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admin | Category: What Cause Ed | 10.03.2014
I want to win Corel Paint beuscae I'm learning to draw and paint and I want to be able to learn to use computer graphics programs. Bien qu’il soit generalement percu comme le plus grand genie du XXeme siecle, nous connaissons tres mal Albert Einstein.
Le genie allemand n’avait de cesse de se mefier des mouvements de groupe, des humeurs populaires. Pour Albert Einstein, le genie humain ne peut se materialiser que par une vision independante des choses, epuree des prejuges du groupe, au sens large du terme.
Communication verbale et non verbale : ce que vous montrez est 13 fois plus important que ce que vous dites ! AC TIG Welding on Aluminum The aluminations series of technical articles provides answers to commonly asked questions about TIG welding aluminum. Burnback Wire Stubbing Porosity Q & A Problems when MIG welding aluminum often result from an inadequate or improperly adjusted wire feed system. Microprocessor Q & A Most of us don't realize that many items we use every day have a microprocessor chip inside. Welding cannot take its proper place as an engineering tool unless means are provided for conveying the information from the designer to the workmen. The tail of the symbol is used for designating the welding and cutting processes as well as the welding specifications, procedures, or the supplementary information to be used in making the weld.
Letter designations have not been assigned to arc spot, resistance spot, arc seam, resistance seam, and projection welding since the weld symbols used are adequate. Inch marks are used for indicating the diameter of arc spot, resistance spot, and circular projection welds, and the width of arc seam and resistance seam welds when such welds are specified by decimal dimensions. In general, inch, degree, and pound marks may or may not be used on welding symbols, as desired.
Dimensions of fillet welds must be shown on the same side of the reference line as the weld symbol (A, fig. Unless otherwise specified, staggered intermittent fillet welds on both sides shall be symmetrically spaced as in figure 3-32.
Finish symbols used here indicate the method of finishing (" c" = chiping, "G" = grinding, "H" = hammering, "M" = machining), not the degree of finish.
Pour expliquer la theorie de la relativite par exemple, Einstein disait: « Placez votre main sur un poele une minute et ca vous semble durer une heure.
When trying to find the least expensive way to add a gas tungsten arc welder there may be some factors to consider. If a welder knows the size and type of weld, he has only part of the information necessary for making the weld. 3-5), the process may be indicated by one or more of the letter designations shown in tables 3-1 and 3-2. Plug, Slot, Arc Spot, Arc Seam, Resistance Spot, Resistance Seam, and Projection Welding Symbols. Welds extending completely around a joint are indicated by mans of the weld-all-around symbol (fig. Field welds are welds not made in a shop or at the place of initial construction and are indicated by means of the field weld symbol (fig. Weld symbols, except resistance spot and resistance seam, must be shown only on the welding symbol reference line and not on the lines of the drawing. Resistance spot and resistance seam weld symbols may be placed directly at the locations of the desired welds (fig. Fillet, bevel and J-groove, flare bevel groove, and corner flange symbols shall be shown with the perpendicular leg always to the left (fig. In a bevel or J-groove weld symbol, the arrow shall point with a definite break toward the member which is to be chamfered (fig. Information on welding symbols shall be placed to read from left to right along the reference line in accordance with the usual conventions of drafting (fig. The letters CP in the tail of the arrow indicate a complete penetration weld regardless of the type of weld or joint preparation (fig. When the basic weld symbols are inadequate to indicate the desired weld, the weld shall be shown by a cross section, detail, or other data with a reference on the welding symbol according to location specifications given in para 3-7 (fig.
When fillet welds are indicated on both sides of a joint and a general note governing the dimensions of the welds appears on the drawing, neither weld need be dimensioned. The size of a fillet weld must of a fillet weld be shown to the left of the weld symbol (A, fig. The size the fillet weld with unequal legs must be shown in parentheses to left of the weld symbol.
Unless otherwise indicated, the deposited fillet weld size must not be less than the size shown on the drawing. When penetration for a given root opening is specified, the inspection method for determining penetration depth must be included in the applicable specification. The length of a fillet weld, when indicated on the welding symbol, must be shown to the right of the weld symbol (A through D, fig. When fillet welding extends for the full distance between abrupt changes in the direction of the welding, no length dimension need be shown on the welding symbol. Specific lengths of fillet welding may be indicated by symbols in conjunction with dimension lines (fig.
Use one type of hatching (with or without definite lines) to show the extent of fillet welding graphically.
Fillet welding extending beyond abrupt changes in the direction of the welding must be indicated by additional arrows pointing to each section of the joint to be welded (fig. The pitch (center-to-center spacing) of intermittent fillet welding shall be shown as the distance between centers of increments on one side of the joint. The pitch of intermittent fillet welding shall be shown to the right of the length dimension (A, fig 3-27). Dimensions of chain intermittent fillet welding must be shown on both sides of the reference line.
Dimensions of staggered intermittent fillet welding must be shown on both sides of the reference line as shown in figure 3-31. When intermittent fillet welding is used by itself, the symbol indicates that increments are located at the ends of the dimensioned length.
When intermittent fillet welding is used between continuous fillet welding, the symbol indicates that spaces equal to the pitch minus the length of one increment shall be left at the ends of the dimensioned length. Separate symbols must be used for intermittent and continuous fillet welding when the two are combined along one side of the joint (fig. Fillet welds that are to be welded approximately flat, convex, or concave faced without recourse to any method of finishing must be shown by adding the flush, convex, or concave contour symbol to the weld symbol, in accordance with the location specifications given in paragraph 3-7 (A, fig.
Fillet welds that are to be made flat faced by mechanical means must be shown by adding both the flush contour symbol and the user's standard finish symbol to the weld symbol, in accordance with location specifications given in paragraph 3-7 (B, fig.


Fillet welds that are to be mechanically finished to a convex contour shall be shown by adding both the convex contour symbol and the user's standard finish symbol to the weld symbol, in accordance with location specifications given in paragraph 3-7 (C, fig. Fillet welds that are to be mechanically finished to a concave contour must be shown by adding both the concave contour symbol and the user's standard finish symbol to the weld symbol in accordance with location specification given in paragraph 3-7. In cases where the angle between fusion faces is such that the identification of the type of weld and the proper weld symbol is in question, the detail of the desired joint and weld configuration must be shown on the drawing. The depth of chamfering and the root penetration must read in that order from left to right along the reference line (A and B, fig.
This symbol shall be drawn on the side of the reference line toward the reader and the arrow shall point clearly to the surface on which the weld is to be deposited. The radius and height must read in that order from left to right along the reference line (C, fig. Drawing or sketching is a universal language used to convey all necessary information to the individual who will fabricate or assemble an object. Various methods of reproduction have been developed which will produce prints of different colors from the master copy. The title block contains the drawing number and all the information required to identify the part or assembly represented. A special block or box on the drawing may contain a list of necessary stock to make an assembly.
The scheme for symbolic representation of welds on engineering drawings used in this manual is consistent with the "third angle" method of projection.
3-2) is used to designate the type of weld to be made, its location, dimensions, extent, contour, and other supplementary information. The process, identification of filler metal that is to be used, whether or not peening or root chipping is required, and other pertinent data must be related to the welder. Weld symbols are used to indicate the welding processes used in metal joining operations, whether the weld is localized or "all around", whether it is a shop or field weld, and the contour of welds. Figures 3-7 and 3-8 illustrate the weld-all-around and field weld symbol, and resistance spot and resistance seam welds. These symbols are used in many welding processes in congestion with welding symbols and are used as shown in figure 3-3. For these symbols, the arrow connects the welding symbol reference line to one side of the joint and this side shall be considered the arrow side of the joint (fig.
For these symbols, the arrow connects the welding symbol reference line to the outer surface of one member of the joint at the center line of the desired weld. When a joint is depicted by a single line on the drawing and the arrow of a welding symbol is directed to this line, the arrow side of the joint is considered as the near side of the joint, in accordance with the usual conventions of drafting (fig. When a joint is depicted as an area parallel to the plane of projection in a drawing and the arrow of a welding symbol is directed to that area, the arrow side member of the joint is considered as the near member of the joint, in accordance with the usual conventions of drafting (fig. Welds on the arrow side of the joint are shown by placing the weld symbol on the side of the reference line toward the reader (fig. Welds on the other side of the joint are shown by placing the weld symbol on the side of the reference line away from the reader (fig. Welds on both sides of the joint are shown by placing weld symbols on both sides of the reference line, toward and away from the reader (fig.
Resistance spot, resistance seam, flash, weld symbols have no arrow side or other side significance in themselves, although supplementary symbols used in conjunction with these symbols may have such significance. When a specification, process, or other reference is used with a welding symbol, the reference is placed in the tail (fig.
When use of a definite process is required, the process may be indicated by the letter designations listed in tables 3-1 and 3-2 (fig. When no specification, process, or other reference is used with a welding symbol, the tail may be omitted (fig. Symbols apply between abrupt changes in the direction of the welding or to the extent of hatching of dimension lines, except when the weld-all-around symbol (fig.
Welding on hidden joints may be covered when the welding is the same as that of the visible joint.
However, if the dimensions of one or both welds differ from the dimensions given in the general note, both welds must be dimensioned (C or D, fig.
Weld orientation is not shown by the symbol and must be shown on the drawing when necessary (E, fig. Neither the plug weld symbol nor the slot weld symbol may be used to designate fillet welds in holes. Plug welds that are to be welded approximately flush without recourse to any method of finishing must be shown by adding the finish contour symbol to the weld symbol (fig.
Dimensions of slot welds must be shown on the same side of the reference line as the weld symbol (fig. Length, width, spacing, included angle of countersink, orientation, and location of slot welds cannot be shown on the welding symbols. The spot weld symbol, in accordance with its location in relation to the reference line, may or may not have arrow side or other side significance. Dimensions will be expressed in fractions or in decimals in hundredths of an inch and shall be shown, with or without inch marks, to the left of the weld symbol (A, fig.
When the exposed surface of one member of an arc spot or arc seam welded joint is to be flush, that surface must be indicated by adding the flush contour symbol (fig. Spacing, extent, orientation, and location of arc seam welds cannot be shown on the welding symbols. Bead-type back and backing welds of single-groove welds shall be shown by means of the back or backing weld symbol (fig.
The contour symbols for melt-thru welds are indicated in the same manner as that for fillet welds (fig. The size (height) of a surface built up by welding shall be indicated by showing the minimum height of the weld deposit to the left of the weld symbol. When the entire area of a plane or curved surface is to be built up by welding, no dimension, other than size, need be shown on the welding symbol.
In cases where the corner flange joint is not detailed, a break in the arrow is required to show which member is flanged (fig. For flange welds in which one or more pieces are inserted between the two outer pieces, the same symbol shall be used as for the two outer pieces, regardless of the number of pieces inserted. When a definite number of welds is desired in a certain joint, the number must be shown in parentheses either above or below the weld symbol (fig.
When the exposed surface of one member of a resistance spot welded joint is to be flush, that surface shall be indicated by adding the flush contour symbol (fig. The pitch of intermittent resistance seam welding shall be designated as the distance between centers of the weld increments and must be shown to the right of the length dimension (fig. When intermittent resistance seam welding is used by itself, the symbol indicates that increments are located at the ends of the dimensioned length.


When the exposed surface of one member of a projection welded joint is to be made flush, that surface shall be indicated by adding the flush contour symbol (fig. When a definite number of projection welds is desired in a certain joint, the number shall be shown in parentheses (F, fig.
When the projection welding extends less than the distance between abrupt changes in the direction of the welding or less than the full length of the joint, the extent shall be dimensioned (fig. When the exposed surface of one member of a resistance seam welded joint is to be flush, that surface shall be indicated by adding the flush contour symbol (fig. Flash or upset weld symbols have no arrow side or other side significance in themselves, although supplementary symbols used in conjunction with then may have such significance. Prints are also used to illustrate how various equipment is operated, maintained, repaired, or lubricated. Approved military prints will include the name and address of the Government Agency or organization preparing the drawing, the scale, the drafting record, authentication, and the date. If a print has more than one sheet and each sheet has the same number, this information is included in the number block, indicating the sheet number and the number of sheets in the series.
Cutting plane lines are dashed lines, generally of the same width as the full lines, extending through the area being cut.
Extension lines are fine lines from the outside edges or intermediate points of a drawn object. Break lines are used to show a break in a drawing and are used when it is desired to increase the scale of a drawing of uniform cross section while showing the true size by dimension lines.
The notation to be placed in the tail of the symbol indicating these data is to be establish by each user. Welds that are completely around a joint which includes more than one type of weld, indicated by a combination weld symbol, are also depicted by the weld-all-around symbol.
In cases where the member to be chamfered is obvious, the break in the arrow may be omitted. When the depth of filling is less than complete, the depth of filling shall be shown in inches inside the weld symbol (B, fig.
This data must be shown on the drawing or by a detail with a reference to it on the welding symbol, in accordance with location specifications given in paragraph 3-7 (D, fig. Dimensions must be shown on the same side of the reference line as the symbol or on either side when the symbol is located astride the reference line and has no arrow side or other side significance. 3-55) for back or backing welds are indicated in the same manner as that for fillet welds (para 3-21). The dimensions shall always be on the same side of the reference line as the weld symbol (fig. If only a portion of the area of a plane or curved surface is to be built up by welding, the extent, location, and orientation of the area to be built up shall be indicated on the drawing. 3-3) have no arrow or other side significance in themselves, although supplementary symbols used in con-junction with them may have such significance. When used between continuous resistance seam welding, the symbol indicates that spaces equal to the pitch minus the length of one increment are left at the ends of the dimensional length.
The original drawings for prints are made either by directly drawing or tracing a drawing on a translucent tracing paper or cloth using waterproof (India) ink or a special pencil. If two parts are to be shown in one detail drawing, both prints will have the same drawing number plus a dash and an individual number such as 7873102-1 and 7873102-2. Short solid wing lines at each end of the cutting line project at 90 degrees to that line and end in arrowheads which point in the direction of viewing. Accordingly, the terms arrow side, other side, and both sides are used herein to locate the weld with respect to the joint.
Welds completely around a joint in which the metal intersections at the points of welding are in more than one plane are also indicated by the weld-all-around symbol.
If the welding on the hidden joint is different from that of the visible joint, specific information for the welding of both must be given.
Plug welds that are to be welded flush by mechanical means must be shown by adding both the flush contour symbol and the user's standard finish symbol to the weld symbol (fig.
Separate symbols must be used for intermittent and continuous resistance seam welding when the two are combined. If a revision block is not used, a revised drawing may be shown by the addition of a letter to the original number.
Capital letters or numerals are placed just beyond the points of the arrows to designate the section.
Short break lines are usually heavy, wavy, semiparallel lines cutting off the object outline across a uniform section. The assembled "welding symbol" consists of the following eight elements, or any of these elements as necessary: reference line, arrow, basic weld symbols, dimensions and other data, supplementary symbols, finish symbols, tail, and specification, process, or other reference.
Additional reference lines may also be used to show data supplementary to welding symbol information included on the reference line nearest the arrow.
Holes or slots in the arrow side member of a joint for plug or slot welding must be indicated by placing the weld symbol on the side of the reference line toward the reader (A, fig. Then projection welding is to be used, the spot weld symbol shall be used with the projection welding process reference in the tail of the welding symbol. When no specific height of weld deposit is desired, no size dimension need be shown on the welding symbol. Long break lines are long dash parallel lines with each long dash in the line connected to the next by a "2" or sharp wave line. The locations of welding symbol elements with respect to each other are shown in figure 3-2. Resistance spot, resistance seam, flash, and upset weld symbols shall be centered on the reference line (fig. Holes or slots in the other side member of a joint shall be indicated by placing the weld symbol on the side of the reference line away from the reader (B, fig. When required, the weld-all-around symbol must be placed at the junction of the arrow line and reference line for each operation to which it applies (fig. Dimensions of plug welds must be shown on the same side of the reference line as the weld symbol. Included angle of countersink of plug welds must be the user's standard unless otherwise indicated. Included angle of countersink, when not the user's standard, must be shown either above or below the weld symbol (A and C, fig.
The pitch (center-to-center spacing) of plug welds shall be shown to the right of the weld symbol.



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