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QUALITY AND SAFETY FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL NURSING: CORE COMPETENCIES helps nurses become leaders in providing safer, higher-quality care.
Ensuring Product SafetyThe NEC Group has a global first basic policy when it comes to worldwide product capabilities, ensuring it complies with international standards from the outset based on the standpoint of ensuring product safety.
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Food safety training for Walmart associates fosters positive behavior by linking it to key values such as respect, service and excellence. To improve food safety outcomes, educating consumers about food safety must go beyond providing information to evoke behavioral change, according to Frank Yiannas, Walmart’s VP of food safety. That was the crux of Yiannas’ presentation at a recent conference hosted by the Partnership for Food Safety Education. Get FREE access to authoritative breaking news, videos, podcasts, webinars and white papers.
Over a decade has passed since the Institute of Medicine’s reports on the need to improve the American healthcare system, and yet only slight improvement in quality and safety has been reported.
Viewing nurses’ work through the lens of quality and safety requires a contemporary approach that incorporates systems thinking. AACN implementation and evaluation of impact of incorporating the QSEN content into 22 schools of nursing in the San Francisco Bay area. Although QSEN competencies have spurred quality and safety in nursing education, it is now time to accelerate their use and impact.
Systems thinking is the ability to recognize, understand, and synthesize the interactions and interdependencies in a set of components designed for a specific purpose. The clinical environment is an ideal place to teach systems thinking in undergraduate, graduate, and staff development education. Assessment tools are available from the Clinical Microsystem (2013) Green Books for inpatient, emergency room, long-term care, and outpatient groups. Nurses can also learn systems thinking by creating flowcharts or process diagrams that elicit the steps of a care process and the multitude of healthcare workers involved in that process. Almost 10 years have passed since the QSEN competencies were developed, and the field of quality and safety is rapidly advancing.
Related ArticlesBuilding Linkages between Nursing Care and Improved Patient Outcomes: The Role of Health Information TechnologyPatricia C. Thorough and up-to-date, it reflects best practices identified by AACN, Institute of Medicine, Institute for Healthcare Improvement, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and others. Its content has been developed from recommendations and best practices identified by AACN, Institute of Medicine, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and pertinent nursing theory and research. Consequently, there has been a Company-wide rebuild of the Quality and Safety Risk Management System since October 2000 and this is being operated thoroughly. Accordingly, the NEC Group strives to ensure the safety of hardware products, including those for the domestic market, based on the IEC 60950-1 (JIS C 6950-1) international standard of safety. American Society of Microbiology research found that one third of men don’t wash their hands after using the restroom. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) initiative was developed to integrate quality and safety competencies into nursing education. These reports highlighted the need to redesign systems of care to better serve patients in the complex healthcare environment. The QSEN initiative consisted of the development of quality and safety competencies that serve as a resource for nursing faculty to integrate contemporary quality and safety content into nursing education (QSEN Institute, 2013).
A crucial skill, systems thinking helps nurses to meet the challenge of improving healthcare as they move beyond the application of the QSEN competencies from individual patients and families to accelerate the overall improvement of healthcare quality and safety. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in 2005 funded QSEN Phase 1 and three subsequent phases followed (Table 1). This strategy includes the ability to recognize patterns and repetitions in interactions and an understanding of how actions and components can reinforce or counteract each other.
Most nurses provide care in healthcare organizations that are characterized as complex, multilevel, and multifunctional. Given the hypothesized importance of systems thinking in the success of quality and safety in healthcare, it is probable that if nurses engage in better systems thinking, greater improvements in outcomes will be achieved. Yet, there has been little knowledge disseminated about how to assist nurses to better engage in this type of thought process, despite their key roles in planning, delivering, and improving patient care in complex organizations. During the clinical experience, the faculty preceptor can broaden the learner’s problem identification from a focus on personal effort in a single situation to a focus on sequences of events with possible multiple causes for both individuals and populations. These free workbooks from the Dartmouth Institute have been developed to help individuals assess the complexity of the system in which they work.
Root cause analysis (RCA) is a widely used technique to assist people to move beyond blame of an individual for errors made in the workplace to understanding the system factors that may have contributed to errors.
The book Set Phasers to Stun (Casey, 1998) includes stories of design, technology, and human error that can be discussed in class. Faculty need to assist learners to look for and recognize patterns in systems of care by standing back, reflecting on data, and considering the system as a whole. Moore and colleagues tested three groups of healthcare professions students (n= 102) who received high, low, or no dose levels of systems thinking education. However, we have observed that, despite the fact that contemporary approaches to quality and safety emphasize a systems view, much of the nursing education approach to teaching quality and safety (including application of the QSEN competencies) emphasizes personal effort at the individual level of care. Dolansky is an Associate Professor at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, OH.
Specifically, to clarify the management framework for this area, NEC has established company-wide rules and standards and has appointed managers responsible for safety and quality management at each business division to ensure that the mechanisms and systems for legal compliance, especially those related to product quality and safety, have been properly established and are being operated appropriately.
IEC 60950-1is an international safety technology standard that is broadly recognized as the global standard for IT equipment.

We need to influence and change people’s behavior.”Toward that end, Yiannas offered conference attendees four behavioral science principles. The current challenge is for nurses to move beyond the application of QSEN competencies to individual patients and families and incorporate systems thinking in quality and safety education and healthcare delivery. The focus of QSEN, now the QSEN Institute, has expanded from undergraduate nursing students’ education to include quality and safety education for all nurses.
In this article, we review the history of QSEN and propose a framework that expands nursing focus from individual care based on personal effort and care of the individual to systems thinking and care of the system. The major QSEN contribution to healthcare education was the creation of six QSEN competencies (modeled after the IOM reports) and the pre-licensure and graduate-level knowledge, skills, and attitude (KSA) statements for each competency (Cronenwett et al., 2007).
The full effect of the QSEN competencies to improve the quality and safety of care can only be realized when nurses apply them at both the individual and system levels of care. These relationships and patterns occur at different dimensions: temporal, spatial, social, technical or cultural (Oshry, 2007). Greater knowledge and application of systems thinking skills by nurses have the potential to mitigate errors in practice, improve nurse priority setting and delegation, enhance problem solving and decision-making, improve timing and quality of interactions with other professionals and patients, and enhance workplace quality improvement initiatives.
Knowledge and skills associated with systems thinking, however, are seldom addressed in basic or continuing nursing education.
To teach systems thinking it is important to enhance the learner’s awareness of the interdependencies in people, processes, and services and to view problems as occurring as part of a chain of events of a larger system, rather than as independent events. Table 2 provides examples of this continuum of systems thinking using the QSEN competencies.
For example, to improve the care coordination of preparing hospitalized patients for discharge, teams of healthcare professionals could map steps in the course of a patient’s stay leading to discharge.
Healthcare organizations routinely perform RCA after an event so that appropriate changes can be made in the system to prevent future errors.
Too often in healthcare we make quick judgments that are based on limited information and preconceived ideas.
The Systems Thinking Scale (STS) is an instrument that measures healthcare professionals’ systems thinking specifically related to system interdependencies.
We propose that the current QSEN competencies and knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) be reviewed and evaluated.
Although we believe that personal expertise of the nurse with individual patients is necessary, a safe and high quality system of care requires that all healthcare professionals take responsibility to learn and apply skills associated with improving the wider system of care.
Development and evaluation of a 3-day patient safety curriculum to advance knowledge, self-efficacy and system thinking among medical students. Nursing student medication errors: A root cause analysis to develop a fair and just culture. Mastering improvement science skills in the new era of quality and safety: The Veterans Affairs National Quality Scholars Program. Creativity and connections: Building the framework for the future of nursing education and practice. Developing a measure of system thinking: A key component in the advancement of the science of QI. A systems approach for implementing practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice in graduate medical education. Key concepts are illuminating through case studies, clear objectives, Best Evidence boxes, and other proven pedagogical features.
Throughout, it illuminates key concepts through case studies, clear chapter objectives, Best Evidence boxes, and other proven pedagogical features.Hallmark Features Helps prepare students to implement best practices identified by the field's leading experts and researchers. Based on quality and safety risk management action policies, NEC has instituted programs to prevent serious quality issues, and their reoccurrence. Furthermore, to augment the IEC 60950 standard, NEC has established the Group Safety Standards, which include additional proprietary safety measures, as well as the Basic Safety Standards at an even higher level. The first was consistency and commitment, the notion that people want to act in a way that is consistent with their values and making a commitment seals the deal. Establishing a positive behavior as a social norm involves making people aware that a majority of their peers engage in that behavior, Yiannas said. This article provides a history of QSEN and proposes a framework in which systems thinking is a critical aspect in the application of the QSEN competencies. The mission of QSEN is to address the challenge of assuring that nurses have the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) necessary to continuously improve the quality and safety of the healthcare systems in which they work. Examples are provided to demonstrate how to integrate systems thinking in the application of QSEN competencies and how systems thinking can be taught and measured.
The competency statements provide a tool for faculty and staff development educators to identify gaps in curriculum so that changes to incorporate quality and safety education can be made (Barnsteiner et al., 2013). The next sections describe strategies for teaching and learning systems thinking, especially as related to QSEN competencies, and a newly developed tool for measurement of systems thinking. An example of a teaching technique for systems thinking is to have learners create grids such as those presented in Table 2 to expand their scope of thinking from the individual to the system level of care.
For example, urinary care is connected to the National Quality Forum (2012) Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) prevention and the Joint Commission’s (2013c) National Patient Safety Goal Number 7.
This exercise has been shown to increase knowledge about system factors and enhance awareness of the importance of interprofessional collaboration (Brennen, Olds, Dolansky, Estrada, & Patrician, in press).
Teaching nurses to step back and consider the dependencies and interconnectedness of system components will lead to a broader understanding of the healthcare system and the quality of care that results from that system.
We argue, therefore, that the QSEN competencies should be integrated into nursing curriculum and practice with a strong systems-perspective emphasis. Dolansky is Director of the QSEN Institute (Quality and Safety Education for Nurses) and Senior Fellow in the VA Quality Scholars program, mentoring pre- and post-doctoral students in quality and safety science. She is a past President of the Academy for Healthcare Improvement and is on the leadership team of the national Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) project. A framework for the continual improvement of health care: Building and applying professional and improvement knowledge to test changes in daily work.

Reflects recommendations by AACN, Institute of Medicine, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.Addresses all the structural, philosophical, and behavioral changes needed to improve quality and safety in nursing and throughout the healthcare system Presents, compares, and critiques multiple perspectives. These efforts include improving safety and reliability technologies, standardizing critical components and conducting programs to share expertise. Based on these standards, NEC implements risk assessments and designates the necessary Group safety standards. We provide examples of how using this framework expands nursing focus from individual care to care of the system and propose ways to teach and measure systems thinking. Yet national healthcare quality organizations, such as the Leapfrog Group, report that the majority of hospitals have demonstrated little progress in improving quality and safety. The QSEN website serves as a national educational resource and a repository for nurses to publish contemporary teaching strategies focused on the six competencies: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidenced-based practice, quality improvement, and informatics. Students might obtain outcome data from their unit and identify reasons for variation across time. For example, having students conduct an RCA for addressing a medication error may lend a new perspective to how system level factors interact with individual level factors in the creation of that error. Highly effective and very interactive, the game Friday Night in the ER (2009) guarantees learning and fun.
The STS is now publicly available for use and a website has been established to provide information on its use (Case Western Reserve University, 2013a).
Nurse faculty and staff development educators must critically evaluate the extent to which they apply QSEN competencies and at what levels. She has co-published two books on quality improvement, co-authored several book chapters and articles, and was guest editor on a special quality improvement education issue in the Journal of Quality Management in Health Care. She is currently leading the integration of nurse scholars in the VA Quality Scholars Program.
Compares, evaluates, and integrates the full spectrum of opinions and methods concerning quality and safety in nursing.Helps students learn from a wide range of viewpoints and stakeholders throughout the healthcare system Connects actual practice with key concepts. NEC is prepared to respond to serious systems disruptions and serious product incidents that have a large societal impact. The conclusion calls for movement from personal effort and individual care to a focus on care of the system that will accelerate improvement of healthcare quality and safety. For example, although we know that zero central line infections should be a reality in hospitals, thousands of infections are still reported each year (Clark, 2013). Linda Cronenwett, PhD, RN, FAAN, the founder of QSEN, often states that QSEN helps nurses to identify and bridge the gaps between what is and what should be and helps nurses focus their work from the lens of quality and safety (Personal Communication, 2013). Traditionally, nurses have focused primarily on vigilant individual care; less attention has been given to assisting nurses to provide vigilant systems of care. Enhancing systems thinking skills also can be done by having learners complete an assessment of their unit or microsystem.
The game is played by four people and simulates the challenge of managing a hospital during a 24-hour period. The QSEN competencies were developed to be a tool to promote better education for nurses in healthcare quality and safety.
She also is conducting NIH-funded studies testing a process improvement approach to health behavior change with patients. The Veterans Affairs National Quality Scholars (VAQS) Program: A model for interprofessional education in quality and safety. Includes case studies throughout, and illuminating both concepts and best practices.Brings abstract concepts to life, making theory more useful and easier to apply Best Evidence boxes help students apply the latest research to safe, quality care. In these cases, NEC will issue an urgent risk management report (via rapid escalation to management) along with holding Emergency Action Meetings to formulate responses in terms of communication with customers and regulators, the mass media and the general public, and so forth. This is to ensure that products conform in detail to laws and regulations in Japan, such as the Electrical Appliances and Materials Safety Act, Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Information Technology Equipment (VCCI) standards, the Radio Act and the Telecommunications Business Act. We propose that in addition to the emphasis on teaching critical thinking skills (Simpson & Courtney, 2002), nurses also need to be taught the knowledge and skills associated with systems thinking. We need to update the QSEN competencies to be as useful as possible to prepare all nurses to ensure the highest level of care possible.
Shows how to apply research to deliver safer, higher-quality care.Helps students promote quality and safety as participants in initiatives promoting evidence-based care Helps empower nurses and support them in driving effective change.
These meetings will be attended by not just the relevant business divisions, but also the principal corporate staff divisions. Products for overseas markets must also conform in detail with the laws and regulations of various countries. Includes a full chapter on the capacity of nurses to strengthen safety and quality throughout the health care system.Supports students in promoting their careers and the profession as a whole, and helping the entire healthcare system fully benefit from nurses' unique expertise Helps prepare students for the future of nursing. In this way, NEC has established a framework for determining company-wide policy in response to such serious issues by promptly deliberating responses. Furthermore, quality and safety management systems are monitored and audited internally by the internal auditing division based on company-wide rules and standards. In October 2010, NEC revised its rules for responding to serious systems disruptions and serious product incidents at customers’ sites by requiring the relevant business divisions to ensure the direct escalation of information to management.
The goal is to strengthen the escalation of critical quality issues that have occurred at customers' sites.
With this step, we operate a system that assures a rapid response as "One NEC."Safety Education (HR development for realizing safety and security)Skills training programs and other types of human resource development are a vital part of our ongoing efforts to raise the quality and safety of NEC products.
In particular, NEC managers responsible for safety and quality management are crucial to quality and safety risk management.
NEC also nurtures a large number of safety technology experts by providing safety technology training through safety review practice using actual devices.

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