Vermicomposting process step by step,survival training wichita ks 2014,best books to read for grade 5,survival guide to nuclear war movies - PDF 2016

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Vermicompost (also called Worm Compost, Vermicast, or Worm Manure) is end product of the breakdown of organic matter by special varieties of earthworms. The earthworm species (or composting worms) most often used are Brandling worms or Red Wiggler Worms (Eisenia foetida) or Redworms (Lumbricus rubellus). In addition to worms, a healthy vermicomposting system hosts many other organisms such as insects, molds, and bacteria. Vermicomposting bins vary drastically depending on the system an individual composter wishes to create. The design of small bins usually depends on where an individual wishes to store the bin and how they wish to feed the worms.
Continuous Horizontal Flow – A continuous horizontal flow bin is another a bin that relies on the earthworms habits of migrating towards a food source in order to ease the process of harvesting.
Most large scale vermicomposting or vermiculturing systems do not incorporate an actual physical bin at all, because it is simply too impracticable.
Bedding in a worm bin is the living medium for the worms but is also used as a food source, it is material that is high in carbon and is made to mimic dried leaves on the forest floor, which is the worms' natural habitat.
The worms that are used in composting systems prefer temperatures between 55 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit (c. Greens - If too much kitchen waste is added for the worms to process, the waste will putrify. Meats - Although proteins such as fats and meat scraps can be processed by a vermicompost bin, doing so tends to attract scavengers and should be avoided if this is a risk. Over the long term, care should be taken to maintain optimum moisture levels and pH balance.
Worms as well as other microorganisms in the composting process require oxygen, so the bin must "breathe".
The first method, known as top feeding, is when organic matter placed directly on top of the existing layer bedding in a bin and then covered with another layer of bedding.
Odors - When this occurs it is usually due to the overabundance of "greens" in the bin, which is actually too much nitrogen combining with hydrogen and forms the ammonia. Pests - certain types of material, as well as odours from these, can attract pests such as rodents and flies.
Worm compost is usually too rich for use as a seed compost, but is useful as a top layer of soil or an addition to potting composts.
It improves the biological properties of the soil (enrichment of micro-organisms, addition of growth hormones such as auxins and gibberellic acid, and addition of enzymes, such as phosphates, cellulase, etc.).
Klickitat County Site - Contains plans for Continuous Vertical Flow Worm Bin - See OSCR JR. Terra preta is the name of a carbon and nutrient rich soil, which has been produced by pre-Columbian cultures by the incorporation of manure, charcoal and bones into the grounds.
Terra preta is the name for the black and highly fertile soil that was produced by the pre-Colombian Amazonian cultures.
Vermicompost, and check out Vermicompost on Wikipedia, Youtube, Google News, Google Books, and Twitter on Digplanet.
Containing water-soluble nutrients, vermicompost is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.[3] This process of producing vermicompost is called vermicomposting.
These species commonly are found in organic-rich soils throughout Europe and North America and live in rotting vegetation, compost, and manure piles. Composting worms are available to order online, from nursery mail-order suppliers or angling shops where they are sold as bait. Large-scale vermicomposting is practiced in Canada, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and the United States.[11][12] The vermicompost may be used for farming, landscaping, to create compost tea, or for sale. The second type of large-scale vermicomposting system is the raised bed or flow-through system. Because red worms are surface dwellers constantly moving towards the new food source, the flow-through system eliminates the need to separate worms from the castings before packaging.
For vermicomposting at home, a large variety of bins are commercially available, or a variety of adapted containers may be used. Small-scale vermicomposting is well-suited to turn kitchen waste into high-quality soil amendments, where space is limited. Composting worms which are detritivorous (eaters of trash), such as the red wiggler Eisenia fetidae, are epigeic (surface dwellers) together with symbiotic associated microbes are the ideal vectors for decomposing food waste.
There may be differences in vermicomposting methods depending on the climate.[21] It is necessary to monitor the temperatures of large-scale bin systems (which can have high heat-retentive properties), as the feedstocks used can compost, heating up the worm bins as they decay and killing the worms. There are few food wastes that vermicomposting cannot compost, although meat waste and dairy products are likely to putrefy, and in outdoor bins can attract vermin. Vermicompost is ready for harvest when it contains few-to-no scraps of uneaten food or bedding[citation needed]. The pyramid method of harvesting worm compost is considered the simplest method for single layer bins.[31][32] It is commonly used in small scale vermiculture.
It is rich in microbial life which converts nutrients already present in the soil into plant-available forms. Vermicompost can be mixed directly into the soil, or steeped in water and made into a worm tea by mixing some vermicompost in water, bubbling in oxygen with a small air pump, and steeping for a number of hours or days. The pH, nutrient, and microbial content of these fertilizers varies upon the inputs fed to worms. If decomposition has become anaerobic, to restore healthy conditions and prevent the worms from dying, the smelly, excess waste water must be removed and the bin returned to a normal moisture level. Pests such as rodents and flies are attracted by certain materials and odors, usually from large amounts of kitchen waste, particularly meat. In warm weather, fruit and vinegar flies breed in the bins if fruit and vegetable waste is not thoroughly covered with bedding. Commercial vermicomposters test, and may amend their products to produce consistent quality and results.
These species are only rarely found in soil and are adapted to the special conditions in rotting vegetation, compost and manure piles. Though these all play a role in the composting process, the earthworm is the major catalyst for the composting process. All bins in general have holes for airflow in the sides and some form of drainage, either holes in the bottom to drain on to a collection tray or an actual spout that can be opened or closed to allow drainage. A layer of bedding materials is placed in the bin lining the bottom and worms are added and organic matter for composting is added in a layer above the bedding.


The bottom-most tray is filled first, in a similar fashion to any other bin, but is not harvested when it is full. The bin is usually constructed to be similar to a non-continuous bin but twice as long (horizontally). The bedding needs to be moist (often related to the consistency of a wrung-out sponge) and loose to enable the earthworms to breath and to facilitate aerobic decomposition. 12-21 degrees Celsius), and temperature of the bedding should not get below freezing or above 85 degrees Fahrenheit (29 degrees Celsius). A balance between "green matter" such as kitchen scraps and "brown matter" such as shredded newspaper for bedding must be maintained in order for the worms to do their work. In a non-continuous-flow vermicomposting bin, excess liquid can be drained via a tap and used as plant food. This can be accomplished by regularly removing the composted material, adding holes to a composting bin, or using a continuous-flow bin. Some types of pitted seeds are reportedly easier to germinate when placed in vermicompost for several months. Today, this concept has been rediscovered for the treatment of human faeces and household wastes (e.g. They may be an invasive species in some areas.[1][10] As they are shallow-dwelling and feed on decomposing plant matter in the soil, they adapt easily to living on food or plant waste in the confines of a worm bin. Some systems use a windrow, which consists of bedding materials for the earthworms to live in and acts as a large bin; organic material is added to it. Here the worms are fed an inch of "worm chow" across the top of the bed, and an inch of castings are harvested from below by pulling a breaker bar across the large mesh screen which forms the base of the bed. Flow-through systems are well suited to indoor facilities, making them the preferred choice for operations in colder climates.
Metal containers often conduct heat too readily, are prone to rusting, and may release heavy metals into the vermicompost. Worms can decompose organic matter without the additional human physical effort (turning the bin) that bin composting requires. If decomposition becomes anaerobic from excess wet feedstock added to the bin, or the layers of food waste have become too deep, the bin will begin to smell of ammonia. To do this, first reduce addition of food scraps with a high moisture content and second, add fresh, dry bedding such as shredded newspaper to your bin, mixing it in well. Because the small-scale and home systems use a varied mix of feedstocks, the nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus content of the resulting vermicompost will also be inconsistent.
Composting worms are available from mail-order suppliers, or from angling shops where they are sold as bait. Metal containers often conduct heat too readily, are prone to rusting, and may release heavy metals into compost. Another layer is added on top of the organic matter and the worms will start to compost the organic matter and bedding. Instead, a thick layer of bedding is added on top and the tray above is used for adding organic material. The windrow simply consists of bedding materials for the earthworms to live in (see bedding below) and acts as a large worm bin; organic material is added to the windrow and the worms perform the composting. Quantities of kitchen waste appropriate for the worm population can be added to the bin daily or weekly.
A wide variety of bedding materials can be used including newspaper, sawdust, hay, cardboard, peat moss, aged manure (meaning the manure has to be pre-composted before use), and dried leaves. This balance should be approximately one part "green matter" for every two parts of "brown matter". A continuous flow bin will not retain excess liquid and it requires extra water to be added to keep the bedding moist. The location of the food is changed each time and often the bin is fed in more than one location. This problem is largely negated if a sealed bin is used where the pests cannot access the material. Do not dump worm-containing compost in natural areas as they can have the effect of displacing the native worms. Please help improve this article either by rewriting the how-to content or by moving it to Wikiversity, Wikibooks or Wikivoyage.
These species are not the same worms that are found in ordinary soil or on pavement when the soil is flooded by water. Although the windrow has no physical barriers to prevent worms from escaping, in theory they should not due to an abundance of organic matter for them to feed on.
The design of a small bin usually depends on where an individual wishes to store the bin and how they wish to feed the worms.
Styrofoam containers may release chemicals into the organic material.[14] Some cedars, Yellow cedar, and Redwood contain resinous oils that may harm worms,[15] although Western Red Cedar has excellent longevity in composting conditions. Maintaining the correct pH (close to neutral) and water content of the bin (just enough water where squeezed bedding drips a couple of drops) can help avoid these pests as well.
Generally the idea is to build up a multiple stacking system of connected worm bins or trays that are slightly tapered to allow the bins to nest, one within the other. Small scale vermicomposting is well suited to turn kitchen wastes into high quality soil where space is limited.
Commonly, bins are built out of old plastic containers, wood, Styrofoam containers, or metal containers. The idea is that the worms will finish composting the bottom tray and then migrate to the one above. Most vermicomposters avoid using any glossy papers from newspapers and magazines, junk mail and shredded paper from offices, because they may contain toxins which will severely affect the system. Covering the kitchen scraps with a layer of "brown matter" also has the added benefit of reducing odor and insect problems. Too many citrus peels in the material to be composted can cause excessive acidity, but this can be mitigated by adding an occasional handful of lime.
This will provide a host environment for a different type of decay process which produces a strong odor offensive to most people. Most domestic vermicomposters are advised by local authorities to avoid the problem of pests by avoiding using materials that attract them rather than relying on special containers. As with PermaWiki, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.


A promising application of terra preta sanitation (TPS) is the adaption of existing urine diverting toilets to replace the storage and dehydration treatment of urine and faeces. According to archaeologists, pre-Columbian native populations generated them by incorporating large amounts of charred residues (charcoal) either produced intentionally or as a by-product from human activity into the soil together with nutrient-rich material (GLASER 2006).
Users refer to European nightcrawlers by a variety of other names, including dendrobaenas, dendras, and Belgian nightcrawlers.
Often windrows are used on a concrete surface to prevent predators from gaining access to the worm population. Worm castings (the compost) are collected in the lower bins and worm food (kitchen or garden scraps) is consumed in the upper levels of the wormery. They are relatively difficult to harvest because all the materials and worms must be emptied out when harvesting. When a sufficient number of worms have migrated the bottom tray can be collected and should be relatively free of worms. Often times windrows are used on a concrete surface to prevent predators from killing off worm populations. Also some cardboard cannot be used if it contains wax or plastic, such as cereal boxes, and other boxes designed to hold food items. This type of decay is found in swamps and bogs and is responsible for the stench sometimes found in these environments. Terra preta sanitation (TPS) systems are based on a three-step process of collection (including urine diversion), lactic acid fermentation and vermicomposting. Nutrient-rich material was used to be human and animal manure (rich in P and N), waste including mammal and fish bones (rich in P and Ca), ash residues of incomplete combustions (rich in Ca, Mg, K, P and charcoal) or plant biomass (e.g. In time, the worms will migrate to the side with the food and the compost can be collected. Newspapers and phone books printed on regular, non-glossy pages are heavily regulated by the FDA and use non-toxic soy and Canola based inks. In a small bin, this includes banana peels which can kill everything in the bin, if heavily sprayed. Lacto-fermentation is an anaerobic process, but in opposition to anaerobic digestion no gases are produced. Common plastic storage bins, sold for general household use at hardware stores, supermarkets and camping goods outlets are quite suitable for making your worm farm.  Usually the sides are not vertical, but slightly tapered for convenient stacking on the retailer’s shelves – this suits us, as it allows for partial nesting of bins . These bins are larger than a non-continuous system but are still small enough to be used indoors, with the added bonus of being easier to harvest.
The process thus is also odour free which makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. TPS has a high potential to prevent nutrient or carbon loss to the atmosphere by producing highly fertile compost (terra preta) and liquid fertilizer for agriculture. The black carbon content of terra preta soils can be up to 70 times higher than surrounding, mostly infertile, soils (GLASER et al.
Due to its polycyclic aromatic structure, black carbon is chemically and microbiologically stable and persists in the environment over centuries (GLASER et al 2001).
For a small scale composting set-up, for processing  kitchen waste, three containers of about 45 litre (ten gallon) each would be adequate. A hectare of meter-deep terra preta can contain 250 tons of carbon as opposed to 100 tones in unimproved soil (GLASER et al.
Black carbon can be produced either by pyrolysis of biomass or by an enzymatic conversion of some microorganism (RECKIN 2010). It has a porous structure, which is good for the structure of the soil (water retention, aeration), the fertility of the soil and it increases growth rates and abundance of certain microbes, while abundance of fungi and germs is reduced: Over the time, the black carbon is partly oxidised producing chemical molecules on its surface (carboxylic groups), which act as a trap for nutrients, preventing them from being washed out (GLASER et al.
This line of holes would be about four inches (100mm) below the top rim of the bin.It is not essential to drill holes in the lid, which is closed tightly over the upper bin. Choose a shady location for the worm farm (in a shed or garage, if you are subject to frosts).The second and third bins are “nested” within each other and dropped into the sump bin. To maintain a working space for the worms, and for accumulation of compost, you need a few spacers or  packers of about six to eight inches height, between the two upper bins and some smaller packers of about four inches in the lower (sump) bin. This idea has been taken up in the recent years from sanitation experts, as terra preta seems to be a re-discovered, but today very promising response to the challenge of sustainable and safe treatment of human excreta and domestic organic waste.
When the quantity of compost is meaningful, stop putting feed into this bin and swap over the upper two bins by putting bin No 2 to the top of the stack, with bin No 1 now in the middle.Set up this new top bin with clean bedding, a small amount of the old castings and immediately start feeding your  kitchen scraps into it. Results from the terra preta sanitation (TPS) lab scale and pilot scale experiments have shown that it is possible to convert bio-waste and faecal matter in a hygienic and sustainable way into highly fertile humus-like material (OTTERPOHL 2009, FACTURA et al. Over a few days, the worms will naturally migrate upwards towards the new food source, leaving the lower bin with only a few stragglers and it should be ready for the harvesting of your compost within about three weeks after the swap.To get at any specific layer, to add food, bedding or to remove the vermicompost, just lift off all the overlying worm bins, one by one until the desired level is exposed for examination and then replace them in the same order. They will not be too heavy – but don’t try lifting more than one layer at a time, unless you have a good chiropractor!All you need to do is to keep repeating the process of alternating the top two bins on a regular basis, taking out the compost, whenever it accumulates, and tapping off the worm tea from time to time.
Vermicomposting is an established process for treatment of organic solid wastes or faecal matter (FACTURA et al.
2001), but the initial silage process makes the combination superior than other combined processes.
This is because the flora (microbial community) of human faeces is not really compatible with soil metabolism and the microbial mix used for lacto-fermentation aids the transition to the soil life (RECKIN 2010). Yogurt and sauerkraut are some of the most famous products produced by lacto-fermentation and it is the lactic acid, which gives these products their slightly sour taste.
Kitchen- and garden wastes are sufficient to produce the rich vermicompost to be introduced into the soil (SCHEUB 2010), but as a sanitation system, however, the co-treatment with lacto-fermented toilet products is perceived as sustainable sanitation solution (see also the terra preta toilet factsheet). Up scaling of TPS and the application to sieved blackwater, faecal sludge, sewage sludge or organics waste may be developed in the future.Lacto-fermentation and biological mixLacto-fermentation is similar to the silage production process in agriculture (OTTERPOHL 2009). It is a biological anaerobic process (like anaerobic digestion), but no gas is produced (OTTERPOHL 2009). However, lactic acid bacteria have the advantage not to be sensitive to O2 (they are aerotolerant) allowing them to grow in its presence as well as in its absence (MADIGAN et al.



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