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Vermicomposting is the process of composting using worms to digest the food waste, manures, or other organic inputs. The numerous benefits of vermicompost make it a terrific option for many commercial and industrial sites. Vermicompost fertilizer doesn’t only have increased nutrient levels that are readily available for the plant to use, but adds micro-organisms to the soil which it enriches and creates greater aeration properties. As for plant growth, vermicompost helps speed up the growth cycle right from germination leading to increased yield. Economically speaking, vermicomposting is a very cost effective procedure meaning it can be efficiently mass-produced even in agricultural areas that are not as well established or don’t have advanced technology. ProRganix is a small business based in Lexington, Kentucky which produces vermicompost fertilizer. Dan personally believes in the need to reduce the levels of synthetic manufacturing processes in our daily lives. For more information on vermicomposting visit Cornell University to learn more about the science behind the process. From The Publishing OfficePowerHouse Hydroponics is an independent digital publication specializing in hydroponic technology and soilless growing methods. Letter From The EditorAs the editor of PowerHouse Growers Group (PHG), I strive to ensure that our content is timely, well-researched, and on the cutting edge of urban agriculture and sustainability. Organic wastes can be broken down and fragmented rapidly by earthworms, resulting in a stable nontoxic material with good structure, which has a potentially high economic value and also act as soil conditioner for plant growth. Vermicompost supplies a suitable mineral balance, improves nutrient availability and could act as complex-fertilizer granules.
Vermicomposting involves great reduction in populations of pathogenic microorganisms, thus not differing from composting from this point of view. Vermicomposting also leads to decrease the environmental problems arising from their disposal, without needing in many cases to complete the process. It should be realized that vermicomposting can be a useful cottage industry for the underprivileged and the economically weak as it can provide them with a supplementary income. At the time of harvesting, The worms will burrow to the bottom of the compost to escape the light. Vermibed is the actual layer of good moist loamy soil placed at the bottom, about 150 to 200 mm thick above a thin layer (50 mm) of broken bricks and coarse sand. Bio-fertilizers are living cells of different types of micro-organisms (bacterial, algae and fungi), which have an ability to mobilize nutritionally important elements from non-usable to usable form. Biopesticides, or also known as Biological Pesticides, are natural pest control agents that are obtained from natural substances. However, the market for bio-fertilizers and biopesticides is still not well developed, and the bio-fertilizer industry has not had the growth that was anticipated.  The use of bio-fertilizers has still not spread uniformly although there has been a steady rise in their use by certain groups of farmers. Dairy producers are in an advantageous position to incorporate vermicomposting into their manure handling systems due to the vast amounts of compostable resources available from the farm like manure and crop residues that can be used as bedding and feedstock for the worms. Rural Open Innovation Network by International Centre for Technolohical Innovations is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Vermicomposting (from the Latin word vermis meaning worm) is an efficient and effective method for turning kitchen waste into a rich compost.
Red worms, known also as red wigglers or manure worms, are the most effective worms to use for worm composting. Have an adult punch approximately 12 holes around the sides of the container and 25 holes in the lid for air. Red worms are most efficient at consuming organic matter and reproducing when they are kept moist and well ventilated in a temperature range of 55? – 75? F.
Feed your worms two to three times each week by burying appropriate food scraps under the bedding.
The vermicomposting process takes 4-8 weeks (depending on the size of the bin) before all the bedding and waste will turn into humus, the end product. The end product of vermicomposting will contain worm castings (manure), decomposed bedding, and worms and tiny organisms dead and alive.
Do not release the worms during cold weather as they will not be able to dig through frozen ground. Locations such as Ground Zero Memorial Project and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, Centennial Park in Atlanta, Huntsville International Airport, the Clinton Presidential Library in Little Rock AR, and the Georgia World Congress Center have all used vermicompost at their sites.
Vermicompost-fertilized soil also has greater water retention capabilities meaning lower water consumption in your garden.
Soil that has been fertilized with vermicompost is enriched by increased microbial activity which delivers greater levels of plant hormones and strengthens root structure.
Vermicomposting also reduces the amount of waste going to landfills lowering greenhouse gas emissions generated by landfills.

Dan Storm, the owner of the company has been vermicomposting since he was five years old when his Cherokee grandfather taught him.
He’s on a mission to provide gardeners with the most natural option available to them while preserving the state of the surrounding environment.
A large volume of organic matter is generated from agricultural activities, dairy farms and animal shelters which are usually dumped in corners where it putrefies, usually emanating foul smell. These are about 6-8 inches long and the good thing about them is that they are by nature hermaphrodite.
These micro-organisms require organic matter for their growth and activity in soil and provide valuable nutrients to the plants in the soil. The use of earthworms to fully compost manure has been of increasing interest in the dairy industry. The red worms will tunnel through and digest the bedding along with the food scraps to produce vermicompost. Keep the worm farm covered and out of direct sunlight because red worms are sensitive to light.
The humus can be added to potting mix for houseplants or the end product and worms can be placed in the garden to enrich the soil. All of these sysystems were built in and for Roger's Community Garden (RCG), an on campus undergraduate student run garden (see bottom of page for details about garden). Gardeners at RCG collect organic matter at home or from the garden add it to the worm bin not including things like citrus peels, onions, garlic, or any volatile (strong odored) things to the bin, the worms inside the container are very sensitive to the oils released by these things, they prefer watery organic materials like cucumber peels, melon rinds, celery, and coffee grounds.
The sink is located in RCG, behind the garden shed (directly in front of the segmented pit composting system). A fertilizing product that has been around for many years but has never really gained mass consumer traction is vermicompost-produced products. Vermicompost can be used in soil remediation projects, can help prevent erosion, and can support in making non-arable land arable.
Additionally, vermicompost products can also help improve the plants resistance to disease. His process, while similar to other vermicomposting companies is unique as it isn’t a manure input based product. This valuable resource can be utilised by properly composting it into a value-added end product called manure.
Meaning, they both have the male and female organ so even if there are only two worms, they can multiply.
About 100 earthworms (a combination of epigeics and anecics) may be introduced into a compost pit of about 2m x 1m x 0.75m, with a vermibed of about 15 to 20 cm thick. These wastes may include leaves, roots, stubbles, crop residues, straw, hedge clippings, weeds, water hyacinth, saw dust and kitchen wastes. Using biopesticides has advantages over using conventional pesticides, because biopesticides are less toxic to the environment and natural life. Earthworms, more specifically, the Red Wiggler (Eisenia fetida) and the Red Worm (Lumbricus rebellus) are found in areas rich in organic matter, like the topsoil layer or in manure piles. Light colored cocoons are produced continuously that yield two to three baby worms in three weeks time. Work began on the segmented pit and vermicomposting system's during the 2010-2011 school year under the leadership of Pule Wang, both were completed by the end of the fall quarter 2011 (December of 2011). Over time and with additions of water, air and heat the organic matter added will degrade. The inlet piping is connected to a water pipe near the shed in the garden, it carries water from this pipe (which is fed by the watermane at the Che Cafe) to the sink structure.
Lately there has been more and more interest in this type of fertilizer and it’s become readily available to end-user gardeners.
Just like the red worms also thrive on organic materials such as food scraps, fruit peelings, grass cuttings, tea bags, coffee grounds and more. The waste materials undergo intensive decomposition under medium-high temperatures in heaps or pits with adequate moisture for around 3-6 months. They play an important role in the protection of agricultural foods and protection against unwanted microbial organisms.
These two species of worms, due to their high tolerance of environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and pH, and shallow feeding habits, are the desired species for degrading vast amounts of organic materials into vermicompost. Soil is added to the top of the organic matter to ensure it does not smell up the area directly around the system too bad. The sink structure is composed of a metal sink basin mounted on a wooden cabinet structure, here the water flows from the inlet piping onto your hands, produce or into your watering can, and any water not used will drain out of the basin via the outlet piping. For the most part it’s incredibly natural, organic, and cost-effective – and the additional benefits are abundant.

The natural digestive process of the worms actually increases the nutrient content in the compost as compared traditional composts.
Now, ProRganix is producing 200 tons per week of hormone-free, GMO-free and synthetic fertilizer free vermicompost. African Night Crawlers eat a lot and are extremely voracious so they are perfect for vermicomposting. Vermicompost is the end product of earthworms’ consumption of organic materials in the form of nutrient rich “castings” and degraded bedding materials. The resulting fertilizer product that Dan is selling now to wholesalers is a 100% pure vermicompost.
Dairy producers are in an advantageous position to incorporate vermicomposting into their manure handling systems due to the vast amounts of resources available from the farm such as manure and crop residues that can be used as bedding and feedstock for the worms.
Vermicompost (the product of vermicomposting) can be used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner to stimulate plant growth both on small and large farming scales. The production process itself is zero-waste, self-watering, and totally natural and organic which comes with Dan’s own personal quality control assurance. Vermicomposting can provide a dairy farm with beneficial nutrient soil amendments while also giving the opportunity for added income if worms or castings are sold. In total there is about 30 feet of PVC piping laid connecting the sink to the water pipe near the shed.
Consumers can even create their own vermicompost at home to feed to their plants, with the right guidance.
As for the fertilizer product, ProRganix promotes superior seed growth for better economic return and healthier food growth for safer consumption.
Three poles of redwood were placed into the ground to fight the erosion effects our system will encounter over time. This container is referred to as a segmented pit composting bin because it is dug about six inches into the ground (i.e. The metal basin was already in the garden when the project started, it is believed that the basin originated from the biomedical facilities on campus, perhaps it was dropped off at the garden as a donation some time ago and it was put to use for this project.
For extra support, diagonal pieces of wood were added at the sides of the cabinet structure (see pictures below of structure). The cabinet props the sink basin up about three feet, keeping in mind the varied heights of gardeners it was important to ensure the height was not too tall or too short.
The piping makes a 90 degree turn after coming out of the right wall (while facing the sink head on) of the structure.
It then travels about five feet downhill to a water storage barrel where it fits into the barrel via a hole cut to the diameter of the piping. The water storage barrel, which holds about 70 gallons of water, is a reused food waste storage barrel donated to the garden some time ago and put to use in this project.
Aside from the inlet piping hole made on the barrel, an emergency drain was added just below the inlet piping hole to ensure the barrel will not overflow. The inlet side of the pump attaches to the hose bib valve on the water storage barrel via a short piece of hose, while the outlet side of the pump is attached to a hose that may be taken at most a height of four ft uphill or easily down hill for watering. When using the pump, raising it quickly will open the inlet check valve and close the outlet check valve, then when the piston is pushed down rapidly the inlet check valve closes while the outlet check valve opens. After the ground was flattened we dug six inches into the ground in the shape of the sink cabinet structure (following the length and width dimensions as a guide for the digging pattern). All of the pebbles collected, mentioned in consideration 1, were put into the rectangular ditch and flattened.
Ontop of this some scrap concrete bricks were placed to create a ground for storage within the cabinet structure. Water moves out of the sink completely by gravity, so after the ground was flattened and the sink structure had been built the outlet piping had to be put in at a descending angle down the hill (going around the corner of the garden shed).
This caused some changes in plans with the water storage barrel we were working with, we had to drop the barrel at least 1.5 feet on the side of the shed, this was accomplished by digging the ditch, placing concrete bricks on the uphill facing side of the ditch, securing those with rebar, placing other bricks around the perimeter of the ditch and fixing them into place with more long pieces of rebar (about three foot long pieces). To ensure the ditch would not fill in, water drainage moats were dug going around the outside of the ditch.
A flat ground was made for the barrel inside of the ditch via three bricks placed into the bottom. Putting the barrel down this far into the ground had implications for how low the water outlet valve could be placed as well as how the barrel can be removed from the ditch for cleaning.
Unfortunately the ditch makes it very difficult to pull the water storage barrel out for cleaning when it has not been drained low.

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