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To make a filtering system, place several centimeters or layers of filtering material such as sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or cloth in bamboo, a hollow log, or an article of clothing (Figure 6-9).
Surviving and evading the enemy in an arid area depends on what you know and how prepared you are for the environmental conditions you will face.
The temperature of desert sand and rock averages 16 to 22 degrees C (30 to 40 degrees F) more than that of the air. Radios and sensitive items of equipment exposed to direct intense sunlight will malfunction.
Temperatures in arid areas may get as high as 55 degrees C during the day and as low as 10 degrees C during the night. Hide or seek shelter in dry washes (wadis) with thicker growths of vegetation and cover from oblique observation.
All arid regions have areas where the surface soil has a high mineral content (borax, salt, alkali, and lime).
Mirages are optical phenomena caused by the refraction of light through heated air rising from a sandy or stony surface. The mirage effect makes it hard for a person to identify targets, estimate range, and see objects clearly. All terrain features are derived from a complex landmass known as a mountain or ridgeline (Figure 10-16).
The 'Land Navigation' section of this site is based on 'Map Reading and Land Navigation', a public domain work published by the U.S. Description: This plant is vinelike in growth and has arrowhead-shaped, alternate leaves up to 5 cenitmeters long. Description: The common jujube is either a deciduous tree growing to a height of 12 meters or a large shrub, depending upon where it grows and how much water is available for growth. Habitat and Distribution: The jujube is found in forested areas of temperate regions and in desert scrub and waste areas worldwide. Determine what equipment you will need, the tactics you will use, and the environment's impact on them and you. Some desert areas receive less than 10 centimeters of rain annually, and this rain comes in brief torrents that quickly run off the ground surface. For instance, when the air temperature is 43 degrees C (110 degrees F), the sand temperature may be 60 degrees C (140 degrees F). To conserve your body fluids and energy, you will need a shelter to reduce your exposure to the heat of the day. The drop in temperature at night occurs rapidly and will chill a person who lacks warm clothing and is unable to move about. The temperature in shaded areas will be 11 to 17 degrees C cooler than the air temperature. Material in contact with this soil wears out quickly, and water in these areas is extremely hard and undrinkable. Therefore, be ready to use other means for signaling, such as pyrotechnics, signal mirrors, or marker panels, if available.


However, if you can get to high ground (3 meters or more above the desert floor), you can get above the superheated air close to the ground and overcome the mirage effect. Moonlit nights are usually crystal clear, winds die down, haze and glare disappear, and visibility is excellent.
A spur is a short, continuous sloping line of higher ground, normally jutting out from the side of a ridge.
A cut is a man-made feature resulting from cutting through raised ground, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track. A fill is a man-made feature resulting from filling a low area, usually to form a level bed for a road or railroad track. Heat gain results from direct sunlight, hot blowing winds, reflective heat (the sun's rays bouncing off the sand), and conductive heat from direct contact with the desert sand and rock (Figure 13-1).
During daylight hours large areas of terrain are visible and easily controlled by a small opposing force. The emptiness of desert terrain causes most people to underestimate distance by a factor of three: What appears to be 1 kilometer away is really 3 kilometers away.
If natural shelter is unavailable, mark your direction of travel, lie down, and sit out the storm. A ridgeline is a line of high ground, usually with changes in elevation along its top and low ground on all sides from which a total of 10 natural or man-made terrain features are classified. A saddle is not necessarily the lower ground between two hilltops; it may be simply a dip or break along a level ridge crest. A valley begins with high ground on three sides, and usually has a course of running water through it. If you are standing on the centerline of a ridge, you will normally have low ground in three directions and high ground in one direction with varying degrees of slope.
It could be described as an area of low ground surrounded by higher ground in all directions, or simply a hole in the ground.
In a draw, there is essentially no level ground and, therefore, little or no maneuver room within its confines. A spur is often formed by two rough parallel streams, which cut draws down the side of a ridge. When a slope is so steep that the contour lines converge into one "carrying" contour of contours, this last contour line has tick marks pointing toward low ground (Figure 10-24A). Cuts are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the cut line. Fills are shown on a map when they are at least 10 feet high, and they are drawn with a contour line along the fill line. They are also found along seashores from the Mediterranean countries to inland areas in North Africa and eastward to Turkey and central Siberia. Its reddish-brown to yellowish-green fruit is oblong to ovoid, 3 centimeters or less in diameter, smooth, and sweet in flavor, but has rather dry pulp around a comparatively large stone.
If your plan is to rest at night, you will find a wool sweater, long underwear, and a wool stocking cap extremely helpful.


The Great Salt Lake area in Utah is an example of this type of mineral-laden water and soil. You can survey the area at dawn, dusk, or by moonlight when there is little likelihood of mirage.
Movement during such a night is practical only if you have a compass and have spent the day in a shelter, resting, observing and memorizing the terrain, and selecting your route. If you are in a saddle, there is high ground in two opposite directions and lower ground in the other two directions. If standing in a valley, three directions offer high ground, while the fourth direction offers low ground. If you cross a ridge at right angles, you will climb steeply to the crest and then descend steeply to the base. Usually only depressions that are equal to or greater than the contour interval will be shown. If you are standing in a draw, the ground slopes upward in three directions and downward in the other direction. Cliffs are also shown by contour lines very close together and, in some instances, touching each other (Figure 10-24B). This contour line extends the length of the cut and has tick marks that extend from the cut line to the roadbed, if the map scale permits this level of detail (Figure 10-25).
This contour line extends the length of the filled area and has tick marks that point toward lower ground. Depending on its size and where a person is standing, it may not be obvious that there is high ground in the third direction, but water flows from higher to lower ground. When you move along the path of the ridge, depending on the geographic location, there may be either an almost unnoticeable slope or a very obvious incline.
On maps, depressions are represented by closed contour lines that have tick marks pointing toward low ground (Figure 10-21). Contour lines on a map depict a spur with the U or V pointing away from high ground (Figure 10-23). If the map scale permits, the length of the fill tick marks are drawn to scale and extend from the base line of the fill symbol (Figure 10-25).
The contour lines depicting a draw are U-shaped or V-shaped, pointing toward high ground (Figure 10-22).
The closed end of the contour line (U or V) always points upstream or toward high ground (Figure 10-19).



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