Survival rate stage 3 breast cancer lymph nodes,over the counter medications for edema,eve combat site chemical yard - Easy Way

admin | Category: What Causes Ed 2016 | 28.01.2014
Cancer stage has a lot of influence on survival rate, which helps the doctor to advise the patient about his condition and what forms of treatment are suitable. When one is diagnosed to have Stage IV cancer, the immediate concern is if the person will be able to survive the disease.
Cancer survival rate refers to the percentage of patients afflicted with a certain form of cancer who survive the disease for a specified amount of time.
Cancer stage has a lot of influence on survival rate, since higher survival rates are usually associated with earlier stages of the disease. The TNM classification system of cancer describes the tumor size (T) and degree of invasion, the involvement of regional lymph nodes (N) and the presence of spread or metastasis (M) to distant parts of the body. Cancer staging depends on a combination of the three parameters (tumor size, lymph node involvement and spread of disease).
Cancer staging is a helpful tool for physicians in advising their patients about their options for treatment. The doctor may also help the patient in predicting the outcome of the disease with or without treatment according to research-based statistics.
Most types of cancer are classified into four stages, with an additional Stage 0 to distinguish those forms that may later lead to cancer ("pre-cancer" stage). A patient whose cancer cells have invaded other organs aside from its origin is said to be in Stage IV cancer, which usually carries a grim prognosis compared to earlier stages of the disease.
Stage 2 breast cancer survival rates in a 5 year time table varies for all cancer of the breast patients.
Stage 2 breast cancer diagnoses is given by doctors when the breast cancer tumor has grown over 2 centimetres but not beyond 5 centimeters and have infected the lymph nodes in the arms which are called auxiliary lymph nodes.
Breast cancer stage II is define as stage IIA when the malignant tumor have grown around 2 to 5 centimetres in diameter but have not spread to any other parts of the body.
Meanwhile Stage IIB breast cancer is defined when the malignant cancer cells have grown to 2 to 5 centimetres in diameter and have affected the lymph nodes of the person as well. It is also considered by many medical professionals that when a tumor in the breast has grown larger than 5 centimetres but have not spread and infected beyond the breast tissues, it is still classified as stage II B cancer of the breast. With all the medical technologies and innovations that can be used to detect or treat breast cancer, patients can now rejoice for the earliest detection that can lead to the easiest cure route. The isolated local recurrence in a patient previously treated for early-stage invasive breast cancer presents a unique challenge to the oncologist. The clinical significance of an isolated local recurrence as a first event after treatment of early-stage invasive breast cancer, and its impact on survival, remains controversial.
The purpose of this review is to analyze the incidence and risk factors for local recurrence after initial treatment of invasive breast cancer. Studies using multivariate analysis to account for other known prognostic factors have shown that age may not be an independent predictor of locoregional recurrence.[16, 24-26] Recht et al[26] demonstrated on multivariate analysis that the number of positive axillary nodes and total number of nodes examined—but not age—were significant independent factors for locoregional recurrence. According to a statistical model reported by Iyer et al[34], inaccuracy of the staging of a patient with ? 4 positive nodes vs 1 to 3 positive nodes increases as fewer total nodes are removed. These factors may account for the 30% or higher rates of locoregional recurrence in the Danish and British Columbia series that would be more usual for patients with 4 or more positive nodes. In a series of node-positive postmenopausal women treated by mastectomy and tamoxifen (Nolvadex), Fisher et al[43] found that a positive margin was a significant predictor of locoregional recurrence on multivariate analysis.
Mentzer et al[44] reported outcomes from a series of patients with stage II disease (two-thirds with positive nodes) who were treated by modified radical mastectomy, with or without systemic therapy. In another series of 608 patients treated with mastectomy, with or without systemic therapy, and postmastectomy chest wall irradiation in 8%, Jager et al[27] found no statistical difference in locoregional recurrence between 57 patients with close (< 5 mm) or positive margins and 551 patients with negative margins.
Tamoxifen alone or when added to chemotherapy also produces a modest reduction in the risk of chest wall recurrence.[26,33] Fisher et al[55] reported the 10-year results from a trial by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-14 in which node-negative patients with ER-positive tumors were randomized to tamoxifen or observation. Goldhirsch et al[56] reported a meta-analysis of five trials of adjuvant systemic therapy in node-positive patients treated by mastectomy without radiation. Compared to the risk of cancers like breast or prostate cancer, the survival rate of this disease is only 17 percent. Unlike other cancers, the lung cancer is not easy to diagnose in early stage.  Only 15 percent of the cases can be diagnosed well. The risk of developing a lung cancer is getting bigger if you smoke and your lung is exposed to asbestos. African American people are seriously prone to lung cancer if you compare it with other ethnicities.
The risk of developing a lung cancer is relatively equal between African American women and white women even though the African women only smoke fewer cigarettes. If you want to know more about the diseases affected the human being, look at the asthma facts. This concern, also medically known as the prognosis, depends on many factors, including availability of treatment and one's general health condition.


Statistics often refer to a five-year period where scientific surveys on these patients are based, although these data do not specify whether the patients are still undergoing treatment or are completely cancer-free after five years. To describe one's cancer stage physicians use the TNM Staging System which uses criteria that are similar for different types of cancer except malignancies in the brain and blood.
Different degrees of tumor size or invasion, involvement of lymph nodes and spread to other organs are further specified in numbers to describe in more detail the stage of malignancy.
A Stage I cancer therefore is a localized stage of malignancy, where a tumor is relatively small, has not invaded surrounding tissues or spread to other organs. A patient with Stage I may need less aggressive treatment than a patient with Stage II cancer, but a patient with Stage IV cancer may choose to have supportive therapy rather than radical procedures.
This includes prediction of one's 5-year survival rate, which may also help the patient choose a treatment option which suits his preferences.
Alsoknown as carcinoma in situ (CIS), this is an early form of cancer where there is a flat lesion with no invasion of malignant cells into the surrounding tissue. Tumors in this stage are usually smaller than 2 centimeters (cm) and are localized to the part of the body where it originated. Tumors in this stage measure 2-5 cm but are still localized since they have not invaded other tissues or spread to distant sites. Tumors in this stage may be of any size, affecting nearby lymph nodes and showing evidence of spread (metastasis) to other organs or regions of the body. The five-year survival rate for patients in this stage may depend on different factors such as the type of cancer he has, his overall general health, the type of treatment used and the patient's will power to overcome the disease. Liver cancer survival rates and treatments will vary depending on the stage of cancer and other factors.
This is greatly affected by the size and growth of the tumor and whether or not the cancer cells have already spread to the lymph nodes. Breast cancer survival rates for stage II breast cancer is at 88 percent to 92 percent chance of survival when treated according to the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute.
The 5 year Stage 2 Breast Cancer Survival Rates are significantly lower than other phases of stage 2 breast cancer for it only has 76 to 81 percent survival chances.
Around 29% of diagnosed cases of cancer of the breast are among white women and around 36% is among black women.
Women can help themselves increase their Stage 2 Breast Cancer Survival Rates thru monthly self examinations and medical examinations with a professional help at least every 3 years starting the age of 20.
The standard management of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence following breast-conserving surgery and radiation is salvage mastectomy, while local excision and radiation are optimal treatment of a chest wall recurrence following initial mastectomy. The management of each patient requires a multidisciplinary approach that depends not only on factors specific to the recurrence itself but also on factors related to the original treatment.
There is a strong association between local recurrence and the appearance of simultaneous or subsequent distant metastases.
Four of these trials report similar risks of local failure associated with these two methods of treatment for early-stage invasive breast cancer. In another radical mastectomy series, Donegan et al[21] observed a similar crude failure rate of 67% for ages 20 to 29 years and 46% for ages 20 to 39 years, compared with < 25% for those ? 40 years of age. Pisansky et al[16] also used multivariate analysis to show that tumor size, nodal status, and estrogen-receptor (ER) status, not age, were significant independent factors for locoregional recurrence. In a series of 57 patients with gross multicentric disease treated by mastectomy, Fowble et al [31] reported a low (< 10%) risk of chest wall recurrence in the absence of ? 4 positive nodes or T3 tumor size.
For example, the model predicts that in order to have a 90% probability of accurately ruling out 4 or more positive nodes, a patient with 1, 2, or 3 positive nodes and a T1 tumor size would need 8, 15, or 20 nodes examined, respectively.
Benson and Thorogood[35] reported a prospective nonrandomized trial of total mastectomy with either an axillary dissection or axillary sampling.
The largest reported series of patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy has recently been updated by Recht et al.[26] Among 983 patients with T1-2 tumors and 1 to 3 positive nodes, the 10-year cumulative incidence of local failure was only 8%. Two-thirds of these patients were assessed using gross margins, which is less accurate than microscopic assessment,[42] and one-quarter also received postmastectomy radiation, which minimizes the rate of chest wall failure with a close or positive margin.[46] The crude local recurrence rate was nearly four times higher in patients with a margin of 5 mm or less compared to patients with margins greater than 5 mm (11% vs 3%), but this finding was not statistically significant. In the aforementioned series of mastectomies for T1-2 tumors investigated by O’Rourke et al,[50] there was a 36% risk of chest wall recurrence with lymphovascular invasion, compared to a 19% risk without lymphovascular invasion. Approximately 2,108 patients received adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with (815) or without (1,293) tamoxifen or with oophorectomy (166), and 722 patients received no systemic therapy or only one cycle of chemotherapy. This cancer takes more lives of people compared to the other combined three cancers of prostrate, colon, and breast.
The prostate cancer’s survival rate is also 100 percent, while the breast cancer is 90 percent. Knowing what stage one's cancer is mostly determines his probability of surviving based on research. An over-all five-year survival rate of 80% would mean that for every 100 patients with the disease, 80 would probably live for at least another five years, and 20 would probably not survive this period of time.


For instance, a tumor described as T1 is much smaller and confined than a tumor that is described as T4.
On the other hand, cancer which is in Stage IV may have a tumor of any size, may have affected the lymph nodes and has definitely spread to other distant organs such as the brain, liver or bones. This late, locally advanced stage affects lymph nodes nearby and it may be difficult to differentiate from stage II cancer. As mentioned above, the five-year survival rate is expressed as the percentage of patients who will probably live up to 5 years after diagnosis of the disease based on research on patients with the same type and stage of cancer.
There is an average of 62% of detected breast cancer are still in the localized stage or stage 1 breast cancer. In many cases, local recurrence may be a manifestation of a more aggressive tumor biology that heralds the presence of distant metastases.
Multidisciplinary management of an isolated chest wall recurrence after mastectomy and an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery and radiation will be discussed separately. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trials reported significantly higher rates of local failure for patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation, compared to those treated with mastectomy. Viewed in another way, the odds that a patient with a T1 tumor and 1, 2, or 3 positive nodes but with only 7 nodes examined actually has 4 or more positive nodes are 13%, 55%, or 93%, respectively.
The risk of a chest wall recurrence was 16%, 21%, or 27% for grade I, II, or III tumors, respectively. This difference remained significant on multivariate analysis, as did lymph node status and tumor grade.
In those treated with mastectomy, there was no difference in the subsequent chest wall failure rate, with or without overexpression.
At 20 years, there was no significant difference (15% vs 13%) in the rate of locoregional recurrence as a first event, with or without chemotherapy. Don’t forget to use a mask when you have to stay in a smoking environment.  Avoid any air pollution by using a mask too.
Cancer staging therefore helps the doctor to advise the patient about his condition and what forms of treatment are suitable, and to predict his survival rate in the next few years. The overall physical and mental health of the patient may be affected and survival rate is very low. A 60% 5-year survival rate therefore indicates that it is estimated that 60 out of every 100 patients will live for 5 years after diagnosis while the rest (40 of 100) will probably die. Among the stages, stage 1 breast cancer has the highest breast cancer survival rates that could go as high as 98 to 100%.
Regardless of this association, durable local salvage is important in preventing the consequences of uncontrolled locoregional disease.
Inadequate surgery for the primary may have contributed to the higher rate of IBTR in these trials, since only gross removal of the tumor was required. The model suggests that these randomized trials found higher rates of locoregional recurrence in patients with 1 to 3 positive nodes because a significant number were understaged by the small median number of nodes removed. Recht et al[26] found that a greater number of nodes examined—from 2 to 5, 6 to 10, or ? 11—was associated with a decreased risk of locoregional failure that was independent of the number of positive nodes on multivariate analysis. These differences remained significant on multivariate analysis, as did lymph node status and lymphovascular invasion.
In contrast, Zellars et al[52] found that p53-positive patients had a higher risk of local failure after mastectomy—with or without radiation—that remained significant on multivariate analysis.
This is just an estimate and not an exact number, since many factors influence the progress of one's disease.
A prolonged interval between initial treatment and local recurrence is the most important prognostic factor for subsequent outcome, and when combined with other favorable characteristics, can predict 5-year survival rates of 70% or higher. However, if distant metastases are a common but not universal outcome after clinically isolated local recurrence, there may be a subgroup of patients for whom successful local salvage could result in long-term disease-free and overall survival.
Outcome and independent prognostic factors after salvage of a local recurrence will be reviewed, with particular attention given to the association between the clinically isolated local recurrence and subsequent distant metastases. For example, in the breast-conserving surgery arm of the EORTC trial, 81% had T2 tumors, and 48% of all patients had microscopically positive margins. In another series of 404 mastectomy patients with T1-2 tumors and 1 to 3 positive nodes, Katz et al[36] reported a locoregional recurrence risk of 24% with less than 10 nodes removed vs 11% for 10 or more nodes removed (P = .02).



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