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In Finland pre-primary education is given to children aged 3 to 6 generally in day care centres.
Upper secondary education includes upper secondary general education and vocational education. In 2003, a total of 581,000 persons were studying in post-basic level education leading to a qualification. A total of 14,700 foreigners (foreign citizens) were attending education leading to a qualification, of whom nearly every fourth were Russian.
In 2002, a total of 134,000 persons were employed by comprehensive schools, upper secondary general schools, vocational institutions, polytechnics and universities. Comprehensive school pupils usually start studying a common foreign language (A1 language) in the third grade, when 90 per cent of the pupils learn A1 English. Almost all students in upper secondary general education studied English, Swedish and Finnish either as a mother tongue, common or optional language. In 2003, a total of 54,100 vocational qualifications were taken, of which 72 per cent were initial vocational qualifications and 28 per cent further and specialist qualifications. A total of 97 per cent of those having left the comprehensive school in 2003 sought admission in the same year either to upper secondary general education or vocational education or additional education (10th grade) and as many as 94 per cent were able to continue their studies. University graduates are placed best into working life in the short term, because nearly 90 per cent of those who graduated in 2001 were in working life by the end of 2002. Information on discontinuation of education was derived by following in September 2002 the situation of students attending post-comprehensive school education leading to a qualification in September 2001. Is a learner-centered system for credit accumulation and transfer based on the transparency of learning outcomes and learning processes.
It aims at facilitating the planning, delivery, evaluation, recognition and validation of qualifications and units of learning as well as student mobility. As part of the construction of higher education in the European region, the teaching at universities was reorganized according to the “Bachelor - Master - Doctorate plan (BMD)” which is defined by the Bologna process (19th June 1999).
The objective of an IUT is to create high-level technicians in 2 years (DUT – University - level Degree in Technology).
According to the level of success of their students, they prepare them for professional integration by 2 or 3 years of studies.
Both this legacy and degrees certification makes a reputation for quality for French tertiary education institutions.
Moreover, France owes its economic success to its research capacity and to its achievements in the fields of space, transportation, electronics, telecommunications, chemistry, biotechnology, health, and mathematics. The universities offer programs in all disciplines, including the sciences (mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology), technology (computer science, engineering, electrotechnics, materials), literature, languages, the arts, the social sciences, law, economics, business, health and medicine, and physical education. Deeply committed to their corporate, academic, and research partners in France and abroad, the nation’s universities daily demonstrate their dynamism and their ability to respond to change.
University-based engineering programs now confer 60% of the engineering degrees awarded in France each year. More than 2.000 career-oriented licence degrees, known as licences professionnelles, are available. Technical programs are offered in 24 specialty areas in university-based institutes of technology (IUTs, instituts universitaires de technologie).
Management programs are available in university-based institutes of business administration (IAE, instituts d’administration des entreprises).
Unique to France, the first Grandes Écoles were established in the early 19th century to operate in parallel with the universities.
All Grandes Écoles offer five-year diplomas recognized by the government to be equivalent to the European master. More than 200 schools of engineering, public and private, run the gamut of engineering sciences. These institutions offer government-accredited degrees as well as other credentials specific to the institution that confers them.


Upper secondary general education is general education preparing for the matriculation examination. They and initial vocational qualifications can also be taken by a skills examination where competence acquired by training preparing for the skills examination or by work experience can be demonstrated.
A lower university degree can be completed in three years and a higher university degree in five years.
The level of education was highest in Kauniainen, where 80 per cent of people aged 15 or over had taken some post-basic level qualification.
The number is 15,400 lower than the total number of students calculated in all sectors of education, 596,400, which is primarily used as the number of students in this review. Over 90 per cent of those aged 16 to 18, good one half of 19 to 24-year-olds and over one quarter of those aged 25 to 29 were studying in some post-basic level education leading to a qualification. There were particularly many foreigners in post-graduate education, 6.3 per cent of all students. The average age at the completion of the matriculation examination was 19, and initial vocational qualifications were taken at the age of 21, polytechnic degrees at 26 and basic university degrees at 27.
Providers of education (municipalities, joint municipal boards, private corporations, foundations) numbered 918, which is seven lower than the year before. A total of 121,800 students were in upper secondary general education, 57 of whom were female.
In spring 2003, among those who had completed the entire upper secondary general education syllabus 41 per cent had studied German, 21 per cent French, eight per cent Spanish and five per cent Russian. A total of 174,800 students were studying in vocational education, of whom 84 per cent were in initial vocational education and 16 per cent in education preparing for further and specialist vocational qualifications. Altogether 129,900 students were studying in polytechnic education, nearly 500 for a post-graduate polytechnic degree. A total of 169,800 students were in university education leading to a qualification and 54 per cent of them were women.
The number of participating cases recorded in adult education was 2.8 million and the hours of instruction 11 million.
In all, 75 per cent of those having completed the matriculation examination in 2003 applied for further studies during the year of matriculation and 38 per cent were able to get in. Those who had completed comprehensive and upper secondary general education mostly carried on in full-time education. The number of drop-outs in upper secondary general education and university education was lowest compared with the number of students, four per cent in upper secondary general education and five per cent in universities. ECTS is widely used in formal higher education and can be applied to other lifelong learning activities. The students can also continue after their degree with longer or shorter studies (bachelor, master).
The establishment of a new network of research and higher education clusters reaffirms the country’s determination to maintain its high profile as a knowledge economy.
Examples include CELSA at the University of Paris- Sorbonne and the Centre Universitaire d’Enseignement du Journalisme at the University of Strasbourg.
Their distinction then, as now, lay in offering professional education at a very high level.
They may also offer intermediate degrees and specialized diplomas, among them the bachelor (in three or four years), the Master of Science (MSc) (in four or five years), the master of business administration (MBA), and the specialized mastère (MS) (six years). The degree may be earned in two to five years, depending on the amount of credit the applicant receives for his or her prior academic work. Operating at a variety of levels, France’s many schools of business and management offer programs geared to economic requirements and new management practices. Those having attained a higher university degree can continue their studies in post-graduate education towards a licentiate or doctorate. This figure is one percentage point up on the previous year and 32 percentage points higher than in 1975.


In the latter figure students may study for one or more qualifications within the same or different sector of education (upper secondary general, vocational, polytechnic or university education), which means that students are taken into account in all types of education they were studying. The number of foreigners was lowest among students in upper secondary general education, 1.6 per cent. The number of teachers was 43,800 in comprehensive schools, 7,500 in upper secondary general schools, 13,900 in vocational institutions, 5,800 in polytechnics and 7,700 in universities. Pre-primary, primary and lower secondary and upper secondary general education accounted for 46 per cent of the current expenditure, vocational education (including apprenticeship training) for 14 per cent, polytechnic education for eight per cent and university education and research for 18 per cent. In 2003, 35,200 completed the matriculation examination, 229 the IB (International Baccalaureat), 43 the Reifeprüfung and 58 the Gymnasieexamen examinations. In all, 18,200 degrees were completed in universities, of which 3,300 were lower university degrees, 12,400 higher university degrees, 600 specialist degrees in medicine, 600 licentiates and 1,300 doctorates. The number of participating cases was three per cent and the number hours of instruction was 6 per cent higher than in the previous year. The corresponding proportion was highest in vocational education, where the ratio of drop-outs to the number of students was 12 per cent. The well-known La Sorbonne was founded in 1253 and has seen generations of students since centuries. France carries out an elite policy in the tertiary education industry to increase its attractiveness. The traditional path into the Grandes Écoles was by examination following two years of preparatory classes. Compulsory education starts in the year the child becomes seven years old and ends when the comprehensive school syllabus (nine years of comprehensive school) has been completed or when ten years have passed since the starting of compulsory education. Vocational education can take place in vocational institutions or as apprenticeship training. Under 60-year-old and particularly 20 to 39-year-old women are more highly educated than men are. The level of education was lowest in Rautavaara, where 39 per cent of those aged 15 had completed some post-basic level qualification. The remaining 14 per cent concerned expenditure on administration, student financial aid and other education.
One fifth of those with vocational upper secondary or vocational post-secondary level qualifications went on studying.
In exceptional cases, due to disability or illness, compulsory education can begin already at the age of six and last 11 years. Apprenticeship training mainly involves studying in actual work situations at place of work supplemented by theoretical studies at educational institutions.
Discontinuation of education was slightly lower than in the previous year in all sectors of education. The best management Masters in the world is French and five French institutions are in the top 10 according to the Financial Times. However many schools offer admission to a 5-year curriculum directly from secondary school.
Those who have acquired a leaving certificate from basic education in the same or previous year can, if they so wish, apply for additional education (10th grade). The qualifications are three-year initial vocational qualifications that also provide general eligibility for further studies in polytechnics and universities. Every fifth pupil in comprehensive school received part-time special education during the term 2002 to 2003 due to slight learning and adjustment difficulties.



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