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The Greek peninsula was originally settled by the Minoan people who originated in Egypt and came to the mainland via the island of Crete on the south, by the Achaeans who settled in the Peloponnese, and by the Dorians, Ionians, and Aeolians who entered over the mountains from Europe in the north. The name comes from the ruins at Mycenae where a large palace and many graves were discovered. The values that emerged from Homera€™s epic tales became the basic values of Greek culture and formed the basis for Greek education.
Excellence (arete) -- doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others. Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life.
Glory (kleos) -- glory one achieves for parents, family, and polis through great deeds of excellence, honor, bravery.
Impermanence of human life -- everything in life is impermanent, but glory (kleos) never fades.
After the Trojan Wars, the Mycenaeans went through a period of civil wars and their defenses became weakened. This period extended from the beginning of the wars with Persia up to the death of Alexander the Great in 336 B.C. The ideal Greek man was considered to be a brave warrior during war time and an excellent athlete in peace time. The olympic site at Olympia still contains the actual fields, large dirt berms where spectators sat, the tunnel through which the contestants ran onto the fields, and remnants of many statues to the gods.
Persia, a major power that developed to the northeast of the Fertile Crescent, expanded through military power into present-day Turkey (Anatolia) and into the western areas of the Black Sea, just to the north of Greece. The Greeks had established colonies in Troy, Ephesus, and other locations along the eastern edge of the Aegean in present day Turkey. Every modern marathon is exactly the same distance, whether it is run in London, Tokyo, or Boston. Xerxes is also well known to Christians and Jews because he was the husband of Queen Esther, a Jewish young woman who lived during the Babylonian Captivity of Judah. Xerxes took his time -- four years -- to assemble a huge army of 2 million men and 1200 ships to attack Greece. The Persians marched to a point to the north of Athens, burning and pillaging Greek villages along their path.The goal was to conquer Athens and burn it to the ground in retaliation for Dariusa€™ previous defeat at Marathon.
The Persians were like a herd of elephants attempting to crawl inside the neck of a Coke bottle.
The Athenians meanwhile began evacuating all the citizens of Athens to Salamis, an island south of Athens, which was separated from the mainland by the Bay of Salamis. Why was the Athenian army not present at Thermopylae if the goal of Xerxes was to destroy Athens? Why did Leonidas not dismiss the Thespians from the battle, as he did the other Greek troops?
What can be learned from the example of how Leonidas chose Thermopylae to fight the superior forces of the Persians? By the time the Persians entered Athens, the entire city had been evacuated except for some priests and priestesses who were supposedly given the job of defending the sacred temples on the Acropolis. Why did Xerxes not head immediately into the Peloponnese to deal with Sparta, the hometown of Leonidas, who had angered him at Thermopylae? When the Persian ships entered the Bay of Salamis they were quickly surrounded by the more maneuverable Greek ships. The Athenians went on to build the worlda€™s largest navy and a merchant fleet that trading throughout the Mediterranean, while the Spartans developed the worlda€™s most powerful army.
After the Persian wars Athens and Sparta continued to develop two radically different cultures. The Peloponnesian League attacked Athens, but the outmanned Athenians under Pericles gained allies in the Peloponnese, thus damaging Spartaa€™s supply lines, and encouraged the Spartan helots (slaves) to flee to the Athenian allied city-states for safety and freedom.
Athens had built large stone walls from the city down the rocky slopes about 8 miles to Piraeus, its port on the Aegean.
Eventually in following years Athens proved to be the city with the most resiliency, vitality, and potential. What two confederations were set up in Greece in view of disputes and bad attitudes between the various city-states?
Pericles was the leader of Athens following the Persian Wars and led Athens in its war against Sparta.
Socrates lived during the Peloponnesian Wars that racked Greece and brought Athens and Sparta to exhaustion. Socrates sought through his philosophy to teach a better way, and to do so through the education of the youth of Athens.
Socrates was upset by an earlier group of Athenian thinkers, the Sophists, who maintained that there were no universals or absolutes in life.
The elders of Athens were very disturbed by Socrates questioning tradition and teaching his students to do the same. Socrates was held in deep respect by his students, but resented by the leaders of the polis. In the Apology of Plato (Dialogues 32, 41) when asked how he felt about his soon death, Socrates is reported by Plato to have replied that he had no feelings or emotions about death. What does Socrates believe about the soul that leads him to conclude that everything a person needs to know already exists in his mind, and merely needs to be allowed to come out? Since Socrates never wrote any of his teachings down, what is one source of his teachings that we can consult to discover what Socrates believed and taught? Early in life Plato wandered around the Mediterranean and was at one point captured by pirates. In The Cave, Plato describes several people chained inside a cave who have never viewed what lies on the outside of the cave.
But if there are real Forms of chairs and trees and red apples, then there are real Forms of humans, also. It was Platoa€™s emphasis on the upper story that appealed to people in Northern Europe during the Renaissance and during the Protestant Reformation, as opposed to the man-centered humanism of Aristotle which was favored in the Italian Renaissance. How is this expressed in the statement by Plato to his teacher: a€?a€?And what, Socrates, is the food of the soul?
Aristotle was the son of a physician who had served the grandfather of Alexander the Great.
An educated mind is able to listen to and entertain a thought without blindly accepting it.
Aristotle departed from his teacher, Plato, by maintaining, as did Confucius and Buddha, that there is not enough time in this life to worry about a life to come. Aristotle was a pioneer biologist in observing and classifying the plants, trees, and animals of Greece. Aristotle, in similar fashion to Plato his teacher, saw two energies or components of the soul -- desire and reason. At the close of the middle ages, many Italians began to discard the traditions of the Roman Church. All three of these philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, emphasized human reason as the major force of life. In Christianity there is the important matter of the necessity of being born again, having our minds made new, of submitting our minds and wills to God, in trusting Him for wisdom and understanding. Some speculate that the gods and goddesses in Greek mythology were heroes from the earliest Mycenaean periods of Greeks history, preceding even Troy and Homer. This speculation comes from a careful study of Greek pottery, art, and sculpture, which gives, in the opinion of some historians, evidence that the gods and goddesses may have been the glorification by the early Greeks of major characters from the line of Cain who lived prior to the flood. For instance, Zeus could possibly be Nimrod, the first of the great warriors and the founder of the first city according to Genesis. Thus Greek mythology, maintains Johnson, is a corrupted version of biblical history, a twisted memory. To understand the whole story that underlies the stories contained in Greek mythology, one must be aware of the clash between the older Titans and the younger Olympians.
In other pieces of Greek art there is a continuous emphasis on capturing and grasping the tree that contains the fruit of knowledge and mysteries. If Johnson is correct in his interpretations of the many scenes depicted in Greek pottery, Greek mythology deifies the pre-flood line of Cain and depicts Zeus as triumphant over Noah and his God for rule on the earth. Athena is consistently represented in Greek art as not only the patron of Athens but the goddess who possesses knowledge, wisdom, and access to the mysteries. At the wedding feast celebrating Philipa€™s marriage to Cleopatra, her father made a toast, asking the gods for the birth of a son to become heir to the throne, obviously discounting Alexandera€™s legitimacy. In the melee that followed, one of his bodyguards, a friend of Alexander, stabbed Philip to death.
It is interesting to note that about 700 years later when a Roman general demanded that all of his troops sacrifice to the Emperor to confirm their loyalty, the same Thebian elite unit, now comprising a legion of 6,000 men, refused to sacrifice and the entire legion was put to death. Alexander invaded Anatolia, conquered Syria and Palestine, became the only one in the history of Afghanistan to conquer it, and conquered mighty Egypt.
His goal was to unite the entire known world under one leader, speaking one language, and possessing one culture. Before you read the following account, please read the story of Paula€™s visit to Athens as described by Luke, Paula€™s companion, in Acts 17:16-34.
The Athenians developed a complex mythology in an attempt to make sense out of human existence. By the time of Christ there were literally several thousand gods and goddesses in the religious system of Athens. Monuments and altars to the many gods and goddesses lined the highway from Piraeus, the port, to the center of the city of Athens.
Paul stopped in Athens on his way to Corinth, waiting for companions to arrive from Thessaloniki. In describing Paula€™s reaction to the Athenian idolatry, Luke, the companion of Paul, uses the Greek word paroxysm from which we get paroxsymal. Epicureans taught that the basis of human life was to a€?eat, drink, and have a good time, because tomorrow we will die.a€? There are no moral absolutes.
Sophists were an itinerant group of philosophers who emphasized the intellect as the basis of human success.
Paul was invited to climb up to Mars Hill, a large hill inside Athens about 300 yards from the Acropolis. Some have suggested that Paul made a mistake by resorting to philosophy and logic in an attempt to be accepted by the Areopagus.
They asked the oracle at Delphi, what had they done to cause this plague, and most importantly, what could they do to end it? Further, the Oracle said, the Athenians must travel to the Island of Crete, to Knossos, a traditional enemy of Athens, to seek out the legendary prophet, Epimenides. Upon arriving at Athens, Epimenides noticed the hundreds of altars and monuments dedicated to the scores of Athenian deities. According to Plato, he states in his Laws, since the deity sacrificed to was unknown to the Athenians and unknown to Epimenides, the sites were named in honor of Agnosto Theo, the unknown god who had been appeased and who had lifted the plague. Plato further noted that Epimenides prophesied that in ten years Persia would again attempt to invade Athens but would be frustrated and turned back.
Within ten years, Persia, under Darius, attempted to invade Athens, just as Epimenides predicted, but was defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon. Lest we become too enamored by Epimenides, however, he also claimed that Zeus was immortal. The refusal of the people of Crete to adore Zeus as the Immortal One caused Epimenides to make that classic statement, a€?All Cretans, liars!a€? This quote is cited by Paul in Titus 1:12. In the book, Peace Child, Don Richardson describes how the Gospel seemed to be a concept beyond the ability of the Asmat tribe in New Guinea to understand. Likewise, in the Ekari tribe of New Guinea the loss was lamented of the knowledge of Ajii, a place where the dead could go after death, where there was the absence of war, illness, sadness. In this same way, Paul used the bridge of the agnosto theo to enable the Athenians to understand the Gospel.
Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were later revered by the rest of the world, they were not well received during their lifetimes in Athens.
What truths did Epimenides declare about the true God when he made his four suggestions about the agnosto theo? What can we learn from this story to help us in talking with other people about the Good News of Jesus?
Although Rome conquered Greece, Greece in its religion, philosophy, and language conquered Rome. The Christian faith grew rapidly in Greece, including such famous Christian communities as those in Corinth, Athens, Philippi, and Thessaloniki.
After the fall of Constantinople to the Islamic Ottoman Turks in 1453, most of Greece in 1460 fell to the Ottomans.The Ottoman Turks were mountain people from the north of Persia who invaded and conquered present-day Turkey by the 12th century. Facing Russian troops sent by the Christian tsar of Russia at the walls of Constantinople in 1829, the Sultan of the Ottomans finally recognized Greek independence. In the 20th Century Greece was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II, and a communist government was elected shortly after the war.
Greece is important and of interest to Western Christians because it was the birthplace of the Christian Church in Europe.
Greece is also the civilization that served as a bottleneck, preventing the domination of Islam in Europe.
What is not laudable, is the religious darkness that existed in Greece prior to the arrival of the Gospel. What are the differences between the limited democracy of Athens and democracy as practiced in the United States? What evidences are there for humane treatment of girls and women in the ancient Greek civilization? It is said that the Romans capture the Greeks, but in reality the Greeks captured the Romans.
The classical civilizations of Greece established institutions and defined values and styles that endured for many centuries and that continue to influence our lives today. Alongside of these religions developed two divinely revealed religions: Judaism and Christianity.
The first Greek civilization was the Minoan civilization, located on the island of Crete, with Knossos as its main community. The migration into the Greek mainland from the north by the Mycenaean people, and their subsequent invasion of Crete, resulted in a common language. Troy was a city-state strategically located at the Hellespont, where it controlled traffic to and from Europe and Asia Minor.
Athens served as one of the models for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America, but as a direct democracy functioned very differently than the representative democracy established in the United States. While Athens was experimenting with a direct democracy, Israel had received from Jehovah through Moses a form of democratic, representative government. Israel, even though embracing a limited monarchy, considered itself a theocracy, with Jehovah at its center and the temple and sacrificial system centered in Jerusalem. The story of the plague at Athens and the wisdom of Epimenides led to the worship of the a€?Unknown Goda€? and to the eventual entrance of the Gospel to Athens and Greece.
Persia became the feared enemy of the Greek city-states, resulting in three major battles at Marathon, Thermopylae, and Salamis. Ironically, the wife of Xerxes, king of Persia, was Esther, a Jewish woman whose family had been takenA  to Babylon in the Babylonian Captivity of 566 BC. The refusal of Athens to share its democratic dream with the other city-states, as well as jealousy and rebellion on the part of the other city-states, resulted in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC).
Macedonia under Philip the Great conquered all of Greece and established the Macedonian empire.
The values contained in The Iliad and The Odyssey that permeated Greek culture and Western Civilization. The difference between a direct democracy, like that of Athens, and a representative republic, like that of the United States of America.
The battles in the Persian-Greek wars at Thermopylae, Marathon, and Salamis, included the reasons why the numerically smaller Greek forces were able to ultimately defeat the vast forces of Persia. 1.Excellence (arete) --A  doing the best you can, setting high levels of achievement, being the best at what you do, being superior in achievement to that of others.
2.Honor -- being a person of virtue, one who lends to neighbors without expecting repayment, and one who keeps promises and commitments. 3.Bravery -- for the Greek man bravery during war and athletic prowess in peacetime were the goals. 4.Sacrifice -- being willing to give up self-comfort for the sake of the polis, choosing to defend the polis over family life. An artist can have no greater resource than the ability to manipulate her own image; not even talent itself can outrank this skill in making a career. In the beginning, before I was famous, I started by going to cocktail parties and talking up the new artist, Heddie Alexander. A  Back then, no one had seen my work yet, but everyone was dying to see it, because somewhere, someone (they couldna€™t remember who) had told them how extraordinary the paintings were. August 31st, 1997 a€” it was our friend Raquela€™s 40th birthday, and there was a blowout planned at the Black Gallery. Just minutes later, I arrived at Gramercy Park to find Gus flat on his rear, brushing off scuffed hands and wrists.
One of our gallery friends called to say shea€™d seen Thom through the window of a Williams-Sonoma store and that hea€™d cut the outside edge of his right eyeball with a steak knife, looking at her all the while. I went outside and plopped down on the fire escape with a bottle of red wine and a cigarette.
Then, I dona€™t know why, but after everything Thoma€™s poor body had already been through that night, even though he was standing in front of me clearly injured, with blood running from his eye down his cheek, and even though he had surely lost his wits hours before and had very little comprehension of what was going on, I got up, and I shoved him as hard as I could a€” both of my hands flat against his collar bone a€” with such force that I knocked him down onto a chair.
Then I called a cab while he sat stunned in the chair, dripping in the wine that had spilled on him when hea€™d fallen back. Fifteen of Thoma€™s paintings sold during the two months he was at Sunnyside, and I learned that although insanity is interesting as a concept, it is tedious on a day-to-day basis. I tried, on several occasions, to talk to the doctors about having Thom and Sid separated, but they always said Sid was no real threat to Thom and that the two had gotten used to each other and were better off than with new roommates. They said management was about to re-carpet the hallways, and there would already be too much confusion for the patients, who did not like change.
After the first month, Thoma€™s recovery seemed about as likely as Woody Allen deciding to move out to the country and buy some horses. He turned the picture around to face me, and he pointed with his pencil to the man in the picture. Therea€™d also been a recent rollover with the staff, and a new nurse had misread Sida€™s charts and was giving him the wrong dosage of an anti-psychotic medication. Sometimes those of us who are almost crazy need someone who is fully crazy to make ourselves sane again. To understand ourselves it is important to understand our ancestors, and a part of them, and their heritage, lives on in us today.
To the world the American Indians seemed like a forgotten people when the English colonists first arrived and began to occupy their lands. I want to give special thanks to my cousin, Mary Hilliard, for her assistance and encouragement in researching and preparing this book. Wherever possible I have tried to find at least two sources for the genealogical data, but this has not always been possible. I have also found Franklin Elewatum Bearce's history, Who Our Forefathers Really Were, A True Narrative of Our White and Indian Ancestors, to be very helpful.
It is certainly possible that such a record may contain errors, but it is also very fortunate that we have access to this record as it presents firsthand knowledge of some of the individuals discussed in this book.
8 Newcomba€? Cpt. Sometime before the colonial period, the Iroquoian tribes began moving from the southern plains eastward across the Mississippi River and then northeasterly between the Appalachians and the Ohio River Valley, into the Great Lakes region, then through New York and down the St. Though they were neighbors and had similar skin color, these two groups of Indians were as dissimilar as the French and the Germans in Europe.
Federations, as well as the individual tribes, were fluid organizations to the extent that the sachem was supported as long as he had the strength to maintain his position.
Belonging to a federation meant that an annual tribute had to be sent to support the great sachem and his household, warriors had to be sent if he called for a given number to go to war, and strictest obedience and fidelity was demanded.
Some of these federations had as many as thirty member tribes supporting their Great Sachem, although many of these tribes would be counted by more than one sachem, as any tribe that was forced to pay tribute was considered as part of that Great Sachem's federation. Any member of the society who dishonored himself, in anyway, was no longer worthy of the respect of his people. When viewing the typical Indians of America, one would describe them as having a dark brown skin. They wore relatively little clothing, especially in summer, although the women were usually somewhat more modest than the men. The English resented the fact that the Indians wouldn't convert to Christianity as soon as the missionaries came among them.
The various tribes of New England spoke basically the same language and could understand each other well. There are many words used commonly in our language today that were learned from these New England Indians: Squaw, wigwam, wampum, pow-wow, moccasin, papoose, etc. Today there is little doubt that prior to Columbus's voyage, the Norsemen sailed to the coast of North America early in the eleventh century. We do not have a record of all of the European contact and influence on the Indians in the early years of exploration because the greatest exposure came from the early European fishermen and trappers who kept no records of their adventures, as opposed to the explorers. In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazano wrote the first known description of a continuous voyage up the eastern coast of North America.
As the fur trade became increasingly more important to Europeans, they relied heavily on the Indians to do the trapping for them. Another problem with which the Indians had to contend was the White man's diseases for which they had no tolerance nor immunity. In the spring of 1606, Gorges sent Assacumet and Manida, as guides on a ship with Captain Henry Chalons, to New England to search for a site for a settlement. In 1614, Captain John Smith, who had already been involved in the colony at James Town, Virginia, was again commissioned to take two ships to New England in search of gold, whales or anything else of value.
Dermer wanted to trade with the local Indians of the Wampanoag Federation and asked Squanto if he would guide them and be their interpreter.
Derner was given safe passage through Wampanoag land by Massasoit and soon returned to his ship.
When the Pilgrims left England in the Mayflower, their stated intent was to establish a settlement on the mouth of the Hudson River, at the site of present day New York City. The Pilgrims returned to the Mayflower and, after many days of exploration, found a more suitable location. On March 16, 1621 the Pilgrims were surprised by a tall Indian who walked boldly into the plantation crying out, "Welcome!
The Pilgrims gestured for Massasoit to join them in their fort but, he in turn, gestured for them to come to him. When the amenities were ended, the English brought out a treaty they had prepared in advance, which specified that the Wampanoags would be allies to the English in the event of war with any other peoples and that they would not harm one-another; and that when any Indians came to visit the plantation they would leave their weapons behind. After the ceremonies were ended, Governor Carver escorted Massasoit to the edge of the settlement and waited there for the safe return of Winslow. Part of Massasoit's willingness to make an alliance with the English must be credited to his weakened condition after suffering from the recent epidemics which left his followers at about half of the strength of his enemies, the Narragansetts. In June of 1621, about three months after the signing of the treaty, a young boy from the Colony was lost in the woods. When the English could not find the boy, Governor William Bradford, (who replaced John Carver, who died in April) sent to Massasoit for help in locating the boy.
That summer Governor Bradford sent Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto, to Pokanoket (Massasoit's own tribe, on the peninsula where Bristol, R.I. From this trip of Winslow's, we learn more about the daily life of the Indians in this area.
Massasoit urged his guests to stay longer but they insisted they must return to Plymouth before the Sabbath. Less than a month following this visit, Massasoit sent Hobomock, a high ranking member of the Wampanoag Council, to Plymouth to act as his ambassador and to aid the Pilgrims in whatever way they needed.
Hobomock and Squanto were surprised at what they heard, and quietly withdrew from the camp to Squanto's wigwam but were captured there before they could get to Plymouth. Although the Narragansetts and Wampanoags were historical enemies and continually feuding over land, they did not usually put hostages of high rank to death. Normally, treason was punishable by death and Massasoit would certainly have been justified in executing Corbitant for his part in the plot against him but, for some reason, Massasoit complete forgave him. Their first harvest was not a large one but the Pilgrims were.happy to have anything at all. During the winter, a rivalry developed between Squanto and Hobomock, the two Indians who now lived continually at Plymouth. According to the treaty he had signed with Plymouth, they were to turn over to him any Indians guilty of offense. In June and July, three ships arrived at Plymouth with occupants who expected to be taken in and cared for. In the winter of 1622-23, Governor William Bradford made trips to the various Indian tribes around Cape Cod to buy food to keep the Pilgrims from starvation. Next, Standish went to Cummaquid (Barnstable, MA.) where Iyanough was Sachem of the Mattachee Tribe. Thinking that Massasoit was dead, they went instead to Pocasset, where they sought Corbitant who, they were sure, would succeed Massasoit as the next Great Sachem.
Winslow describes their arrival, where the Indians had gathered so closely that it took some effort to get through the crowd to the Great Sachem.
Since the Pow-wow's medicine had not produced any results, Winslow asked permission to try to help the ailing Sachem. Their second Thanksgiving was combined with the wedding celebration of Governor Bradford and Alice Southworth. Because of Massasoit's honored position, more was recorded of him than of other Indians of his time.
Massasoit most likely became Sachem of the Pokanokets, and Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, between 1605-1615.
The second son of Massasoit was Pometacomet, (alias Pometacom, Metacom, Metacomet, Metacomo or Philip.) Philip was born in 1640, at least 16 years younger than Alexander. The third son, Sunconewhew, was sent by his Father to learn the white man's ways and to attend school at Harvard.
When his two oldest sons were old enough to marry, Massasoit made the arrangements for them to marry the two daughters of the highly regarded Corbitant, Sachem of the Pocasset tribe.
The tribes of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, as well as some of the Nipmuck tribes of central Massachusetts, looked to him for Military defense and leadership.
Following the plagues of 1617, which reduced his nation so drastically and left his greatest enemy, the Narragansetts of Rhode Island, so unaffected, Massasoit was in a weakened position. In 1632, following a battle with the Narragansetts in which he regained the Island of Aquidneck, Massasoit changed his name to Ousamequin (Yellow feather) sometimes spelled Wassamegon, Oosamequen, Ussamequen. In 1637, the English waged an unprovoked war of extermination against the Pequot Federation of Connecticut, which shocked both the Wampanoags and the Narragansetts so much that both Nations wanted to avoid hostilities with the feared English. After hearing of the death of his good friend, Edward Winslow in 1655, Massasoit realized that his generation was passing away. As Massasoit's health began to decline, he turned more and more of the responsibilities over to Alexander who was a very capable leader and who was already leading the warriors on expedition against some of their enemies. Massasoit was succeeded, as Great Sachem, by his son Alexander, assisted by his brother, Philip.
The younger generation saw, in Alexander, a strong, new leader who could see the danger of catering to the English. Both Philip and Weetamoo were very vocal in their condemnation of the English and word of their accusations soon reached Plymouth. Together, Philip and Canonchet reasoned that it would take a great deal of preparation for such a war. The stronger groups tended to settle in the more desirable areas where there was an abundance of water, natural resources (wood, clay, iron ore, coal), and natural protection (hills, sea coast, rivers, lakes). And by the time the weaker finally arrived at a location to settle down, they were frequently so far removed from other groups that there was little contact, trade, or interaction. For these reasons while civilizations were forming in Mesopotamia, India, China, and North Africa, groups that had roamed as far as North and South America and islands in the Pacific developed little further in cultural organization than the tribal unit and possessed a technology that was far less developed than in the larger civilizations. About the early civilizations, the Apostle Paul, in Romans 1-3, states that they were created with a clear knowledge of God, but having rejected and twisted what truth they did possess, they worshipped the creature rather than the Creator. Sumer was a collection of over thirty city-states, each possessing its own patron deity, but sharing a common religion featuring the worship of Elil with a central religious center at Nippur. Other innovations of the Sumerians were the wooden wheel, the wooden plow, and the wooden oar for their ships. The Sumerians developed (or recovered from their spiritual memory derived from Noah) an elaborate belief system that included many gods who possessed human characteristics, a concept of personal sin, that they had been created to serve the gods, a class system of sorts between major and minor gods, and an elaborate flood story.
On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the story of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language.
The Sumerians were weakened due to the salinization of their wheat fields and were overcome by an invading group of people led by Sargon, the Great. An Akkadian legend says that Sargon was abandoned by his mother in a reed basket which she placed in a river. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.
The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire) required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular.
Although the Babylonians absorbed much of the Sumerian worldview, they also developed a complex religion based upon astrology. The Assyrians, located to the north of Babylon, revived and were able to fight off several other invading groups that came into the Fertile Crescent from Indo-Europe and Syria. The constant flow of invading peoples into the Fertile Crescent resulted in a blending of cultures, religions, and gene pools. After over 400 years as slave in Egypt, Abrahama€™s descendants, under the leadership of Moses, left Egypt miraculously under Goda€™s guidance around the year 1250 B.C. During this period of time God delivered to the Hebrews the religious system known as Judaism.
After the 40 years of wilderness living, which resulted from their disobedience evidenced in worshipping the golden calf fashioned by Aaron, the brother of Moses, the Hebrews entered Canaan. The northern section, Israel, was invaded, captured, and sent into exile by Assyria in 732 B.
During their centuries of development, God raised up among the Hebrews the ancient prophets, who were raised up by God to give warnings to both Israel as well as to their pagan neighbors. They were chosen by God to be his covenant people, from among whom the Messiah was born of the virgin Mary.
The Philistines were descendants of a sea people who originated from around the Aegean Sea area to the east of Greece. The Philistines were a literate people who originally spoke the language of people living in Crete, Cyprus, and the Aegean area.
This civilization eventually concluded that their ruler, the Pharaoh, was actually divinity in the flesh. Perhaps the most famous of its rulers was Cleopatra who was the lover of both Julius Caesar and of Marc Anthony of the Roman Empire. He restored Egyptian religious worship and traditions back to their state prior to the radical revisions introduced by Tutakamena€™s father, Pharaoh Akhanaten. Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.
The early Minoan settlers of Crete and southern Greece were descendants of Egyptians who first migrated to the island of Crete. They were the first to develop the skills necessary to build large stone columns for their many massive palaces, monuments, and temples. They were major importers and exporters of gold, silver, ivory, bronze, pottery, and animals from the continent of Africa to the south and developed extensive trade with Middle Asia, North Africa., and even East Asia. They were master canal builders and specialists in highly developed agriculture and irrigation systems.
It is speculated that they were extensive travelers, and that skills needed to build the pyramids constructed by the Mayans in South America may have been brought by Egyptians traveling in their reed boats. They hosted the descendants of Abraham for over 450 years, first as guests and family members of the house of Moses, and later as slaves. Together with the Hittites after the Battle of Kadesh, the Egyptians pioneered a format for developing a long-lasting treaty between two powerful nations that numerous other subsequent civilizations followed.
The Gospel of Christ was brought to the Egyptians by the Apostle Mark who was martyred during his ministry in Egypt. The civilization that developed in the Indus River Valley rivals Egypt and Mesopotamia as the oldest known civilization. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™s population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The Harappa civilization developed when a large number of Aryan people descended into the Indus Valley from the northeast. A large, extensive sewage system to which all of the buildings in the cities were connected.
Agriculture was made possible by the annual flooding in the spring when the ice melted and in July and August during the rainy season. The Longshan Culture built large fortified towns along the Yellow River, fortified by large earthen walls and ramparts.
There are indications that the early Chinese who settled along the Yellow River believed in the same God as the Hebrews, the God who was revealed to them in creation and in the stories received from Noah and his sons. The Sumerians, Amorites, Egyptians, Longshan, and Harappa were some of the earliest groups that formed civilizations.
The Indo-European language group spread from the Black Sea area into the Indus River Valley and into Euro-Asia.
Civilizations emerged early and quickly after the Flood throughout the four major population areas of Europe, Euro-Asia, and Asia. The Nile River Valley was home to the great Egyptian civilization that reached its zenith during the reign of Ramses II, the probable pharaoh reigning during the time of Moses and the Exodus. An advanced Harappa civilization existed in the Indus Valley of India that conducted trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. Respond correctly to at least 80% of the questions based upon the nine big ideas found in the first section above, Whata€™s Worth Knowing? Be able to list several chief characteristics and features of each of the four major river civilizations. Create with your group ten test questions you believe all student should be able to answer after your groups presentation. Identify on a blank map the four major areas of civilization along the four river valleys and the items below. On their tablets of clay they recorded the Epic of Gilgamesh, the storyA  of a perfect, idyllic world into which the first created humans were placed, a world free from warfare, hatred, and one where everyone spoke the same language. Sargon developed an industry of bronze weapons making, and to secure an abundant supply of tin and copper with which to make the bronze, he extended his kingdom north into present day Syria.A  He also developed a library of several thousand clay tablets, built a vast network of roads, and established the first known postal system. The growth of such an urban, economic empire (which is also known as the Babylonian Empire)A  required codes and laws to govern life generally and the economy in particular. From Moses was received the Pentateuch, or the Five Books of Moses.A  He also established the first representative government, a system of government, Peoplea€™s Law, that was carried across Europe into England by the Anglo-Saxons, and became foundational for the United States of America. After the death of Solomon, the nation of the Hebrews experienced civil war and separated into Israel in the north occupied by ten of the tribes, and Judah (from which the name a€?Jewa€? was derived) in the south occupied by two of the tribes.
Rameses ruled for over 60 years and died at the age of 93, an age far exceeding the average 35-year life span of Egyptians who were his contemporaries.A  He was so revered by the nation (for three generations of Egyptians knew no other Pharaoh) that for generations after his death he was referred to as the Great Ancestor of the nation. At the apex of its development, the Harappa population was about 10% of the known worlda€™sA  population, making it comparable to the Nile River civilization in Egypt and probably larger than that in Mesopotamia. The major power in the Harappa society was the priestly caste that presided over a polytheistic religious system.
Traditional mud brick tower houses have always been a source of pride to Yemenis, and over a year into a devastating civil war, they are also providing some much-needed jobs in the ancient capital Sanaa. At his traditional mud brick factory outside the city, Ali al-Sabahi oversees the process as it has was always been done, in happier days and now in dire ones. Workers mix clay with straw, animal dung and water and leave this to dry in the sun for several days before settling it into square moulds. Yemen, a poor country awash with weapons where the rule of law is weak, is no stranger to conflict. The traditional houses of Sanaa, a UNESCO World Heritage site said to have been founded by the son of Prophet Noah two and half millennia ago, have been spared - mostly.
Coalition airstrikes killed at least six people and leveled several tower houses in the Qasimi quarter, one of the city's oldest, in June.
The war has taken livelihoods as well as lives, but brickmaking is a rare bright spot in Yemen, which has been pushed into a humanitarian disaster by the civil war. Working in a brick kiln in Sanaa, 25-year old Ibrahim al-Omari is able to support his parents and family with his wages.
Despite the threat of destruction, a decades-long spread of concrete construction and tight wartime budgets, the appeal of the ancient art remains strong. Through his efforts the city's homes might yet maintain its distinctive beauty - its ochre walls glow amber and their whitewashed shining white at sunset - for generations.
A labourer plays a flute as other labourers listen at a brick factory on the outskirt of Sanaa, Yemen, on June 5. Four-year-old Samaria Motyka died on Friday in Williamsport, Pennsylvania after her caregiver drove to work instead of taking her to day care. The numbers of heatstroke deaths of kids in cars fluctuated in the following decades, averaging 37 such deaths a year since 1998. Not surprisingly, states with warm climates all year and large populations had the most hot car deaths since 1990. The temperature inside a parked car on a 32-C day will reach 48 C in 20 minutes and 56 C after an hour, Null said. Parents should get into the habit of always opening their back doors when they leave the vehicle, according to Fennell. Other strategies include keeping a stuffed animal in the car seat and placing it in the front seat when the child is strapped in as a reminder that the child is there.
In an industry first, General Motors will have as a standard feature in their 2017 GMC Acadia sport utility vehicle a system that monitors its rear doors to remind drivers who have just parked to check their rear seats if they'd opened rear doors at the start of their trip. An emotional Joshua Blunt, center, is surrounded by family members after being released from the Grenada County Jail in Grenada, Mississippi, on May 24. Now researchers have allayed those fears by reporting that 13 cloned sheep, including four genomic copies of Dolly, are still in good shape at between 7 and 9 years of age, or the equivalent of 60 to 70 in human years. It is the first time experts have made such a detailed age-related health assessment of cloned animals, looking at factors such as blood pressure, diabetes risk and joint damage. Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, using a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer.
Dolly's creation triggered fears of human reproductive cloning, or producing genetic copies of living or dead people, but mainstream scientists have ruled this out as far too dangerous.
Instead, the hope is to develop "therapeutic cloning", in which cloned cells could be used to regenerate faulty tissue. Dolly's healthy heirs offer encouragement for regenerative medicine, although the SCNT process remains tricky and many would-be clones still fail to develop properly, despite technical advances since Dolly's birth. The four sheep cloned using the same genetic material as for Dolly - called Debbie, Denise, Dianna and Daisy - have just had their ninth birthdays and, together with nine other clones, are part of a unique flock based in Nottingham.
Today's clones live mainly outside, which may be one factor behind their relative health, since sheep kept in barns can be susceptible to infections. Doctors have said for many years that the now 61-year-old Hinckley, who was found not guilty by reason of insanity in the shooting, is no longer plagued by the mental illness that drove him to shoot Reagan in an effort to impress actress Jodie Foster. In 2006, Hinckley began visiting his parents' home in Williamsburg, Virginia, for three-night stretches. He has said he'd like to get a full-time job and at one point went to Starbucks and Subway to talk about applying. The plan calls for using the islands of Tinian and Pagan in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands for military war games. The training would prevent Pagan's native people from returning to their home island, which was evacuated 35 years ago after a volcanic eruption, and would disrupt communities on Tinian, according to Earthjustice attorneys, who are representing complainants including the Center for Biological Diversity and local community organizations. The lawsuit says the National Environmental Policy Act requires the military to consider all of the training's potential effects on the islands and surrounding communities. Calls seeking comment from the Navy and Department of Defense were not immediately returned.
The Navy did not take into consideration the people involved or the wide-ranging environmental effects, according to the groups. Tinian is a small island in the Northern Marianas with about 3,000 residents, mostly low-income indigenous Chamorro people. Expanding training would expose residents to "high-decibel training noise, permanent loss of 15 percent of the island's prime farmland soils, destruction of cultural and historic sites, and severe restrictions on access to traditional fishing grounds, cultural sites and recreational beaches," the lawsuit says.


Hillary Clinton secured the Democratic Party's White House nomination, coming back from a stinging defeat in her first presidential run in 2008 and surviving a bitter primary fight to become the first woman to head the ticket of a major party in US history. In a symbolic show of party unity, Clinton's former rival, Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, told the chairwoman from the convention floor that Clinton, 68, should be selected as the party's nominee at the dramatic climax of a state-by-state roll call at the Democratic convention in Philadelphia.
Capping nearly a quarter century in public life, Clinton will become the party's standard-bearer against Republican nominee Donald Trump in the Nov 8 election when she accepts the nomination on Thursday.
In nominating Clinton, delegates made the point that the selection of a woman was a milestone in the country's 240-year-old history. The Democratic nominee, who promises to tackle income inequality, tighten gun control and rein in Wall Street if she becomes president, is eager to portray Trump, a businessman and former reality TV show host, as too unstable to sit in the Oval Office. Trump, 70, who has never held elective office, got a boost in opinion polls from his nomination at the Republican convention last week. Sanders has endorsed Clinton, but some of his supporters protested in Philadelphia against the party leadership's apparent backing of her during the Democratic primary fight.
In 2008, Clinton lost a hard-fought nomination battle to Senator Barack Obama, who went on to become the country's first black president. She came under relentless attack at the Republican convention in Cleveland, as speakers assailed her over the e-mail controversy and her record as secretary of state and painted her as out of touch with ordinary US citizens.
Delegates celebrate as Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton addresses them via a live video link in Philadelphia on Tuesday. But on Tuesday night, as millions of voters watched and with the political stakes as high as they've ever been, Bill Clinton tried to make sense of it all and make the case for his wife, the newly minted Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton. The former president's tenth address to a Democratic convention was by far his most personal, a 42-minute tour through wedding proposals and Halloween parties, the deaths of parents and movie marathons.
Perhaps their worst moments - the Monica Lewinsky scandal, impeachment and legal battles that followed were conspicuously omitted.
Instead, Bill Clinton cast himself as a passenger in his wife's life, reshaping the story of much of their decades in politics. The goal was to make Clinton, perhaps the most famous female politician in the world, yet a public figure her aides claim remains unknown, relatable to voters.
He never once mentioned GOP nominee Donald Trump by name, dismissing Republican attacks on Clinton as "made up" and a "cartoon alternative". But it wasn't only Clinton who broke a glass ceiling on Tuesday when she became the first female nominee of a major party. Police searched the home of the 26-year-old, who reportedly said he wanted all disabled people to "disappear", after the knife rampage that left his victims in pools of blood, including some who were stabbed in the neck. With a blue jacket draped over his head, Satoshi Uematsu was escorted out of a police station into a waiting van before a crowd of flashing cameras. Inside the vehicle with the jacket removed, he smiled broadly in footage broadcast on morning news shows. Uematsu's self-styled mission to rid the country of the mentally disabled - laid out earlier this year in a long letter that came to light on Tuesday - has shocked Japan, as has the carnage at the Tsukui Yamayuri-en center in the city of Sagamihara, outside Tokyo. Plainclothes police officers were seen searching his house where yellow tape declared it a no-entry zone. Local media said Uematsu has told police that he wants to apologize to bereaved families about the sudden loss of their loved ones, though he still justified what he did. Uematsu broke into the care center in the forested hills of Sagamihara in the early hours of Tuesday. He tied up two caregivers before stabbing residents using a total of five knives - leaving a total of 26 people injured, 13 of them severely.
The top-selling Yomiuri Shimbun daily called the case "appalling" and urged a probe of the decision to release Uematsu from medical care. Satoshi Uematsu, suspected of the deadly attack, is seen inside a police car as he is taken to prosecutors, in Sagamihara, Kanagawa prefecture, Japan. Two knife-wielding attackers, several hostages, and a priest's throat cut - a few keywords of the latest terror attack that has rattled the nerves of millions in Europe and beyond, reinforcing the impression that the region is in the cross hairs of terrorists. The attack, which occurred on Tuesday morning when churchgoers in the town of Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray were gathering for the morning Mass, is also the latest atrocity claimed by the Islamic State group. Despite low number of casualties, the attack still shocked France and Europe at large as it hit a small town far from bustling cities like Paris and Nice, prompting fears that terrorists have managed to penetrate deeper into the region.
Paris Prosecutor Francois Molins on Tuesday said one of the church attackers was known to intelligence services and tried to join radical insurgents in Syria twice in 2015. Afterward, he had been under house arrest and had been wearing an electronic tag allowing police to trace him. He announced earlier this month that he would send artillery to Iraq to reinforce local forces battling the IS. In a related development, French media reported on Tuesday that the police arrested two more people in connection with the massacre in the southern city of Nice. Investigators were trying to determine if the two men provided logistical support to Mohamed Lahouaiej Bouhlel, the Tunisian man who carried out the truck rampage in Nice, BFMTV reported. The IS has claimed responsibility for the Nice attack that killed 84 people and injured 300 others. Floods and landslides triggered by monsoon rains in Nepal have killed 54 people over the past two days, an official said on Wednesday. Israeli troops shot dead a Hamas fighter on Wednesday who the military said was responsible for an attack that killed a rabbi in a drive by shooting in the occupied West Bank earlier this month. The death toll in a massive bomb attack on Wednesday in the Kurdish-majority city of Qamishli in northeastern Syria has risen to 44, state media said. Japan's government on Wednesday announced a stimulus package worth more than $266 billion in its latest attempt to fire up the lukewarm economy, with the central bank expected to unveil its own measures this week. South Korea said on Wednesday that a foundation for South Korean victims of the World War II sex slavery under the Japanese colonial rule will be launched on Thursday.
A 44-year-old activist who has been on a hunger strike for nearly 16 years to protest alleged brutality by India's military said on Tuesday that she will end her fast and run in state elections. A solar-powered aircraft successfully completed the first fuel-free flight around the world on Tuesday, returning to Abu Dhabi after an epic 16-month voyage that demonstrated the potential of renewable energy. The plane, Solar Impulse 2, touched down in the United Arab Emirates capital at 4:05 am on Tuesday. It first took off from Abu Dhabi on March 9, 2015, beginning a journey of about 40,000 kilometers and nearly 500 hours of flying time. Bertrand Piccard and Andre Borschberg, the Swiss founders of the project, took turns piloting the aircraft, which has a wingspan larger than a Boeing 747 but weighs no more than an average family car. He said the technologies used on Solar Impulse 2 could be used on the ground in daily life to halve emissions of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas blamed for climate change. The propeller-driven aircraft's four engines are powered by energy collected from more than 17,000 solar cells built in the wings. Unfavorable weather at times hindered smooth flying, causing the plane to be grounded for months in some countries.
For the two pilots, landing back where they started is only "the beginning of the continuation" of a longer journey, said Piccard, who in 1999 became the first person to circumnavigate the globe non-stop in a hot air balloon. Selfie picture shows Swiss pioneer Bertrand Piccard during the last leg of the round the world trip with Solar Impulse 2, a solar powered plane, over the Arab peninsula, on Monday. Solar Impulse 2 is not the first solar-powered plane, but unlike its predecessors it can store enough energy in its batteries to fly through the night. The breakthrough has been made possible by several technological advances by industry partners in the project. Belgian chemical group Solvay, for instance, developed batteries which store more energy but weigh less, and composite material that contributed to making the aircraft lighter. US solar panel maker Sunpower tweaked photovoltaic cells to enhance their electrical yield. By putting these elements together, engineers produced an unprecedented combination of "what generates electricity, what stores it and materials which allow it to carry passengers," said Vincent Jacques Le Seigneur, head of the Paris-based Renewable Energy Observatory. The next step will be to harness the technical gains of Solar Impulse to improve power-to-weight efficiency in related fields. In terms of maritime transport, there are already solar-powered craft: in 2012, the catamaran PlanetSolar made the first round-the-world trip by a vessel powered by solar energy.
Solar energy is also used to power military drones, which can be remarkably similar in design to Solar Impulse 2. Recent progress in electricity storage mean it is now feasible to have solar energy plants a long way from traditional power grids. Its wings are as wide as those of a jumbo jet, the carbon fiber fuselage is much lighter, but the plane flies at a fraction of the speed of an airliner and can only carry one person. The project's great merit has been to act as a test for lighter and cleaner 21st-century technology, said Philibert. The aircraft industry is working more toward electric planes powered by batteries that can be recharged on the ground. Australia's prime minister ordered a sweeping investigation Tuesday into allegations that teenagers were abused at a juvenile detention center in the country's north. Malcolm Turnbull said he would launch the Royal Commission - Australia's highest form of inquiry - after graphic footage emerged of teenage detainees being tear-gassed and stripped naked.
The footage, which aired on the Australian Broadcasting Corp's investigative program Four Corners on Monday, was filmed largely at a youth detention center in the Northern Territory city of Darwin between 2010 and 2015.
Human rights activists accused the government of ignoring the issue until it became public because the teens involved were indigenous. When the tear gas incident occurred in 2014, officials said guards had used the chemical to subdue six teens who had staged a riot.
In another video, a guard is seen picking up a 13-year-old and hurling him across the room onto his bed. Northern Territory Chief Minister Adam Giles said he had never seen the footage before it aired on Monday night, and blamed a "culture of cover-up" within the corrections system for the government's lack of action until now.
Giles said he had removed Northern Territory Corrections Minister John Elferink from his position in the wake of the scandal. The royal commission was expected to begin holding hearings as early as September, with a final report due to be released early next year, Giles said. Despite high economic growth in recent years, India has more stunted children than Nigeria, Pakistan, China and the Republic of Congo combined, with 48 million under the age of five - about 30 percent of the global total, a WaterAid report said.
Stunting is a form of malnutrition in which children are shorter than normal for their age and is largely irreversible after the age of two. If they survive, they grow up physically and intellectually weaker than their better-fed peers. WaterAid says a lack of toilets and clean water are causing high levels of stunting in India.
That is because high rates of open defecation lead to contamination that can spread disease and infection.
Data collated by WaterAid showed that 140,000 children die every year from diarrhoea in India, while 76 million do not have access to safe water and 774 million live without adequate sanitation. Open defecation has long been a major health and sanitation problem in India, where almost 594 million people - nearly half the population - defecate in the open, according to UNICEF. Impoverished Bangladesh fared better than its bigger, wealthier neighbour India, recording 5.5 million cases in its 160 million-strong population. The country has almost eliminated open defecation in just over a decade through a concerted campaign to build toilets. A four-year-old malnourished child being treated at the Nutritional Rehabilitation Centre in the eastern Indian state of Bihar in October 2015.
Police said the militants were holed up in a building in Kalyanpur on the outskirts of the capital, Dhaka, and they opened fire on officers as they tried to enter. The militants, who shouted Allahu Akbar, or "God is greatest" as they battled police, were believed to be members of the Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), a banned group that has pledged allegiance to Islamic State. Islamic State claimed responsibility for the cafe attack but the government has dismissed suggestions that IS has a presence in Bangladesh. Mostly Muslim Bangladesh has faced a series of attacks on liberal bloggers, academics and members of religious minorities over the past year. Security experts say the scale and sophistication of the assault on the cafe suggested links to a trans-national network.
Rima Jayanti has not had formal training in detective work but with her sharp eye and gut instinct, her task is to spot Indonesian women at Jakarta's bustling airport in danger of being sent abroad to a life of domestic servitude. Making her rounds, the 23-year-old quickly points out groups of women likely heading abroad to work as maids. Domestic helpers going to the Middle East tend to wear an Islamic headscarf, be middle-aged and elusive when asked about their plans, she said.
Women travelling to Hong Kong or Taiwan meanwhile usually have short hair, wear sneakers and are younger. Some 2.3 million Indonesians are working as maids in wealthier countries in Asia and the Middle East, risking abuse including the non-payment of wages and physical assault. Jayanti is part of a small team of "maid detectives" from Jakarta-based rights group Migrant Care, tracking down potential victims of human trafficking, and offering advice to others leaving of their own free will on how to look after themselves. They rescued a woman who had been brought to the airport by a maid agent, only to discover she was about to be sent to Saudi Arabia against her will.
Women often approach a maid agent to help them secure a placement abroad and handle the paperwork.
Maids make up more than a third of the six million Indonesians working abroad, attracted by promises of higher salaries. Complaints of mistreatment of Indonesians in the Middle East and the ensuing diplomatic rows prompted Jakarta announced in May 2015 to permanently ban maids from moving to the region. In March, Indonesian police busted a human trafficking ring which allegedly sent up to 600 Indonesians to work as domestic helpers in the Middle East, local media reported.
About 480 kilometers to the north, though, another fire ravaged a hilly area near the scenic coastal city of Carmel-by-the-Sea, churning through 6,500 hectares and destroying 20 homes and two outbuildings, authorities said. The so-called Soberanes Fire, burning in the Los Padres National Forest in Monterey County, threatened 1,650 structures by Monday evening and was only 10 percent contained, the U.S. Near Los Angeles, a beefed-up force of nearly 3,000 firefighters battled to outflank the blaze there - known as the Sand Fire - which has charred at least 130 square kilometers on the rugged northwestern fringes of the Angeles National Forest, authorities said.
The Sand Fire erupted on Friday and also remained just 10 percent contained on Monday evening as crews backed by bulldozers labored to hack buffer lines around its perimeter. The majority of the estimated 20,000 to 30,000 people who lived in the 10,000 homes that were evacuated earlier were allowed to return home on Monday evening, fire officials said. Fed by dense brush left desiccated by five years of drought, flames were initially stoked by triple-digit heat and extremely low humidity. Two attackers seized hostages on Tuesday in a church near the Normandy city of Rouen, killing a priest in his mid-80s by slitting the throat before being shot and killed by police, French officials said.
Democrats looked to defuse tensions by announcing that outgoing party chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz would not take the stage. Seeking to avoid a nationally televised display of disunity, Sanders urged his supporters to back Clinton.
The Vermont senator tried to settle roiling tensions between his ardent, left-leaning supporters and the party's rank-and-file that back Clinton. He told the convention that "Hillary Clinton must become the next president of the United States". Sarah Ruggiero, from Brooklyn, New York, said it is not acceptable for her to vote for Clinton.
Goldstein brought up the influence of money in politics and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which he said ships US jobs abroad.
Not even Sanders could quiet the shouts of his die-hard supporters - but Michelle Obama did. She lauded Clinton as a woman with a heart and as a future president who never "buckles under pressure" or takes the easy way out.
South Korean women and Iranian men are significantly taller than they were 100 years ago but US people have barely grown, according to a new study on Tuesday that reflects nutritional and environmental factors. Researchers at Imperial College London used data from around the world to track the height of young adults between 1914 and 2014 in more than 200 countries and territories. Where once Scandinavia and the United States produced the tallest men, the Netherlands, Belgium, Estonia and Latvia now top the rankings, with Dutch men measuring an average height of 182.5 cm. Latvia has the tallest women, averaging 170 cm, followed by women from the Netherlands and Estonia. The shortest men in the world are from East Timor, with an average height of 160 cm, and the shortest women are from Guatemala, averaging a height of 149 cm. While the global trend has been an increase in height, some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and the Middle East have seen a decline in the past 30 or 40 years. This is often in some of the poorest parts of the world - the average height in Sierra Leone, Uganda and Rwanda has declined by 5cm in recent decades. The US once had the third tallest men and fourth tallest women, but has fallen to 37th and 42nd place. After a rapid acceleration in height until the 1960s, growth in Japan has also flattened out, and the Japanese are now shorter than people from South Korea and China.
The FBI announced on Monday it was investigating the embarrassing hack of Democratic National Committee emails - a breach the Clinton campaign blamed on Russia, accusing Moscow of seeking to influence the US presidential election. The emails leaked by WikiLeaks, which reveal that party leaders sought to undermine the campaign of Hillary Clinton's rival Bernie Sanders, threw the Democratic National Convention into disarray on its first day and prompted the party boss to resign. Both the White House and the State Department deferred to the FBI on whether Russia was to blame, but highlighted that cybersecurity has been an ongoing issue of concern between Washington and Moscow. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov batted away any suggestion that Moscow was behind the hack.
Lavrov, in the Laos capital Vientiane for a regional security forum, shrugged when asked by reporters if Russia was responsible. Kerry said later, after his talks with his Russian counterpart: "With respect to Foreign Minister Lavrov, I did raise the issue of DNC. But Clinton's team - looking to tamp down an internal party uproar just days before she becomes the first woman in US history to be formally conferred the presidential nomination by a major party - was quick to point fingers.
Trump has made no secret of his admiration for Russian President Vladimir Putin, leading some to conjecture that Putin was working to put the real estate billionaire in the White House. Two suicide bombers detonated explosives-laden cars on Tuesday outside the UN Mine Action Service offices and a Somali army checkpoint in Mogadishu, killing 13 people, including seven UN guards, Somali police officials said. Almost two thirds of people in Turkey believe that US-based Muslim cleric Fethullah Gulen was behind a failed coup attempt in Turkey on July 15, a survey conducted by pollster Andy-Ar showed on Tuesday, backing the government line.
Two Turkish generals serving in Afghanistan and a former Istanbul governor have been detained in the wake of Turkey's July 15 failed coup. Malawi police have arrested an HIV-infected man who was paid to have sex with more than 100 adolescent girls as part of a traditional ritual marking their passage to womanhood, officials said Tuesday. The Dutch are pleased with a recent announcement that King Willem-Alexander's daughter Catharina-Amalia, the 13-year-old heir to the throne, is about to learn Chinese in the upcoming semester in The Hague, where they live.
Some have even dubbed this the royal family's "smartest investment", pointing out the enhanced bilateral relationship between China and the Netherlands. Elisabeth is also likely to become a queen that can speak Chinese as long as she can endure the difficulties of learning a language harder than her mother tongue. In fact, the older generation of royal families in Europe have a long tradition in immersing themselves in Chinese culture. Although Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, who just celebrated her 90th birthday this year, doesn't speak Chinese, she has enormous interests in Chinese beliefs, especially Taoism and the tradition of longevity, a prime Chinese value. This month, the University of Wales Trinity Saint David, partly supported by the UK royal family, set up an Academy of Sinology, with the goal of nurturing doctorate students studying ancient Chinese religions, texts, language and history. Meanwhile, the Danish monarchy is another European royal family which has shown a keen enthusiasm over China, its culture and language. Queen Margrethe II, of Denmark, aged 76, King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and Belgium's King Philippe have already paid visits to China after Xi Jinping was elected as president. During the Greek debt crisis, when I was interviewing parliamentarians in Greece, one of them even arranged for his 16-year-old daughter, who was learning Chinese, to sit in on the one-hour interview session. On July 21, when I was immersing myself in the crowds for the Belgian National Day parade, a retired Belgian man stopped me, telling me that, when he was young, he studied Chinese in Taiwan for a few years and spent more than ten years in the mainland.
This all shows evidence of a growing trend that Chinese is becoming more popular globally because of the attractions of Chinese civilization and the country's modernization in recent decades.
The UK, United States, Canada, Japan, France and other countries have already set up many schools in China with their own curriculum and their experiences should be copied as China extends its presence globally. That should be part of the mission for China's new minister of education, Chen Baosheng, who started to work in this position just this month.
Underprivileged Indian schoolboys relax in their dormitory in Ramnagar, south of Kolkata, on Saturday. In a break from training for one of the world's largest soccer tournaments, Yakub Ali swells with pride at the idea of putting a smile on the face of his mother back in Asia's biggest red light district. Yakub is one of eight sons of sex workers living in Kolkata's notorious Sonagachi neighborhood who are heading to Denmark later this week to take part in the Dana Cup, an international youth tournament. His Durbar Sports Academy teammates also include youngsters drawn from other slum areas in India's eastern metropolis. The tournament in the northern town of Hjorring will include teams of boys and girls from every corner of the globe but few will surely match the raw desire to prove their worth than the Durbar lineup. The academy is overseen by the Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee, a charity organization which works for the welfare of Indian prostitutes and also runs Asia's first cooperative for sex workers. Situated 40 kilometers south of Kolkata, the academy gives underprivileged youngsters an opportunity to let their hair down far away from the narrow alleys and squalid apartments of Sonagachi. An estimated 8,000 sex workers ply their trade in Sonagachi which is home to several hundred brothels, gaining it the reputation as the largest single red light zone in Asia.
Smarajit Jena, a public health scientist who founded DMSC, said the boys were routinely treated as pariahs in Sonagachi and often found themselves with no one to turn to when they encounter challenges in their daily life.
Yakub, a wiry center-forward, said he had "cried tears of joy" when the team managed to qualify for Denmark. Japanese electronics maker Funai Electric Co said it's yanking the plug on the world's last video cassette recorder. A company spokesman, who requested anonymity citing company practice, confirmed on Monday that production will end sometime this month, although he would not give a date. He said the company would like to continue production to meet customer requests, but can't because key component makers are pulling out due to shrinking demand for VCRs.
Many families and libraries have content stored in the VHS format and want to convert the tapes to DVD or other digital disks.
Funai's VCR factory is off-limits to media coverage for security reasons because other products are made at the same plant, he said. Owners of VCRs are not as emotionally attached to their machines as are owners of Sony Corp's discontinued robotic dog Aibo, or the Boombox, the portable cassette player, with its deeply resonating speakers and cool designs, said Nobuyuki Norimatsu, nicknamed "Aibo doctor", of A-Fun, a company of engineers who do repairs for discontinued electronics goods. Still, many VCR owners want to dub their videos on their own, rather than sending them to outside companies, because the content is so personal, he said.
Panasonic Corp withdrew from making VCRs several years ago, making Funai the only manufacturer. Massiel Alvarez, 18, enters a car at the end of the Cuban Otaku festival in Havana on Sunday. Cuba may be one of the world's least connected countries but that is not stopping the Japanese subculture of animated movies, manga comics and video games from spreading feverishly among its youth. More than a thousand "Otakus", or fans of such fantasy worlds, descended on Havana this week for the country's third Otaku festival, defying the sweltering heat to sport the costumes. Some performed scenes from animation movies on stage, while others belted out songs in Japanese with Spanish subtitles projected in the background. The 17-year-old, who is learning Japanese and dreams of creating comics, said she started getting seriously into the subculture a year ago. Some Cubans said the role playing offered them an escape and the science fiction heroes encouraged them to overcome their own difficulties. Otakus face challenges pursuing their hobby in Cuba as fans cannot easily look up series and mangas on the internet.
Accessories are not on sale in Cuba so Otakus make their own costumes, saving up for the materials. Prime Minister John Key on Monday announced an ambitious plan to completely rid the South Pacific nation of rats and some other nuisance animals, including possums and stoats, by the year 2050. The government is hoping a rat-free countryside will give a boost to native birds, including the iconic kiwi. New Zealand is hoping to build on its success in eradicating rats from several of its smaller islands.
However, some scientists caution the goal, while laudable, will be extremely difficult to achieve in a nation that's similar in size to the United Kingdom.
Speaking from a wildlife sanctuary in Wellington, Key said the goal would require the help of everyone from philanthropists to indigenous Maori tribes. He said the government would initially contribute $20 million over four years toward setting up a company to run the program, and would consider partially matching money contributed by local councils and businesses.
New Zealand's Department of Conservation has eradicated rats from several small islands using traps, poisons and baits. But it would require a massive escalation of those efforts to completely wipe out the pests.
Ecologist James Russell, from the University of Auckland, has written about the idea before.
He said getting rid of the pests would make a huge difference to the health of native flora and fauna.
But Jacqueline Beggs, another ecologist from the university, said eliminating pests from small, uninhabited islands was one thing, but getting everybody from farmers to anti-government types to agree on the idea would prove much more difficult, if not impossible. An Iraqi policeman uses a hand-held bomb detector at a checkpoint in Baghdad on Jan 23, 2014.
For nearly a decade, anyone driving through one of Baghdad's many checkpoints was subjected to a search by a soldier pointing a security wand at their vehicle and watching the device intently to see if its antenna moved.
Yet the government continued to use the devices, spending nearly $60 million on them despite warnings by US commanders and the wands' proven failure to stop near-daily bombings in Baghdad. It took a massive suicide bombing that killed almost 300 people in Baghdad on July 3 - the deadliest single attack in the capital in 13 years of war - for Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi to finally ban their use.
Now there are accusations that plans to start using newly imported explosives-detecting scanners were intentionally held up as part of the political wrangling over which faction - the military or the police - will control security in Baghdad. Since the wands were banned, soldiers at Baghdad checkpoints largely wave motorists through, occasionally asking for vehicle registrations and driver's licenses and taking a quick look inside.
In some places, the wands are still being used - at some checkpoints in Baghdad and in the southern port city of Basra, Iraq's third-largest city - nearly two weeks after the Baghdad bombing. Officials said the explosives-laden minibus used in the July 3 attack in Baghdad's central Karradah district started its journey in Diyala province, traveling 50 kilometers to the capital.
Four days after the Karradah bombing, three suicide bombers struck a Shiite shrine in Balad, north of Baghdad, killing 37 people. When Iraqi security forces first began using the ADE-651 wands, US and British military commanders in Iraq dismissed the devices as useless and counseled the government to stop using them. Faced with mounting criticism, former prime minister Nouri al-Maliki ordered an investigation into the effectiveness of the devices in 2010. In her first public comments since being freed from a military hospital on Thursday after the Supreme Court dismissed plunder charges against her, Arroyo insisted her detention was "unjust". The court found "insufficient evidence" to accuse her of stealing $8.8 million in state lottery funds meant for charity programs while she was in office between 2001 and 2010.
Arroyo was jailed in 2011 under the administration of then president Benigno Aquino III, who sought to make his predecessor a high-profile scalp of his anti-corruption campaign. Aquino had questioned the decision to free Arroyo, saying she must be held accountable for misusing funds intended for the poor. The daughter of former president Diosdado Macapagal, Arroyo said her family also experienced persecution when rivals went after her father's allies. La glace se craquele et voila que le petit pingouin glisse et glisse encore, toujours plus loin de ses parents. Ita€™s most famous ruler was the legendary king Minos who established the capitol city of Knossos. It was a warrior culture mentioned by Homer in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, describing the events that took place during the Trojan Wars between the Mycenaeans from the mainland of Greece and Troy on the western shoreline of Anatolia (present-day Turkey). They were carried into Roman culture by Virgil, were embraced by the Byzantines, and were carried into Italy during the Renaissance. Art, pottery, sculpturing, and architecture developed, establishing the foundation for much of the Classical period.
Athenian democracy developed under Pericles and the Parthenon was built on the Acropolis in Athens in worship of Athena. It derived its name from the goddess Athena who in Greek myth competed with Poseidon to be the patron of the city. The Isthmus games were held every two years at the narrow isthmus of Greece, located near Corinth.
He was most angered by Athens and Sparta, because when his father Darius sent messengers to those two cities to offer them the opportunity to surrender prior to the Battle of Marathon, they killed Dariusa€™ emissaries by throwing them down into deep wells. The Persians arrived at a narrow, rocky pass, Thermopylae, which overlooked the rocky shoreline below -- a 50-foot wide narrow pass which only permitted a limited numbers of troops to squeeze through the pass at a time.
King Leonidas of Sparta blocked the pass with 300 Spartans and 400 soldiers from other city-states. A Greek traitor, however, revealed a hidden pass through the mountains that would by-pass Thermopylae and allow the Persian to attack Leonidas from the rear. He sent a messenger to Xerxes with the message that many of the Greeks were terrified, that they would not fight, and that if Xerxes sent his ships into the Bay of Salamis they could easily wipe out the Athenian navy.
This would not bode well for the future of peace between the two city-states, however, and ultimately resulted in the Peloponnesian Wars. During the Peloponnesian War Athens suffered from a plague, which took the life of Pericles.
Pericles led a number of major building projects in Athens including the rebuilding of the Parthenon, constructing a large statue of Athena in the Parthenon, and rebuilt the acropolis. Socrates maintained that the universe and life below here on earth pointed to a different reality. In the dialogue, Meno, Socrates set forth the idea that when a person is born it is a reincarnation of the eternal soul which contains all knowledge. He argued that the soul is eternal, lives on after the death of the physical body, and existed before the physical body. Although he disagreed with some of his teachings, Plato memorialized Socrates in his work, the Apology of Plato. In it he describes the ideal form of government and society comprised of three classes of people: producers (craftsmen, farmers, builders), warriors, and guardians (rulers). The goal is to follow the lead of the rational and spiritual portions of the soul and to make them masters over the appetite. They can only speculate and guess, based upon the shadows they see moving across the floor and walls of the cave. Plato seemed to these North European Christians to be saying that reality is above where God is. After his education in Athens, Aristotle was hired by King Philip of Macedonia to be the personal tutor of this son, the future Alexander the Great in Macedonia. Too many good things go unaccomplished because of either a bad beginning or not beginning at all. During the Reign of Terror in France all Christian symbols were removed from the cathedral in Paris and a statute of the Goddess of Human Reason was placed in the cathedral.
On the other hand, there is considerable evidence, some speculate, that many of the Greek gods and goddesses were reminder remnants of Biblical history prior to the Flood of Noah.
Eve may be the prototype of Athena, because invariably when depicted in Greek sculpture Athena is pictured with a snake at her one side and a sword at the other.
Access to its snowy peaks was very difficult, it was shrouded in mystery, and was supposed by the Greeks to be the home of the Twelve Olympians.
He is the son of Gaea and then became her husband; together they had many offspring, including twelve of the Titans.
Because Atlas led the Titans in the battle, he was singled out by Zeus for a special punishment and was condemned to hold up for eternity the world on his back. Earth (Gaia) presents the new-born child to Athena, who represents the reborn serpent-friendly Eve after the Flood. In Section One of the Cycle of Rebirths in Buddhism, the gods and demigods are continually engaged, as here with the Greek deities, in a struggle over who will obtain the magic fruit of the tree that dispenses wisdom and eternity.
To depict this, Athena is usually accompanied by one or several snakes -- the symbol to the Greeks of hidden wisdom. As the story goes, Olympia, a mystical follower of the god Dionysus, often slept with a giant snake in her bed as both a pet and a spiritual symbol of Zeus.
Olympia immediately feared that Cleopatra would produce a son who would become the legitimate heir to Philipa€™s throne. When he ran from the banquet, two of Alexandera€™s other friends caught him and killed him. When a boy baby was later born to Cleopatra, Alexandera€™s mother Olympia arranged to have Cleopatra and the child killed to prevent a challenger to Alexandera€™s throne. In Egypt he left behind a Greek, General Ptolemy, who became the first of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Wherever he went he left behind Greek soldiers to intermarry with the population and in this way to capture the local culture. In other words, Paul was a€?deeply shaken.a€? he had a a€?sudden attacka€? or a€?deep disturbance,a€? and felt impelled to make a statement. He informs them about the unknown God, the Creator, who is near to each one of us, the one whom they worship but whose identity is a mystery to them. The Greeks, whether from Sparta, Athens, or Thebes, would never think of going to war, embarking on a new project, or taking a long trip, without consulting with the Oracle.
The Oracle's advice disturbed them -- an Unknown God was the cause of the plague, she said, who intended to punish the Athenians for having violated many years before an ancient Greek code of conduct against another city-state. The grateful citizens wanted to reward Epimenides, but he declined any payment, asking merely for a treaty of peace between Athens and his home city, Knossos. He spent the majority of his time in front of them filling that empty concept of the unknown god with truth about the God they worshipped as the agnosto theo. That is, until he discovered the exchange of little children made between warring clans for the purpose of making peace. The Roman gods, for example, were for the most part simply re named Greek gods from Greek mythology. It impacted the entire culture of Greece and the population were almost entirely Christianized by the middle of the second century. They destroyed most of the ancient Christian communities in Turkey, like Ephesus, Laodicea, Pergamum, and other churches listed in the New Testament. The long struggle of Greece to resist Islam and to serve as a guard for the rest of Christian Europe against the Islamic Ottomans was at last over.
It is interesting to travel through Greece to see white crosses placed virtually every hilltop to celebrate their independence from Ottoman rule. Churches at Corinth, Ephesus, Thessaloniki, and Philippi all had New Testament letters addressed to them. Many school children in America study Greek mythology in school, thinking of it as some sort of fairy tale, cartoonish system, not realizing its demonic roots and total domination of the Greek culture.
Thomas Jefferson seemed to have favored implementing a certain form of limited democracy in the United States.
How might they have been modified and re directed after the Greeks embraced the Christian faith? They drove many of the Mycenaean people to the Ionian coast, and intermarried with the remaining Mycenaeans to form the Greek people.
700 B.C), authored two important epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the oldest known European literature. There is some indication that this mythology was the deification of a€?heroica€? men and women of old, who, before the Flood, composed the line of unrighteous persons. This was in stark contrast to the polytheism and idolatry practiced by its neighbors, including Greece and Rome. Had I taken my arguments against the existence of Santa Claus, substituted the words a€?Judeo-Christian God,a€? and published them under a pseudonym, Ia€™d have been hailed as the next great philosopher of my parentsa€™ generation. You can solicit attention of any sort, or, with a lack of eye contact and a slight slouch of the shoulders, you can fade into oblivion. It was this knowledge and the ability to exploit it that allowed me to build my reputation. Even after I was famous, I could walk down a crowded street without notice, whereas before I was famous I could already command the attention of an entire room.
The paintings could have been crap, and people would have rationalized sense and beauty into them. There was a mystery about him that started with the fact that no one could quite guess his heritage. Raquel was not only firmly entrenched in the art circles of New York; she was also elegance incarnate a€” everything about her was long a€” from the sleek, auburn hair that hung halfway down her back, to the pale, slender wrists she bangled more often than not. Our neighbor Gus, the cellist, had been leaving the Indian film theater at Lex and 23rd when hea€™d seen Thom circling around and around the black iron gates of Gramercy Park. Then he stepped forward with his right foot, dragging his left foot behind him with all the effort and attention you would give a cumbersome package. This she had seen through the window, from the street, where she was helpless to do anything about it. He said hea€™d gotten my phone number from our super because Thom had threatened him with a lawsuit. Hea€™d been a victim of cult abuse as a child and periodically suffered from the notion that Thom or some other patient, nurse or doctor was an emissary of Satan. I was on the verge of trying to move Thom to a different facility when a minor miracle occurred a€” the head of the hospital brought in a specialist named Dr. Stein was an art aficionado, a psychoanalyst, and the author of three books on the artistic psyche.
Stein at his home office, he said his goal was to help Thom learn to control the reigns of his passion and steer it in healthy directions. Stein said that Thom needed to act out steering the reins of his passion in order for the metaphor to have a lasting impact.
This had been going on for about two weeks, and by the time Halloween evening came around, Sid had determined that Thom was actually not just an emissary of Satan but Satan himself.
At first I was very skeptical of this record as it was a family tradition passed down for many generations. She was very fond of her Grandmother, Freelove, knew all about her and stated on several occasions that Freelove's Mother was Sarah Mauwee, daughter of Joseph Mauwee, Sachem of Choosetown, and not Tabitha Rubbards (Roberts). Massasoit was the Sachem of this tribe, as well as being the Great Sachem over the entire Wampanoag Federation, which consisted of over 30 tribes in central and southeastern Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.
Welcome, Englishmen!" It was a cold and windy day, yet this Indian, who introduced himself as Samoset, Sachem of a tribe in Monhegan Island, Maine, wore only moccasins and a fringed loin skin. Initially they were propelled to distance themselves from each other by major language differences.
Because they settled in these areas and because they settled first, they had more time and resources to develop civilizations. One thing that is usually required for a culture to develop is interaction with other culture groups. Hence, the imperialistic armies of Europe with canons, ships, and guns met tribesmen in parts of Africa armed with spear and bows and arrow. The Sumerians were a people who perhaps migrated from the Caspian Sea area into the Fertile Crescent, the fertile area lying between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Sumerian priests would climb these tall towers thinking that at the top they might encounter the gods who would descend from the sky to meet with them.
Little is known about this period or people, but there are written records that indicate that there were kings who ruled Sumer during the antedeluvian period (period of time between Creation and the Flood).
They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.
Sargon established the powerful and vast empire of Akkad that ruled over most of the Fertile Crescent. Therefore, Hammurabi developed an extensive set of laws to govern the culture and the economy. They observed the movement of the stars through astronomy in an attempt to understand the behavior and will of the gods. People in the area became known as a€?Mesopotamiansa€? rather than Amorites, Sumerian, Assyrians, or Babylonians. The growth of population created problems with sewage, garbage, overcrowding in urban centers, decreasing drinking water supplies, disease, and the constant threat of a new people group arriving to take advantage of the fertile soil -- even though salinization continued to be a constant problem.
In a revelation from Elohim, Abraham was promised an inherited land that would remain the possession of his descendants. During a period of 40 years in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan Moses received from God the Ten Commandments while communing with God on the top of Mount Sinai. Under the leadership of Joshua, the Hebrews systematically defeated all the people groups living in the land of Canaan and possessed the land promised to them by God.
They gradually adopted the language of the Canaanites and blended their religion with that of the Canaanites and featured the worship of the god Baal. Therefore they could not corrupt the divine blood line through marriage with common people. The i??entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River.
For one brief period, however, one of the Pharaohs, Akhenaten, promoted a form of monotheism. Cleopatra was a descendant of General Ptolemy who was given governance over Egypt by Alexander the Great of Greece.


When Ashkenaten became Pharaoh he banished the gods of Egypt, banished their priests, emptied their temples, and forbade their worship or sacrifices made to them. He (1) ended the worship of Aten, contrary to his fathera€™s policy, and (2) restored the worship of Amun. His wife petitioned the king of the Hittites, asking to be given as a wife to one of his sons. He was known as a war pharaoh, leading campaigns against the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, Nubians, and other neighboring nations.
They founded the Minoan civilization and their capitol city of Knossos on the island of Crete.
They fell victim to the plagues brought by God against the Pharaoha€™s (likely Rameses II) stubbornness to refuse to allow over one million Hebrew slaves to leave Egypt peacefully.
The Indus River civilization, known as the Harappa civilization, was located in present-day Pakistan, appearing about 1500 B.C. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean i??area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. The priests were both religious and military leaders and ruled from walled citadels in the major cities.
The Chinese today consider this river basin to be the cradle of Chinese civilization and refer to the river as a€?the mother river.a€? It has an east-i??west extension of about 3,000 miles from the Kulun Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and a north-south extension of 684 miles. It is probable that they moved into the Yellow River area after the Tower of Babel event and retained the knowledge of God received from Noah and his offspring. It had elaborate drainage and sewage systems superior to those in many parts of modern India today. They utilized and brought to greater development a writing system on clay tablets, called cuneiform, borrowed from earlier groups in the area.A  Cuneiform (from the Latin cuneus, three-sided wedge) used wedge-shaped markings made with bamboo pens on soft clay. The entire cultural and economic life of the nation was built upon the flooding of the Nile River. Modern excavations of skeletal remains suggest that the people were tall, with elongated faces and dark hair, similar to people in the Mediterranean area (Greece, Italy, Crete).They spoke a language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages.
But the war that erupted last year brought widespread destruction in Sanaa and beyond in air strikes led by Saudi Arabia.
In Dallas, 2-year-old Boi Lei Sang died after being left in a hot car in a parking lot Sunday while his family was in church. Fennell said that there have been 111 hot car deaths in Texas, followed by Florida with 80 and California at 54. Parents also need to make sure their day care calls them if the child doesn't show up, she said. Sleep-deprived parents become distracted because of a change in routine or thinking about what needs to be done at work. Blunt, who is charged with seconddegree murder, is accused of leaving his 8monthold daughter in the back of his car where she later died. She died prematurely at 6 in 2003 after developing osteoarthritis and a lung infection, raising concerns that cloned animals may age more quickly than normal offspring. While no animals were lame, there were signs of mild osteoarthritis in some sheep and one had moderate disease, which scientists said was to be expected at their age.
This involved taking a sheep egg, removing its DNA and replacing it with DNA from a frozen udder cell of a sheep that died years before. That time has increased over the years so that for more than the last year he has been allowed to spend 17 days a month at the home. He will have to attend individual and group therapy sessions and may not talk to the media. According to court records and testimony at a recent court hearing on the issue of his release, he has spent time volunteering at a church as well as a local mental hospital. The military already uses a small plot on the island for sniper training, according to the lawsuit. The training would destroy native forests, coral reefs and wildlife on the remote volcanic island. Controversy over her use of a private email server for official business while she served as the country's top diplomat dogged her during the primary election season. It's been dissected, defended and decried at kitchen tables and on cable news, in tabloids and classrooms. Rather, Bill Clinton focused nearly exclusively on his wife's achievements and how she'd influenced him. It really took off when I met and fell in love with that girl in the spring of 1971," he said. Should she win on Election Day, her husband will step into a singular role in US history: first gentleman. He condemned the attack as an "heinous crime" and pledged to use all means in the war against terrorism. The militant was killed in an overnight raid in the territory, during which residents of the Palestinian village of Surif, near the city of Hebron, reported lengthy exchanges of fire between Israeli forces and gunmen. The official SANA news agency said at least 140 people were also injured when a suicide bomber in a vehicle blew himself up in a western neighborhood of the city. Policymakers are under pressure to boost growth as Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's 'Abenomics' plan to kick-start the world's No 3 economy comes under threat from poor data and sagging business confidence. Irom Sharmila told a court in the northeastern state of Manipur that she'll give up her fast on Aug 9 and stand as an independent candidate in elections early next year. In one instance, one of the teens was shackled to a restraint chair with a hood placed over his head, before being left alone for hours.
The Northern Territory has the highest rate of youth detention in the country, and 97 percent of detainees are Aboriginal.
But CCTV and video footage filmed by staff at the center appears to show that the tear gas was used after just one teen escaped his cell, while the other five remained locked in their cells.
The same boy is also seen in footage from a different Northern Territory detention facility being stripped naked and held face-down on his bed by three guards after he apparently threatened to hurt himself.
Most of the 22 people killed there were foreigners and the five attackers were also killed. Last year, migrant workers sent home some $9.4 billion in remittances, according to official data. France is also under a state of emergency and has extra police presence in the wake of the Nice attack in which a man barreled his truck down the city's Promenade des Anglais, mowing down holiday crowds. She has long been a focus of criticism from Sanders and his backers for her apparent bias in Clinton's favor. He spoke directly to supporters, sent them texts and made an appeal as the final speaker on Monday. The two blasts took place near the African Union base, Somali police chief General Mohamed Sheikh Hassan said at a news conference. The government said Gulen, who has many followers in Turkey, masterminded the plot, having long accused his former ally of building a network within the army, police, judiciary, civil service, education and media to control the state.
The two generals were caught in Dubai, while the governor, Husayin Avni Mutlu, who served from 2010-14, was detained in Istanbul, an official at the office of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said on condition of anonymity in line with regulations on speaking to the press. Apart from Danish, French and English, Chinese is among the four languages used on the royal family's website since 2014.
And within European institutions, Chinese-language training courses are routinely offered to young officials.
I was astonished by his fluency in Chinese and excellent mastering of the Chinese way of communication. All in all, starting from kindergarten to universities, China should consider "smart investment" in overseas education. They are heading to Denmark later this week to take part in the Dana Cup, an international youth tournament. The cost of the trip is being underwritten by several Indian and international corporations. In 2000, it made 15 million of them, 70 percent for the US market, according to the company, based in Osaka, central Japan. That includes film cameras and floppy disks once used to store computer content, which were displaced by smaller memory devices with larger capacity and by cloud storage. Many bird species are threatened with extinction because rats and other pests feast on their eggs and compete with them for food. And it has also intensively managed some areas on the main islands to make the msafer for native birds. It had been proven years ago, even before 2013 when two British men were convicted in separate trials on fraud charges for selling the detectors. Iraqis mocked the device from the start, joking that too much aftershave could set off the antenna. They also were used across the holy city of Najaf south of Baghdad for at least a week after al-Abadi's order before they were finally recalled. He said the new vehicles equipped with scanners have been deployed at checkpoints on major roads leading to the capital.
The vehicle, a type used as communal taxis in Iraq, would have encountered at least half a dozen checkpoints, most of which likely used the wand. He probably did not write the Iliad and the Odyssey because handwriting was not discovered in Greece until about 400 years after the time Homer was said to have lived.There were Greek colonies all along the Ionian coastline. The philosophic schools of Socrates and Plato developed.The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was fought between Athens and Sparta and their allied city-states.
Darius and the Persians invaded Greece with over 100,000 troops but were defeated by 20,000 Greek hoplites in the famous battle at Marathon just north of Athens.
Her story is recorded in the Book of Esther and through her efforts a major slaughter of the Jews was averted. When a spy told them that the Persians were so numerous that when they shot their arrows they blocked the sun, Leonidasa€™ response was, a€?Good!
Xerxes sent about 400 Persian triremes into the bay where the larger Persian ships, loaded with soldiers who could not swim, were faced by 300 smaller, sleeker Greek ships built to sail from island to island and were much more maneuverable. These wars involved virtually all of the Greek city-states who allied themselves with either Athens or Sparta. He was so important to the life of Athens that his period of leadership is called the Age of Pericles (5th century).
He is also known for his contribution to the further development of democracy in Athens, which also provided salaries for magistrates and limited eligibility for public office to those who were born to two Athenian-born parents. Confucius was the result of the Warring States period in Chinese history and he sought employment as a civil servant in order to sell his ideas to the rulers. Therefore, each child, upon physical birth, is a reincarnation of that eternal soul and hence possesses that ancient knowledge. When he was ransomed by his friends they purchased a small property for him so that he could settle down.
But we are trapped in our human bodies and cannot conceive of those Forms other than by observing their shadows down here in the lower story where we live. We only see his reflections down here but one day we will be fully enlightened when we go to heaven to be where he is. For example, it is okay to laugh at a joke during lunch time, but probably is a bad idea in the middle of your grandmothera€™s funeral. They knew nothing about a personal God who lies outside of us, who communicates with us, and who has set out for us ideas and principles that are absolutes by which we are to live. Hera represents the serpenta€™s Eve before the Flood, and Athena represents the rebirth of the serpenta€™s Eve after the Flood.
The ruler of the Titans was Cronus (or Chronos, from which we get the words a€?chronologya€? and a€?chronometera€?).
Gaea seems to have been an earth-mother who was worshipped before the Indo-European invasion into Greece that lead to the Hellenistic civilization. His rule ended when his son Cronus, encouraged by Uranusa€™ mother-wife,Gaea, castrated him. 190 BC), Nereus, the Greek Noah, standing in the rear to left, is the only one among the many other figures who is not actively engaged in the battle.
The figure to the left of Gaia and the child is Hephaistos, the eldest son of Zeus and Hera, the deified Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. Is it possible that Athena, as with the other Greek deities, is a flashback to a pre-flood person -- possibly, Eve? Later she convinced the young Alexander that when she conceived him in her womb, she had become pregnant, not by Philip, but by Zeus, king of the gods. When Philip, drunken from wine, stumbled over a table in his attempt to strike Alexander, Alexander taunted Philip in front of all the guests by exclaiming, a€?Look!
The most famous of his descendants was Cleopatra, lover of Julius Caesar and Marc Anthony. He also created several cities which he named Alexandria, the most famous becoming the capitol of Egypt under the Greek Ptolemaic pharaohs. As each group of invaders swept into Greece, parts of their mythologies and deities of their religions were incorporated into the Greek religion. On the top of the Acropolis in Athens stood the Parthenon, the temple devoted to the worship of Athena. Luke tells us that Paul attracted the attention of the Epicureans and the Stoics, the two main schools of Athenian philosophy at the time. They even founded a debating forum called the Areopagus, a unique Athenian group, at one time the ruling institution of Athens.
Paul was a master at meeting people where they were, moving them in the direction of truth, and then explaining to them the Gospel.
Every year a woman from a local village was selected to spend the entire year sitting on a stool at Delphi, next to an open crevasse created by one of the many earthquakes in the region.
All of the known gods either dona€™t hear us or are incapable of helping you with this plague.
It was in this condition that the Apostle Paul found the Athenians when he visited them in the first century A. When one of the warring clans wanted peace, they would take one of their own baby boys and, traveling under a truce to the enemy village, would offer the little boy as a peace offering. Letters in the New Testament were written to Greek churches at Corinth, Thessaloniki, Philippi, and Ephesus. When Constantine built the new Roman capitol at Constantinople, Greece became the host-area for the Byzantine Empire.
Christian monasteries in mountainous Greece became the safe havens for the Christian scriptures and other Christian literature.
Many buildings in the United States imitate great architecture with their large marble pillars, built during the a€?Greek revivala€? in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
But instead I was destined to spend the first eighteen years of my life perfecting the dark art of suburban mediocrity. Even in the beginning, I could hold my shoulders back, meet the world face to face, and radiate a certain importance that made anyone nearby take note.
The groundwork was laida€”Heddie Alexander was a stara€”the new darling of New Yorka€™s artistic circles before her first exhibit. Rarely did he sleep, so rarely in fact that his mind, deprived of the regular opportunity to dream, began to seize its dreams where it could. Thom, on the other hand, was ever shifting, always mixing, endlessly creating new shades of self. The best artists of New York a€” painters, sculptors, and photographers a€” would be showing portraits of Raquel at this opening.
Gus later said it had seemed as if Thom believed his left foot was no longer a part of his living body. By the time she got inside, Thom had vanished, and there were little drops of blood on the table next to the knife display. My stomach felt like there was a forest fire raging in it, and I was so nervous I couldna€™t swallow properly and kept choking on my own spit. I saw the old man he would become a€” eating Jell-O, taking his pills from the nurse, watching re-runs of Miami Vice with the other patients, and arguing over chess moves with his psychotic roommate Sid. And, of course, Thoma€™s recently acquired tendency to quote Yeats didna€™t help the matter at all. On a piece of paper, he began to draw a picture of a man driving an old-fashioned carriage. The hair color alone a€” dirty blonde on a Jewish psychologist a€” was disconcerting enough. She obtained her copy of Zerviah Newcomb's Chronical from Zerviah's original diary, in the hands of Josiah 3rd himself. There is nothing so uncomfortable as being around people who dona€™t speak your language, and nothing more comfortable than finding others who do! Those who were constantly on the move and being chased from place to place by the stronger had less opportunity to develop a civilization or to benefit from natural resources. The Spanish conquistadors, while few in number, were able to subjugate an entire Latin American continent due to their superior technology.
They cultivated fields of wheat, groves of date palms, developed herds of cattle, manufactured pottery and woven baskets, and developed a wide-ranging trade system using their sea-worthy boats. He ruled by means of a powerful military nobility that lived off of a vast taxation network extracted by those whom they subjugated.
As with the Vikings much later in history, the sea people were ruthless, relentless in their attacks, and arrived at unexpected times.
The history of the Hebrews after the Exodus from Egypt is a story of constant conflict with the Philistines, including the story of Samson and Delilah, and the numerous battles between the Hebrews and Philistines under the Hebrew king, David.
The Nile provided a fertile valley carved out of hot, sandy desert that was able to sustain a large civilization extending along the narrow river valley from the Mediterranean in the north to Ethiopia in the south. A variety of causes have been suggested for his early death, and for many years it was suspected that he was murdered. He abandoned the new royal city built by his father at Akhanaten and moved the capitol back to the traditional capitol at Thebes.The royal celebrations and sacrifices to Amun were restored, winning him great favor with many of the people.
He was also the most prolific builder of monuments honoring his rule, as well as pyramids for the burial of his many children. The priests were intermediaries between the people and the numerous gods and goddesses discovered on clay seals and figurines. This period is also credited with the development of the Chinese five-tone music scale, the five-stringed zither, and pan-pipes.
Persia is supplying rockets to Hezbollah, American troops are in Babylonia, and Assyria questions whether it wants to be part of the new Iraq.
The worst was 2010, with 49, according to both a count by Fennell and Jan Null, a research meteorologist at San Jose State University, who also tracks numbers . But the big hope is to produce human stem cells that could replace damaged tissue in devastating condition. Friedman ruled Wednesday, granting him full-time convalescent leave starting no sooner than Aug 5. In late 2003, the judge allowed Hinckley to begin leaving the hospital for day visits with his parents in the Washington area. And the indigenous Chamorro and Refaluwasch families who once called Pagan home would be prevented from returning, attorneys said. The government has launched rescue and relief operations in 14 of Nepal's 75 districts that have been affected by the floods, he said.
The foundation, a nonprofit organization plans to carry out projects to cure the scars and recover the dignity of the comfort women. We had to build up this mindset, not just the plane and technology," Piccard told reporters. The guards are heard laughing as the teens cough and cry after multiple shots of tear gas were fired into the isolation wing where they were housed. According to authorities, the suspect, Sid Ahmed Ghlam, was sent by the Belgian Abdelhamid Abaaoud to attack a church in Villejuif, just outside of Paris. A prize was awarded for best cosplay, or role playing in costume, and for best manga drawing.
The devices, sold under various names for thousands of dollars each, apparently were based on a product that sold for about $20 and claimed to find golf balls.
Police dogs have been used at some checkpoints, but that has proved to be time-consuming and contributing to traffic congestion.
Cliquez pour interagir avec votre environnement et ainsi, declencher des evenements qui vous permettront d'avancer.
The Iliad and the Odyssey were memorized by the Greeks and became essential components of Greek thought and culture. It is proposed by some that writing developed in Greece shortly after Homer in order to record his epics. It was in response to the aftermath of this war and the defeat of Athens by Sparta that Socrates (469-399 BC) grew to prominence in an attempt to bring order out of the chaos that developed. Pressure from Greecea€™s traditional enemy, Persia, prevented the idea of limited democracy from developing further and it was forgotten until much later under the leadership of Pericles (c. The Olympic games were held every four years at Olympia, in south-west Greece in the Peloponnese.
Darius, king of Persia, was furious to learn that Athens had aided the Greek colonies in their rebellion.
A bad taste was left in the mouths of the Athenians because the promised military assistance from Sparta never materialized. The troops were recruited (usually by force) from all of the Persian colonies throughout the Middle East.
Hearing that the entire army and navy of Athens was on the nearby island of Salamis, Xerxes decided to postpone his march through the isthmus and to first annihilate the Athenians. Xerxes, who was overlooking the battle from a high cliff, watched in dismay as the Greeks used oars, spears, and heavy clubs to kill the Persians when their triremes were overturned. The job of the teacher is simply to induce it to come out by asking wise, guiding questions. He named the property Academus -- Academy -- because he quickly turned it into the site for a school, following the pattern of his mentor, Socrates.
Each has its own area of specialization and should not intrude into the areas of the other two classes. It is okay to eat a doughnut, but probably not a good idea to eat a dozen doughnuts, especially just before you go to bed or just before running a race. For instance, even though every village and town had its own favorite god or goddess and each had its own temple or sacred place, there was one goddess to whom it was permissible to make sacrifice, and none of the other gods and goddesses would be offended.
To insure his safety and superior position, when each of his children were born, he ate them!
The sculptors have placed him as a mute witness to the Greek godsa€™ defeat of the Giants (Nereusa€™ Yahweh-believing sons) signifying the end of Greek faith in Noaha€™s God. Heracles, the Nimrod of Genesis, demands to know something that only the Salt Sea Old Man can tell him. Philip, King of Macedonia, assembled a powerful military and was intent on conquering Persia as payback for Persiaa€™s earlier invasions of Greece and, in his day, its current ongoing threat to the well-being of Greece.
However, he died prior to completing the second step, his planned invasion of Anatolia and Persia. This divine parentage elevated Alexander to be a god in the flesh, on a par with the noblest heroes of Greek mythology. Did Olympia and Alexander assassinate Philip prior to any chance of Philip fathering a son with Cleopatra? Beyond the beauty of the sites visited, however, Paul was deeply disturbed by the rampant idolatry. While Paul seemed to them to be an ignorant babbler, still, it was new and interesting information he was babbling about!
By the time of Paula€™s arrival it had become more like a breakfast club that gathered to hear all the latest ideas, fads, and philosophies.
His approach at Athens was not a new tactic and did not result in a rejection of the Gospel. Assemble also teams of stone masons and have ready a large supply of stones.a€? The next morning 100 goats arrived together with teams of masons and loads of stones. Second, if there is an unknown god, that god must have the ability and the inclination to hear us when we sacrifice to him or her.
The Greeks resisted conversion by the Muslim Ottomans and maintained a strong Christian culture, even in the face of frequent persecutions. Born into the wrong neighborhood, born in the wrong time, loaded into the wrong stroller day after day, I learned the survival tactics of conformity, but, secretly, I wanted the blueprints back. I painted them over a stark white background, and my career was sealed a€“ New Yorkers were adding red to their homes so they could display my paintings. This shift from important to inconspicuous and back I could accomplish with no outwardly discernible change in my demeanor. A complete original.a€? I played the nondescript intellectual, making myself seem prominent enough that people would respect my opinion but not so prominent that they would ask my name. If I could just be loved by the art critics in New York I would finally be real, because artists, I had always thought, lived at a higher pitch and a greater volume than the rest of usa€”theirs were lives of intensity, lives filled with such pathos and beauty that they must, somehow, be more real than the rest of ours.
It was a surreal and phantasmagoric existence Thom liveda€”the kind where bums digging through the trash might represent some universal truth about environmental awareness, or a dog limping across a street would have a message from Thoma€™s dead father. Just when wea€™d ridden one as far as it could take us, another would come and lift us up again.
For awhile there seemed to be a stable center, but somehow, over time, that stability just slipped away, and there was no real Thom left in his house of mirrors a€” there were only reflections of a source long gone a€” like light traveling through space years after its original emission has ceased.
His wallet was found on a subway car, and his drivera€™s license on a sink basin at The Back Door, a popular pub that caters to homosexual men. When he spoke, his eye twitched, and everything he said was a non sequitur or a quote from some apocalyptic poem. Stein had decided to devote his lifea€™s work to helping disturbed artistic geniuses like Thom.
The drawing was good, and I mean professional artist good, and it was getting better by the minute.
Beyond the easel was the likeness of me, sitting on a blanket, surrounded with picnic items and painting supplies. Sid had stabbed Thom in the chest with a piece of jagged metal hea€™d filched when the carpet was being replaced.
And Christian missionaries from Europe and the United States armed with computers, flashlights, and modern medicines, encountered stone age tribesmen in the islands of the Pacific as late at the end of the 20th century. They developed a system that divided a circle into units of sixty, from which we today get our minute composed of sixty seconds and a system of counting based upon the unit of ten.
Two of the consequences were (1) a confusion of languages, and (2) a huge flood that lasted for seven days and seven nights. But they were described as being primarily a nomadic people who were never conquered, refused to live in houses, and moved frequently from place to place.
One of their number who had gained prominence in Egypt, Joseph, was able through his position to ensure their safe move into Egypt.
Eventually they were controlled by the Egyptians who at times extended their control northward to Syria. This was not a monotheism that resulted from special revelation granted by the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but developed from his angry response to all those who belittled him when he was a boy. But more recent examination of his mummified remains indicate that he had severe scoliosis, a broken leg that had become infected, and probably died from several genetic diseases, caused by the fact that his mother was one of his fathera€™s sisters.
He fathered at least 80 sons and 60 daughters, all with the purpose of leaving behind a royal line and a successor to the throne.
Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas. Knowledge of the Aryans comes primarily from a series of stories called vedas passed down orally in India. Fertility was seemingly a major emphasis of the Harappa religion and was the cause of the veneration of sacred animals, especially bulls. The vast area of fertile soil and extensive forests was fueled by tremendous amounts of soil that annually washed down from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean.
Recent studies now propose that it was a change in the path and frequency of typhoons that brought the decline of the Harappa civilization. It merges with the Yangtze River as it nears the Pacific Ocean to form a vast and fertile plain.
Oracle bones were simply that: bones on which cracks in the bones were deciphered by oracles who added written pictographs for interpretation. He also developed vast wheat and barley fields, groves of date palms, and under his leadership Babylon became a central power in Mesopotamia. Central avenues were 30 feet wide with narrow streets running through the residential areas.A  Large granaries were built to hold surplus wheat and barley. Friedman's ruling comes more than 35 years after the March 30, 1981, shooting outside a Washington hotel in which Reagan and three others were injured. Hundreds of people have been displaced after swollen rivers breached their banks and flooded homes.
And when her father acceded to the throne in 2013, the Princess became Duchess of Brabant, a title reserved for the heir apparent. There were two early forms, one a derivative of hieroglyphics in Egypt, and the other from the Phoenicians. Famed military heroes and kings of the polis from the Mycenaean Age were included as gods in the growing mythology of the Greek religion. A two-tiered class system developed based upon onea€™s personal wealth, with the greatest power going to those at the top of the ladder; the lowest classes, however, were free from taxation. When they arrived at the Hellespont, Xerxes filled the channel with ships and built bridges over the decks of the ships so that the men and supplies could pass over into Greece. He did not dismiss the Thespians because not trusting their loyalty, he wanted to keep his eye on them. Furthermore, the Athenians, Corinthians, and other Greek ships were highly motivated because they were fighting for the survival of Greece. Not only could the Persians not swim but their long robes became water-soaked causing most to drown.
Athens was viewed by many as the big, bad, prosperous wolf of Greece and potentially dangerous to the other city-states. His three principle featuring filial piety, he believed, would bring harmony and order to political, economic, and family life. This meant that it was not to the gods or the elders that we should run when seeking answers but through contemplating about onea€™s life, about what produces good, harmony, and happiness in this life.
From Socratea€™s death comes the expression, a€?Pick your poison.a€? He chose to drink a beverage made of a lethal poison, hemlock. The rightful goal of every person is to faithfully live out the role assigned to him by nature and should not seek to do any other business or seek another other role. They probably would not believe him because what he saw and then reported to them would not necessarily conform to what they sightlessly imagined it to be.
Most of the Titans fought with Cronus against Zeus and were punished by being banished in defeat to Tartarus in the underworld.
This worked fine until Rhea, unhappy at the loss of her children, tricked Cronus into swallowing a rock, instead of the newborn Zeus. Herakles demands to know from Nereus, who is a living connection to the pre-Flood world, where he can find the enlightenment of the serpent.
He wondered how the Athenians, who had developed their special brand of democracy and produce philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, could fall for such pagan concepts of spirituality. As she sat there on her stool, breathing in those toxic and perhaps hallucinogenic fumes, it was believed that she could predict the future. Rubbing his sleepy eyes, Epimenides said, a€?Now, turn the goats loose and allow them to graze wherever they choose. Third, in order to help us this unknown god or goddess must have the ability and power to actually do something about the plague. In this way the two warring clans were related together in one confederacy by the presence of this one a€?peace child. After the Ottomans failed in their 1683 attempt to conquer Vienna, Austria, Christian troops from Venice and Austria invaded Greece, attacked the Ottomans in Athens, and greatly weakened Ottoman rule in Greece, By the late 1700s, however, Ottoman rule was re established until the Greeks won their independence, region by region from the Ottomans.
Fifteen minutes in any direction, and you were in the same spot: fast food, dry cleaner, gas station, grocery store. They would have called me an a€?art faga€? as they did the other kids who took art classes at my school. He vacillated between extreme passion for life and complete, eyes-glazed-over, medicated dullness. By the time he met with Thom, he had already managed to track down almost everything Thom had ever painted and look it over with loving attention. But seeing an ear sans the head certainly recalled artistic insanity more than almost any other conceivable image. Stein running through the halls of the asylum, weaving in and out of the rolls of new carpet, with hobby horse sticks clutched between their knees. After Thoma€™s funeral, I went back to the studio, and I got the biggest canvas I could find. Bearce's Great-aunt, Mary Caroline, lived with Josiah III and Freelove Canfield Bearce for several years, listened to their ancestral stories, and made her own personal copy of Zerviah's diary supplement. Lawrence to what is now known as Lake Champlain where his party killed several Mohawks in a show of European strength and musketry.
The weaker tended to move out farther, and the stronger tended to settle down more quickly and claim their space. Ur was a community of moon-worshippers and from among them God called out Abraham and his family to become the father of all who have faith (Romans 4). They practiced taxation, conquest of neighboring peoples, slavery, and developed an early monarchial form of government. A Sumerian king, Ziusudra, survived the flood in a large boat, in which he preserved the seeds of plants and life. There they were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians, and they remained slave for over 400 years. The southern section, Judah, with its capitol, Jerusalem, was invaded, captured, and exiled by Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B. Eventually, however, the sea people were able to settle along the Mediterranean coastline of the land of Canaan and were known as the Philistines. They possessed a written language, but deciphering the script used is still in its early stages.
Estimates now available from satellite imagery shows a ridge of fertile soil up to 20 feet deep, 10 miles wide and 100 miles long that straddles the Indus River.
The pattern of the annual typhoons gradually moved increasingly eastward and the people followed the rainfall in scattered, smaller groups. Because only 10% of the Chinese land is productive for food, the Yellow River basin was crucial in the development and survival of the Chinese people.
The Mycenaeans were adventurers, traveling to and trading with peoples in Anatolia, Europe, and throughout the Mediterranean. It was a a€?limiteda€? democracy because it only allowed adult males (not women!) (1) to vote and hold office, (2) but only if they were born in the city of Athens, (3) and if they owned land.
The teachera€™s role is to encourage that knowledge to come out by use of proper questions. Therefore, ethics is personal and autonomous (determined by onea€™s own thoughtful insight and not something received from others).
We see the shadow of the Real Chair, the Real Tree, the Real Red Apple by looking at their shadows down here on earth.
During their rule the Titans were associated with the various planets and their names remained attached to the planets when the Romans adopted much of Greek mythology. Zeus revolted against Cronus and the other Titans, defeated them, and banished them to Tartarus in the underworld. While on his death bed, lying in a tent in Baghdad, his troops filed past in a huge procession to honor their great leader. Since it is early morning, none of the goats will normally lie down, but will eat their full after a night with no food. And fourth, this unknown god or goddess will understand that it is in ignorance that we do not know his or her name and will forgive us for our ignorance.a€? With those words, the sacrifices were offered up to the unknown god.
Greek honor guards at the presidential palace today in Athens have 450 pleats in their native uniforms, signifying the 450 years that Greece was subjugated to the Ottoman Turks.
So I just shook my pompons, shook my ass, and floated my way through alcohol-soaked parties.
Even when we just sat talking in the middle of our huge, paint-splattered floor, we were in the foreplay of creation. But after a couple of months, I caught on a€” Thom was hiding a background as ordinary as mine. He said it was where psychologists of past generations had tried to steer out-of-control creatives, and that the effects had been disastrous.
I began the final Red Heddie, the culmination of the vision: Sida€™s fist, larger than the fist of God, held the jagged metal, blood running past his wrist, dripping from his elbow into a pool that reflected Thoma€™s face.
It was with Abraham that God made his redeeming covenant that resulted in the coming of Jesus into the world as Savior. But the Hebrews for the most part lived under a series of male and female Hebrews judges, and then a series of kings. Because they were viewed as gods in the flesh, they strove to keep the royal bloodline pure through marriage between brothers and sisters. In addition to the rich alluvial soil, water was plentiful from typhoons that annually dumped immense amounts of rainfall on the area. In addition, the fact that the Harappaa€™s bronze tools and weapons were inferior in design and quality to those manufactured in Egypt and Mesopotamia may also have resulted in invasions as the cities declined in population. The river gained its name from the color of the mud and silt that flows from the Kulun Mountains. Because of this the Athenians developed a€?overseasa€? colonies in order to grow wheat and other grains. To the women and to those who moved to Athens from other areas, this was hardly a democracy. A soldier, Pheidippides, was sent running back to Athens, 26 miles to the south, to announce the good news of the victory. Zeus and his wife (first known as Dione and then Hera) are deifications of Adam and his wife Eve.a€? (Johnson, The Parthenon Code 2004, p. The New Testament was not written in Aramaic (the language of Jesus and the apostles) or in Latin (the language of the Roman conquerors) but was written in Greek, the most widely spoken language.
The conversation would always turn to painters or painting, and then one of us would see something, an image or a concept, floating by, and boom, we were both back up and painting again. His extraordinary looks a€” copper-flecked eyes and caramel skin, the curly black locks -- were just flukes, aberrations from an otherwise very plain lineage. Stein knew far more about Thoma€™s mind, motives, desires, impulses and fears than Thom ever would, and he treated Thom with more compassion and basic human dignity than anyone ever would, including me. Stein was even working on the hospital doctors to try to get them to separate Thom and Sid. Sumer was located near to where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers merge and flow into the Persian Gulf. Both the veneration of bulls and the use of the lotus position were later developed further in Hinduism and Buddhism in India. They invaded south to Crete where a blending of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures took place. Some historians state that the United States acquired its concept of democracy from Athens. I mean, here my art was my profession, my life, and this psychologist could draw nearly as well as I could. His secular obsession with psychology must have supplanted any religious training from his youth. She was the daughter of Akhenaten and his favorite wife, Nefertiti The result was two daughters who both died in infancy. The area with its moderate climate was ideal, however, for the development of olive groves, vineyards, almonds, and apples. The Saducees were hellenized Jews, and thus denied the reality of the resurrection of the dead. In his honor and memory (his kleos) the Greeks established the marathon of 26 miles, exactly the distance of the modern marathon race.
Kronos (Chronos), the father of time in Greek mythology, a€?could very well be,a€? says Johnson, a€?Greek religiona€™s equivalent of Yahweh, the Lord of Tome.
They constructed gymnasiums and athletic stadiums in Palestine, to the horror of the traditional and legalistic Pharisees. I drew pictures on the walls of my little world and told stories about how the pictures got there.
He further told them that Massasoit, the Great Sachem of the Wampanoags, was at Nemasket (a distance of about 15 miles) with many of his Counselors.



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