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admin | Category: Ed Treatment For Migraine | 10.10.2015
August 24, 2015 by Miami Vein Center Edema is the term used to describe a buildup of fluid in the tissues. Another common cause of lower leg edema is deep vein thrombosis (DVT), more simply known as a blood clot. Pregnancy has many vexing effects on the body, not the least of which is water retention and swelling.
People with diabetes often experience peripheral edema, or fluid retention in the feet, ankles, and lower legs, and it may occur on one or both sides.
At Miami Vein Center, we specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of many different vein conditions. Contrary to what one might imagine, our blood vessels are not waterproof and have pores that allow the input and output of cells, bacteria, proteins and water. When inflammation occurs, the blood vessels become more permeable to facilitate the arrival of the defense cells to the site of infection or trauma.
The process of edema formation in a trauma or infection is easy to understand and is thoroughly explained in the link above. The increase in venous pressure occurs when there is some kind of obstruction, even partial, of the venous blood flow. Similar mechanism occurs in case of heart failure, where a weak heart cannot pump blood efficiently, again favoring the same situation in the lower limbs. Both heart failure and venous insufficiency in the lower limb, edema appears and worsens when the patient stands for a long time and tends to disappear after a few hours in bed, when gravity does not exert opposing force.
One of the typical signs of swelling in the legs or locker is the Godet signal, which is the presence of a small sinking digital pressure to the skin. In some diseases, especially of renal origin, there is an accumulation of sodium (salt) in the body. The two mechanisms described above (vascular permeability and increased venous pressure) causes located edema, in the legs or the affected site of trauma or inflammation. Another mechanism for the formation of lumps is decreased blood viscosity, called the oncotic pressure, and is mainly caused by the protein concentration in blood. While the increase in pressure within the veins favors the leakage of liquids, the oncotic pressure acts the opposite way. When one has a condition which reduces the blood proteins (albumin is the major), the patient tends to form edema, even though the pressure within the veins is normal. A type of swelling characteristic of cirrhosis, and that is part of anasarca, is ascites, which occurs by leakage of fluid into the abdominal cavity. Another disease that can cause diffuse edema and ascites is the nephrotic syndrome, which is nothing more than a kidney disease where there is loss of protein in the urine.
There is a kind of swelling that occurs mainly in young and healthy people, normally associated with the menstrual period. Edema is often cyclical and many women take diuretics before the menstrual period for symptom relief. The diuretic wrongly indicated increases sodium retention, especially in the intervals between shots.
So healthy people should not use diuretics for small edemas in lower limbs, especially if associated with menstrual periods. A type of edema is common in clinical practice that occurs in a patient with long hospitalization, especially in the ICU. Well for the last two months I have been suffering from Iritis, related to my HLA-B27 gene (AS).
I’ve had to attend the eye clinic at Burnley general hospital regularly, and have had steriod injections in the right eye. Macular edema occurs when fluid and protein deposits collect on or under the macula of the eye, a yellow central area of the retina, causing it to thicken and swell. Macular edema is sometimes a complication appearing a few days or weeks after cataract surgery, but most such cases can be successfully treated with NSAID or cortisone eye drops.
Until recently there were no good treatments for macular edema caused by central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
The macula is the part of the retina responsible for sharp vision due to its high density of cone photoreceptors. When macular oedema occurs in the context of diabetic retinopathy, it is referred to as clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO). It is a member of the group of the spondyloarthropathies with a strong genetic predisposition. The typical patient is a young male, aged 20–40, when symptoms of the disease first appear, with chronic pain and stiffness in the lower part of the spine or sometimes the entire spine, often with pain referred to one or other buttock or the back of thigh from the sacroiliac joint.
Men are affected more than women by a ratio about of 3:1, with the disease usually taking a more painful course in men than women.
When the condition presents before the age of 18, it is relatively likely to cause pain and swelling of large limb joints, particularly the knee. Ankylosing spondylitis is one of a cluster of conditions known as seronegative spondyloarthropathies, in which the characteristic pathological lesion is an inflammation of the enthesis (the insertion of tensile connective tissue into bone).
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a systemic rheumatic disease meaning it affects the entire body and is one of the seronegative spondyloarthropathies.
The association of AS with HLA-B27 suggests that the condition involves CD8 T cells, which interact with HLA-B.
There has been a longstanding claim that AS arises from a cross-reaction between HLA-B27 and antigens of the Klebsiella bacterial strain (Tiwana et al. LONDON (SHARECAST) – Drugs companies AstraZeneca and Pozen said their jointly developed pain reliever Vimovo has received positive agreement for approval across 23 EU countries. The latest milestone for the drug results in a harmonised Summary of Product Characteristics and allows the drug developers to pursue pricing and reimbursement and national approvals.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects a tiny part of the retina, which is the light sensitive membrane at the back of the eye. It causes problems with central vision and can make reading or watching the television difficult. However, AMD does not cause total blindness as you still keep peripheral vision.The cause of AMD is not known but as the name suggests, it tends to occur in over-65s.
It is much more common in smokers and those whose eyes have been exposed to a lot of sunlight. There is some evidence that a healthy balanced diet rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin can be beneficial for eye health.
A research trial also showed that high doses of vitamins A,C,E and the minerals zinc and copper may help to slow down AMD. Cystoid macular edema, commonly called CME, is a painless disorder which affects the central retina or macula. Although the exact cause of CME is not known, it may accompany a variety of diseases such as retinal vein occlusion, uveitis, or diabetes. Sometimes, the vitreous (the gel that fills most of the eye) pulls on the macula causing CME.
In some cases, the swelling and inflammation which accompanies CME can cause glaucoma, a disorder which often occurs due to increased pressure inside the eye.
HLA B27 is an inherited gene marker associated with a number of related rheumatic diseases. This gene is found with highest prevalence in patients with ankylosing spondylosis (>90%), reactive arthritis (80%), and patients with the combination of peripheral arthritis and either psoriasis or inflammatory bowel disease (50%). Although it is true that patients with classic disease will show the presence of the HLA B27 gene between 50 and 90+% of the time, if you randomly take 100 persons with the gene marker, you may find evidence of disease in only 25% of the study group. When extended sitting is the culprit, edema is caused by blood and other fluids pooling in the tissues.
These can occur as a direct result of prolonged sitting, such as on long flights or road trips. As blood levels of alcohol rise, the body stops producing vasopressin, an antidiuretic hormone that controls how often you urinate.
Blood volume increases under the influence of pregnancy hormones, and downward pressure on the legs increases.
Edema in the lower legs of diabetics is typically caused by damage to capillaries caused by poorly controlled blood glucose. In fact, the excessive water flows to the interstitial space, the space between the tissue cells. With the enlargement of pores, there is a greater fluid extravasation into the surrounding tissues.
This increase has nothing to do with hypertension, which is the elevation of blood pressure.
This excess of salt increases the amount of body water, which consequently increases not only the blood pressure but also the venous pressure, favoring the appearance of bumps. Therefore, the formation of edema is a balance between the hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure.
In this case the swelling is widespread, since the lack of protein occurs throughout the body. In fact, any serious chronic disease may inhibit the production of albumin by the liver and cause edema. The patient ends up being dependent on medication and cannot establish a causal link with the diuretic. It is best to reduce salt intake, stop taking drugs that may cause edema as nifedipine, amlodipine, anti-inflammatory rosiglitazone and minoxidil.
The swelling may distort a person’s central vision, as the macula is near the center of the retina at the back of the eyeball. Laser photocoagulation has been used for macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).
It is situated at the centre of the back of the retina (the posterior pole), lying about 3mm lateral to the optic disc. It is thought to occur as a result of release of inflammatory mediators within the eye and if it is prolonged or recurring, permanent damage can occur. In the case of branch retinal vein occlusion, macular oedema occurs when the temporal vein draining the macula is occluded.
It occurs as a result of increased vascular permeability due to histological changes, so resulting in a compromise of the blood-retinal barrier and leakage of plasma constituents into the surrounding area. This gives rise to formation of choroidal neovascular membranes which leak fluid and blood under the retina, so resulting in macular oedema. It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroilium in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine. Complete fusion results in a complete rigidity of the spine, a condition known as bamboo spine. In 40% of cases, ankylosing spondylitis is associated with an inflammation of the eye (iridocyclitis and uveitis), causing redness, eye pain, vision loss, floaters and photophobia. In pre-pubescent cases, pain and swelling may also manifest in the ankles and feet, where calcaneal spurs may also develop. However, many experience inflammation and pain to varying degrees regardless of rest and movement. Approximately 90% of AS patients express the HLA-B27 genotype, meaning that there is a strong genetic association. It is not proven that this interaction involves a self antigen and at least in the related Reiter’s syndrome (reactive arthritis), which follows infections, the antigens involved are likely to be derived from intracellular microorganisms.


When this condition is present, multiple cyst-like (cystoid) areas of fluid appear in the macula and cause retinal swelling or edema. However, if you experience one or more of these symptoms, contact your eye doctor for a complete exam. After the diagnosis has been made and confirmed, your ophthalmologist may attempt several kinds of treatment. If this happens, the glaucoma must be treated with appropriate medications to reduce the pressure. They share in common, features such as spinal and peripheral arthritis, skin and GI disorders, anterior chamber eye disease, and psoriasis like skin lesions.
This suggests that most patients with the gene never develop any clinical rheumatic symptoms of significance. There are different conditions that can cause edema of the lower legs, and they range from benign to life threatening. Because the legs are at a much lower elevation than the heart, and because of a sustained lack of motion, these fluids are unable to return into the rest of the body.
The lower elevation of the legs, combined with prolonged inactivity, allows blood to stagnate in the leg veins and become clotted. When the capillaries become damaged, fluid seeps into the nearby tissues, causing the swelling that is characteristic of edema. During your consultation, we’ll work with you to create a treatment plan that is right for you and your needs. There are three mechanisms for the formation of edema in addition to increased permeability of vessels. It is worth remembering that the arteries carry the blood from the heart to organs and tissues while the veins the other way bring back blood from the tissues to the heart.
It is worth remarking that the veins of the legs must act against gravity, and when there is a defect in this system, there is a damming of blood in the lower limbs. Ascites has two mechanisms: caused both by the absence of albumin and by increased pressure in the veins of the liver common in cirrhosis. It occurs in elephantiasis, in cancers, in the morbidly obese and upper limbs of patients who do mastectomy and have their axillary lymph nodes removed. This area holds tightly packed cones that provide sharp, clear central vision to enable a person to see form, color, and detail that is directly in the line of sight. However, only 5% of individuals with the HLA-B27 genotype contract the disease.Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF ?) and IL-1 are also implicated in ankylosing spondylitis.
There is, however, a possibility that CD4 T cells are involved in an aberrant way, since HLA-B27 appears to have a number of unusual properties, including possibly an ability to interact with T cell receptors in association with CD4 (usually only T helper lymphocytes with CD8 reacts with HLAB antigen as it is a MHC class 1 antigen).
About 1-3 % of those who have cataract extractions will experience decreased vision due to CME during the first post-operative year, usually from two to four months after surgery. Retinal inflammation is usually treated with anti-inflammatory medications such as cortisone or indomethacin.
When extended standing is the culprit, the edema is caused by excessive pressure on the veins and tissues of the legs, allowing fluids to collect and cause swelling. However, as your blood alcohol returns to normal, your body stops expelling water and starts accumulating it again. The accumulated blood in the veins increases the pressure within them and causes fluid extravasation into the subcutaneous tissue. When it stops working properly, reduced protein synthesis occurs and consequently it leads to the oncotic pressure.
When suspending the diuretic, there is a worsening of edema, which frightens and causes it to return the product. There are nothing but tightly packed cone photoreceptors in this area with no overlying blood vessels. Less commonly aortitis, apical lung fibrosis and ectasia of the sacral nerve root sheaths may occur. However, as Khan (2002) argues, evidence for a correlation between Klebsiella and AS is circumstantial so far, and that the efficacy of low-starch diets has not yet been scientifically evaluated.Studies on low-starch diet and AS could be difficult to fund, while new biologics developed by the pharmaceutical industry may demonstrate efficacy, as well as financial benefit to the industry (whereas changing the diet would not).
If the disorder appears in one eye, there is an increased risk (possibly as high as 50%) that it will also affect the second eye.
These are usually given as eye drops, though occasionally they must be administered as an injection or by mouth.
Chronic iritis doesn’t respond as well to medication and can take months or years to heal. If you frequently suffer from edema during pregnancy, especially if you experience any symptoms of DVT or preeclampsia, talk with your doctor as soon as possible. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies ANCA are associated with AS but don’t correlate with disease severity. Chronic iritis can also cause serious visual impairment if not treated by an iritis specialist.
About 8 in 10 people with AS remain fully independent or minimally disabled in the long term and are able to work full-time for the whole of a normal working life. One important point to remember – tell a doctor urgently if you have AS and develop a painful or red eye. An eye complication called uveitis can be serious but can be treated successfully if treatment is given promptly.



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