for a child whose conceptual framework does not extend beyond their own senses and movements, the moral concepts of right and wrong would be difficult to develop. In the second, they extend that principle to cover the whole of their society, believing that morality is what keeps the social order intact. This, of course, presupposes certain moral assumptions, and so from a philosophical perspective Kohlberg’s argument is circular. Within each level are a series of graduated tests increasing in difficulty through whih the horse and rider must progress. Kohlberg believed that many people stay in this stage for their whole lives, deriving moral principles from social or religious authority figures and never thinking about morality for themselves.
This in turn can mean that mothers are not as strong and healthy as they could be, and this will have a bad effect on their babies.
Only the most dedicated and accomplished horse and rider teams have the privilege of competing at the Grand Prix level and in international dressage competitions.



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