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The Roman Republic was established around 509 BC when the last of the seven Etruscan kings of Rome, Tarquin Superbus (the Proud), was ousted by the Latins, led by Lucius Junius Brutus, and then a system based on annually elected magistrates and various representative assemblies was established.
In the Roman Republic the consuls had to work with the senate, which was initially an advisory council of the ranking nobility, or patricians, but grew in size and power over time. Whenever the Roman Republic was attacked by neighboring tribes, the Romans reacted and beat them back, gradually subduing peoples on the Italian peninsula in the process, including the Etruscans and the Samnites.
In the second half of the 3rd century BC, the Roman Republic was threatened by Carthage in the first of three Punic Wars and the Romans came out victorious.
Over the years, senators in the Roman Republic became rich at the provinces’ expense, but soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home for longer periods of time and could not maintain their farms, losing them to the rich class, and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia (slums) reduced the availability of paid work.
The Senate repeatedly blocked important land reforms, refusing to give the equestrian class a larger say in the government.
The denial of Roman citizenship to allied Italian cities led to the Social War of 91–88 BC.
In the 1st century BC, three men, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus made a secret pact and established a new government, the First Triumvirate, which controlled the Republic.
Rome formed in 60 BC by Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, at the end of the Roman Republic period. Course assessment is valuable to the teaching process because it allows you to identify what is “working” in the classroom, make informed revisions in future courses and record success for funding agencies and other actors. Effective teaching can be measured through different types of direct and indirect assessment.
The following matrix [Table A: Learning Outcome Assessment Matrix] will guide you in the process of aligning over-arching goals, desired learning outcomes, teaching methods and assessment strategies for your course.
When developing measurable learning outcomes, consider including a combination of lower- and higher-order thinking skills. Table D provides a sample of pre- and post-test assessment content aligned with the overarching goals, desired learning outcomes and teaching methods in a learning outcome assessment matrix. Other types of indirect assessment include informal feedback strategies (incorporating specific questions into a lesson) focus groups, self-reflection assignments and individual student interviews.
Adapted physical education is an individualized program of instruction created for students with disabilities that enables success in physical education. APE is a subdiscipline of physical education and encompasses the same components associated with physical education, providing safe, personally satisfying and successful experiences for students of varying abilities. Federal (IDEA) laws mandate that special education and related services be provided to students with individualized educational programs (IEPs). Students who exhibit problems with motor performance, physical mobility, and functional independence that interfere with their ability to participate in and benefit from their educational programs should receive APE. In Connecticut, physical education services are recognized as part of the legal mandate to provide a free and appropriate public education for children and youth who qualify for special education services. The IDEA definition of inclusion means to educate to the maximum extent appropriate in public or private institutions, students with disabilities and students who are not disabled together. Each general physical educator may require a different level of support or varied intensity of consultation when supporting a student with a disability within the general physical education environment. Inclusion is the practice of ensuring the participation of students with disabilities in the general education setting. Because the IDEA has a strong commitment to educating all students together, it is very difficult to justify why students with disabilities cannot be included successfully in physical education with proper resources and adjustments to the curriculum and instruction.
Program decisions are made on an individual basis and are determined by the assessment team during the IEP process. To comply with LRE, must students with unique learning needs always be included in the regular PE setting? Successful inclusion is implemented when the quality of the student's learning experience is not compromised by placement in the regular curriculum setting. Program activities should be selected to promote and enhance the skill development of the student.
Essential, age-appropriate skills should be taught within the student's developmental level. APE and general PE should be based on Connecticut's content standards for comprehensive physical education (CSDE, 2006, Healthy and Balanced Living Curriculum Framework).
What types of activities are required in adapted physical education?Change the word "adapted" to "modified" and you have the idea of Adapted Physical Education. PL 105-17, IDEA, defines physical education as the development of: (a) Physical and motor fitness, (b) Fundamental motor skills and patterns, and (c) Skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramurals and lifetime sports).
How can regular physical education activities be adapted to include students with disabilities? Making developmentally appropriate adaptations and modifications to physical education activities such as exercises, games, rhythms and sports in order to provide the opportunity for students to be successful is the purpose of adapted physical education. Too often students with disabilities have been made to sit out of physical education, or to assume sedentary roles such as scorekeeper and timekeeper, reinforcing that people with disabilities had to be passive in areas of physical pursuit, thus contributing to a pattern of obesity and shortened lifespans.
Universal design for learning and universal design for instruction are terms that are used interchangeably.
Individuals bring a wide range of skills and abilities, needs, and interests to any learning situation. Learners often have a unique set of attributes that must be taken into account when teaching. Is it acceptable to place a student in general PE and occasionally have the student go to APE to work on particular skills? Recreation is typically addressed in the physical education curriculum as lifetime physical activity skills or similar.
Once the recreation and leisure activity possibilities in the student's community have been evaluated, and the student' interests and capabilities have been assessed, plans can be developed for the student's participation in and pursuit of physical activities in the wider community outside of the school setting.
In the past few years, two important federal laws relevant to the challenges outlined above have impacted school districts across the country, including those in Connecticut. IDEA 2004 and its 2006 regulations allow school districts to use data from a process known as response to intervention (RTI) as part of the identification procedures for students with learning disabilities. Federal regulations associated with IDEA 2004 explicitly encourage schools to implement research-based interventions that facilitate success in the general education setting for a broad range of students. The Connecticut State Department of Education developed an RTI process it refers to as scientific research-based interventions (SRBI) to emphasize the central role of general education in the intervention process and the importance of educational practices that are scientific and research-based.
In describing RTI, Winnick (2011, 127) states: "Consistent with an emphasis on individualized, evidence-based instruction, [SRBI] integrates assessment and intervention in such a way that student learning is maximized and behavior problems are minimized from an early age.
Literature associated with special education provides evidence that RTI has mainly addressed academic performance and social behavior.
This continuous progress monitoring adds much-needed accountability for teaching students to achieve identified outcomes consistent with curricular goals and individual short- and long-term student goals. The RTI process described by Winnick (2011, 128) is consistent with Connecticut's SRBI process. Through the implementation of an SRBI framework, students are provided with an appropriate level of scientifically based instruction focused on their educational needs (CSDE, 2008).
A valid and reliable curriculum-based assessment would be administered to all students in the school. Within tier 2, students receive intensive small-group instruction, along with instruction provided in tier 1. If the student's response to tier 2 intervention is not adequate to achieve the state benchmarks, as demonstrated by lack of improvement on weekly assessments, the student would be evaluated comprehensively utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach.
In the SRBI system, teachers use not only summative data (measurement of learning outcomes), but continuous formative data (ongoing assessment), to determine whether an intervention or instructional program is effective and whether or not the student is "responding" to the intervention. Paraprofessionals and instructional assistants can play an important role in assisting students with disabilities in the general physical education setting. Typically, the physical education and adapted physical education teacher are responsible for planning and communicating the role and responsibilities of paraprofessionals.
Collaboration is defined as "experts sharing information, bringing their areas of expertise onto common ground where all parties are informed and understand, communicating openly and demonstrating mutual respect for one another" (Murata and Maeda, 2007). This systemic approach ensures that all teachers are working toward common goals and that all students receive instruction in the same core competencies regardless of which teacher they happen to have. In collaborative problem solving, all teachers and team members bring strengths to the classrooms and educational settings, but collaborating with other education professionals helps teachers make informed decisions and learn new ways of supporting children. In their article, Integrating Services, Collaborating, And Developing Connections With Schools, Lawson and Sailor, (2000) assert the need to approach collaboration with vigor and purpose and the vital role for all in the collaborative process: "Meeting the needs of students with disabilities within general physical education classes is difficult for any teacher who works in isolation. The criteria for eligibility for APE services should focus on whether the student can participate in and benefit from general physical education in a successful and meaningful way. If a student with a disability needs specially designed APE, that program must be addressed in all applicable areas of the individual education program.
Is there measurable lack of success in the general PE curriculum or environment despite modification provided by the general physical education teacher or general education teacher at the preschool or elementary level?
Is the student able to physically navigate safely in a school environment and access, participate in and benefit from the school environment? Is the student able to receive measurable and meaningful benefit from general physical education without modification of the physical education program by an APE teacher? Is remission of skills or other negative change likely without adapted physical education intervention? Fitness as it relates to the student's ability to be successful in general physical education. Cognitive skills as they relate to the student's ability to be successful in general physical education. It is not uncommon for physical education to be lumped together with other seemingly similar services since there appears to be more resemblance to physical therapy, recreation, and even occupational therapy in some contexts than to classroom instruction.
Adapted Physical Education promotes physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor patterns and skills, and life time sports, skills, and games. Physical Therapy enhances general gross motor development, posture, balance, and functional mobility. Occupational Therapy promotes participation in school activities by removing barriers and developing skills including fine motor, sensory processing, social-emotional and perceptual skills.
Therapeutic Recreation increases access to and participation in community based recreational programs. Can therapy (e.g., physical therapy), therapeutic recreation or athletics be substituted for physical education? Before a child is referred to a planning and placement team, alternative procedures and programs in general education must be explored and, where appropriate, put into place in the classroom and used (CSDE 2007).
If the general physical educator or parent feels the student with a disability would benefit from specially designed physical education instruction, then they can contact the school principal or the director of special education and request a referral for APE. Reprinted and adapted with permission from Glastonbury Public Schools, Glastonbury, Connecticut.
Written request for an evaluation of a student who is suspected of having a disability and who may require special education or related services. Referral can be made by parent or guardian, school personnel, professional or agency personnel with parent permission, or the student (if 18 years or older). If additional evaluation data is needed, the student's PPT will design an individualized evaluation to assess the student's educational, including physical education, needs. May include information collected by the school district through informal and formal observations, a review of previous school work or Birth to Three System records, standardized tests, and information provided by teachers, service providers and parents. The PPT will design an individualized evaluation based on areas of concern that prompted the referral. The PPT completes the ED622 which will include a description of the tests and procedures the district will use to make a determination for special education eligibility.
The evaluation must be completed, and for children who are determined eligible for special education, an IEP developed within 45 school days from the date of the written referral (not including time needed to obtain consent for evaluation). Parents have the right to request a complete set of their child's educational records including evaluation reports. Upon completion of the administration of assessments and other evaluation measures, if a determination is made that a child has a disability and needs special education and related services, including adapted physical education, an IEP must be developed for the child in accordance with IDEA Sec. Adapted physical education services should be addressed as appropriate if the results of assessments indicate that performance in general physical education is adversely affected as a result of the student's disability.
A student with a disability must have access to and the ability to equally participate and benefit from programs designed to develop physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns, and skill in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports. It is NASPE and AAPAR's position, however, that any student who has unique needs for instruction in physical education, regardless of disability, is entitled to receive appropriate accommodations through adapted physical education (NASPE, 2010). NASPE and AAPAR recommend that students be considered eligible for adapted physical education services if their comprehensive score is 1.5 standard deviations below the mean on a norm-referenced test, or at least two years below age level on criterion-referenced tests or other tests of physical and motor fitness.
Procedures for determining eligibility and education-related need for special services are outlined in federal regulations (U.S. In a traditional model, standardized test results dictate whether a student receives APE services. If a student demonstrates deficits in the motor, behavioral or cognitive areas, but is participating successfully in general PE, then the student would not require the specialized services of adapted physical education. The P.E staff needs access to electronic data bank to be able to write goals and objectives. Assessment is the process of gathering information about a student to make an informed decision.
Adapted PE assessment must be made by a Connecticut State Department of Education (CSDE) certified PE teacher who is able to address adapted physical education, trained in gathering data through observation of performance, diagnostic tests, curriculum-based instruction, communication with parents and staff, and use of performance and behavioral checklists. Collaboration between the APE teachers and other specialists can be beneficial in identifying appropriate assessment instruments and protocols. Selecting appropriate assessment tools is essential in developing accurate student information to develop program and determine placement.
Assessments must measure ability, and should describe a child's strengths and needs and not solely the child's disability. What are some assessment instruments that are specifically for use in adapted physical education?


In Determining Eligibility for Adapted Physical Education: Selection and Application of Assessment Tools, Foster (2010) describes the process of determining whether a student is eligible for an APE program in the school setting. In 390 BC, the Romans suffered a Celtic invasion; before they could effectively get organized and counterattack, the Gauls defeated the Romans at the Battle of Allia River and then sacked their city. During the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian General Hannibal invaded Italy and attempted to destroy Rome, but was finally defeated by Publius Cornelius Scipio at the Battle of Zama. Income from war booty, mercantilism in the new provinces, and tax farming created new economic opportunities for the wealthy, forming a new class of merchants, the equestrians.
Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The military reforms of Gaius Marius in 107 BC resulted in soldiers often having more loyalty to their commander than to the city, and a powerful general could hold the city and Senate ransom.
Being kept secret for a time, the First Triumvirate lasted until 53 BC, when Crassus was dead. Since measuring teaching is clearly not an exact science, the more varied the data sources, the more useful the measurement is likely to be. Table B is an example of a completed, yet simplified matrix [Table B] for a statistics course organized according to these principles. Student A, while not achieving the same level as Student B, actually showed greater improvement as a result of teaching strategies and course instruction. These types of exercises offer instructors the opportunity to gauge comprehension of material and achievement of specific learning goals. In the context of APE, "adapt" means "to adjust" or "to fit" modifications to meet the needs of students. The curricular purposes of adapted physical education align with those of physical education. Special education includes physical education as a direct educational service (34 CFR §300.39(a)(1), Federal Register), while physical therapy, occupational therapy, and therapeutic recreation are related services.
Students with unique learning needs are often referred to occupational therapy, physical therapy, and therapeutic recreation for individualized programs. It is important for students with disabilities to participate in general physical education with age-appropriate peers. For example, if a student is visually impaired, they can be a partner to a student who has normal vision, therefore during a basketball game they can run together, help in catching a ball and giving directions for passing and shooting.
Adapted physical education (APE) programs should align with the general physical education curriculum.
Teaching methods and instructional strategies must be designed to meet each student's unique learning style. Adapted physical education can happen in classes ranging from regular physical education (for mainstreamed students, for example) to self-contained classrooms. A traditional approach to instructional design might be to "teach to the middle," thus planning for what most students need and then modifying activities for those with unique needs and characteristics. The universal design approach provides a framework for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone--not a single, one-size-fits-all solution but rather flexible approaches that can be customized and adjusted for individual needs. Cognitively, recognition networks process what is learned through all of the senses – hearing, seeing, feeling, experiencing. In order for all students to succeed to the greatest extent that they can, teachers must accommodate many levels of functioning and learning within each group of students they teach.
The PPT identifies the appropriate service delivery model based on the evaluation of the student's needs.
However, helping students to make connections with physical activity opportunities in the community outside of school is , in part, the responsibility of the physical education teacher. Of particular focus in the overall assessment are activities that the family can enjoy together. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), contains numerous provisions aimed at ensuring the academic growth and achievement of all students regardless of their race, ethnicity, fluency in English, disability or socioeconomic status. RTI is the practice of providing scientific, research-based instruction and intervention matched to students' needs, with important educational decisions based on students' levels of performance and learning rates over time (NASDSE, 2005).
RTI developed for use in Connecticut schools is referred to as SRBI (Using Scientific Research Based Interventions: Improving Education for All Students – Connecticut's Framework for RTI (2008), Connecticut State Department of Education). When appropriately implemented, SRBI has the potential to improve the educational experiences and learning of all students and to identify at a much earlier point those learners who are at risk for failure.
The principles also apply to physical education in a field of practice in which physical educators have for many years applied systematic, problem-solving approaches to teaching physical education. Equally important, the [SRBI] approach requires ongoing monitoring to ensure that teaching is bringing about improvement in targeted movement skills and that needed interventions are implemented appropriately" (Winnick, 2011, 127).
Identification of students at risk can be made much earlier in the students' learning lifespan and learning needs can be effectively addressed in the general physical education classroom setting along with typically developing peers. Generally, needs are addressed within a three-tiered intervention approach where more intensive and structured interventions provided are based on well thought-out assessment data.
Small-group instruction would continue for 8 to 16 weeks with progress being monitored weekly. The result may lead to a tier 3 intervention, which would be an even more intensive, more individualized program of instruction. These individuals assist in the provision of adapted physical education services under the supervision of an adapted physical education teacher.
Training and ongoing communication are essential so that paraprofessionals fully understand their specific role in assisting the adapted physical education teacher and supporting the student's PE program. Without this kind of approach, no matter how competent and hardworking individual teachers may be, the lack of coordination and consistency across classrooms or grades may render the educational system ineffective for many students (CSDE, 2008). The goal is for each child to be given the opportunity to benefit from the educational services available through their school placement.
It is challenging, but very important, to make sure that teachers have time to collaborate with other professionals when making decisions about children (State Education Resource Center, 2010).
In order for students of varying abilities to be provided with the opportunity to experience success, an entire team of professionals must effectively execute their role in setting the stage for each student's success.
Traditional assessment practices have relied heavily on the use of standardized tools that compare a student to a normative sample of same-aged peers. First, a child has to be identified as a "student with a disability" according to definitions presented in the IDEA (1997).
For example, the Brockport (Winnick and Short, 1999) physical fitness test for physical and mental disabilities could be used as a standardized test. Students who can participate fully in general physical education without specialized modifications or with only minor modifications may not need IEP goals and objectives.
True physical education uses movement as a medium to teach, but that is where the resemblance to these related services ends. This means related services and providers cannot replace a physical educator or a physical education program.
Extracurricular activities cannot be substituted for physical education for a student with a disability. A parent, teacher, or other person may refer for study at a child study conference any child who is having difficulty in physical education. After parental consent is given the student would then be formally assessed in motor, fitness, and behavioral skills.
Ultimately, eligibility for special education, including adapted physical education, is determined by the PPT.
For example, a written referral (ED621) should be submitted requesting that a student be evaluated to determine if he or she is a child with a disability that requires special education. Students are considered eligible for special education, including physical education, if they are identified as having one of the 14 disabilities named in the law, and because of that disability are determined to require special education. The traditional method, however, is often flawed due to a disconnection between standardized test results and the specific general physical education program offered within a student's school. Likewise, students with disabilities of a temporary nature, such as broken bones or short-term illnesses, are not eligible for APE solely on the basis of a temporary disability. It focuses on identifying activity needs of the individual, and is the interpretation of measurements obtained through testing. As part of special education, assessment serves as the foundation for determining a pupil's strengths, needs, and eligibility for special education support services through the use of formal and informal procedures. The educator should also  be knowledgeable in administering and scoring assessments, interpreting scores, and recommending appropriate programming. Each district must ensure that the tests and evaluation instruments are valid for the specific purpose used.
These assessments are to be used in conjunction with observation-based assessment of the student within the environment in which he or she must perform. It is important to understand what an assessment measures as well as the instrument's assets and limitations.. The report includes gathering objective data related to the student's abilities and needs, and discusses the determination of unique need as a critical component of this process as well as of the development of an IEP which includes goals and objectives related to physical education. The opportunity for data acquisition is everywhere from tweet updates, Facebook comments, social media discussions on trending topics to status updates of users from various social media platforms. The most important magistrates were the two consuls, who together exercised executive authority in the form of imperium (military command). The last threat to Roman hegemony in Italy came when Tarentum, a major Greek colony, enlisted the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus in 281 BC, but this effort failed as well. Thus, the Punic Wars resulted in Rome’s first overseas conquests, of Sicily and Hispania, and the rise of Rome as a significant imperial power. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians. Guidelines for developing and assessing student learning outcomes for undergraduate majors. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) includes in the definition of adapted physical education physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns, skills in aquatics and dance individual and group games and sports, including lifetime sports, designed to meet the unique needs of individuals ages 0-21. APE services should include assessment and instruction by qualified personnel prepared to gather assessment data and provide physical education instruction for children and youth with disabilities and developmental delays.
The related services are mandated if needed, to ensure that the students with Individual Education Programs (IEP) receive the intended benefits of their special education programs. The mandate is for education in the least restrictive environment, which is the environment in which they would be educated in if not disabled. Full inclusion is the ideal least restrictive environment (LRE) if it meets the needs of the student. Simple modification to rules, standards, and equipment will help allow students with disabilities to participate meaningfully and successfully.
To the greatest extend possible, children with disabilities should be educated with non-disabled peers.
The student needing APE is entitled to receive instruction in the psychomotor, cognitive, and affective domains that is  comparable to that received by non-disabled students.
Adapted physical education is referred to within the IDEA as physical education, special physical education, movement education, and motor development. To develop active adapted physical education programs, educators work with parents, students, teachers, administrators, other professionals and the community.
In universal design, instruction is designed from the start with all learners in mind, thereby communicating that all students, as well as their unique abilities and characteristics, are valued, and establishing from the very beginning opportunities for all to learn.
They must adjust and vary their approach based on the skills and unique learning needs each learner presents. The student may leave the general PE class to work individually with the APE teacher to learn and refine a skill (see APE Service Delivery in section 2). The PE specialist plays a major role in recognizing opportunities in the community and identifying the skills the student needs to participate successfully.
Evaluate the student's skills in order to determine what must be learned  to enable the student to be an active participant. And in 2004, a major federal reauthorization and revision of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA 2004) was passed, with accompanying federal regulations published in 2006. Typically, the physical educator teaches broad spectrum heterogeneous groups of students, and effective practice requires that differentiated instruction be implemented routinely.
If there is a need for a more intensive approach, it can be addressed within the SRBI framework. Identified students would receive individualized instruction within the general physical education setting (tier 1), with their progress on deficient areas being monitored weekly for four to eight weeks. If a student makes progress sufficient to meet stated goals, the student continues with tier 1 services consisting of quality, standards-based physical education instruction based on the curriculum, along with individualized instruction within the general physical education setting and would discontinue tier 2 small-group instruction.
Collaboration among regular and adapted physical educators, physical therapists, occupational therapists, teachers of special education and of all subjects, school board members, program and curriculum developers, college instructors and institutions of higher learning, administrators, and parents is vital for success" (Lawson and Sailor, 2000, 12).
Frequently, eligibility and program development decisions have been made solely on the basis of a quantified score. Once a student is determined to have a disability, then specific motor and fitness testing can take place to determine if the student qualifies for APE services. Block (2000) has a behavior checklist that examines how well a student follows directions, interacts with peers, and how well the student performs in a general physical education setting. However, the IDEA mandates physical education services for all students with disabilities from 3 to 21 years of age. These individuals jointly will decide what educational services are appropriate that includes physical education services a student might receive.
Related services are defined in the law as services that may be provided only if required to help a child with a disability benefit from special education. The name of the group conducting child study conferences varies from district to district; common names include "pupil study team," "planning and placement team" and IEP committee. Once the assessment is completed, the PPT meeting or a conference will be arranged during which the assessment results are discussed. Each student must be provided the opportunity to participate in general physical education with non-disabled peers, unless the student is enrolled full-time in a separate facility or demonstrates the need for specially designed physical education.


The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 identifies physical education as a component of special education that provides for an equitable education experience for students ages 3-21 that is a free, appropriate, public education in the least restrictive environment. Students who a physician has determined may not safely participate in general PE may not participate in APE. The interpretation of assessment information guides decision making related to eligibility, student-based educational needs, possible goals and objectives, program services, and placement options. Knowledge of physical education standards and benchmarks, as well as lifestyle analysis for transition planning, is important. The specific formal assessment tool chosen should be guided by steps 1, 2, and 3 of an ecological approach to assessment, outlined earlier in this chapter. A test which is intended to measure motor skill performance or physical fitness must not discriminate on the basis of the student's disability. The report provides useful information for those who participate in the information gathering process in the selection of assessment tools which provide objective, measurable, reliable and valid data related to a student's diagnosis or condition. These daily occurrences in the World Wide Web are good sources of data that you can mine and analyze to acquire for better decision making. The magistracies were originally restricted to patricians, but were later opened to common people, the plebeians. The Romans secured their conquests by founding Roman colonies in strategic areas, establishing stable control over the region.
After defeating the Macedonian and Seleucid Empires in the 2nd century BC, the Romans became the dominant people of the Mediterranean Sea.
Both brothers were killed, but the Senate passed some of their reforms in an attempt to placate the growing unrest of the plebeian and equestrian classes.
In this case, the general physical education classroom would be the least restrictive environment, one alternative of which is inclusion into the general PE class. However, the PPT and the APE teacher may determine that APE services, in addition to general physical education, appropriately prepares the student with the individualized support he or she needs to benefit from general physical education.
However, the continuum of alternative environments may be used if it is determined that full inclusion is not appropriate. The student's instructional program should be provided in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Instruction, skills and activities should be geared to each student's unique abilities to the greatest extent possible.
The multiple ways that students can express what they know, get engaged, stay interested, motivated, challenged and excited contribute to development in the affective domain.
Within a generalized teaching approach, many aspects of instruction can be modified to enhance instruction. It is recommended that the PE specialist participate in the development of the ITP (individualized transition plan). By the time the student is 14, these activities should be addressed in the recreation section of the ITP (see Transition to Elementary and Secondary Grades). While RTI has not been specifically emphasized in physical education the principles and the framework associated with it may be implemented in the development of movement skills that are the foundation of the physical education curriculum. If progress does not reach the stated goal after this period, the student will enter tier 2. If progress is not maintained, tier 2 small group intensive instructions would be reinstated.
Tier 3 interventions may include one-to-one direct instruction within the general physical education setting or an additional physical education session outside of the regularly scheduled physical education class, for example. There is an expectation that principals, teachers, support staff, parents and students must work together to ensure a meaningful education for all students. Arguably, each APE assessment should look somewhat different, with eligibility determinations being based upon a variety of factors—what Rainforth and York-Barr (1997, 135) and Block (2000) call the ecology of the student -- as opposed to the results of a single formal assessment tool. A teacher-made cross country skiing test (components of standing, turns, and downhill run) or basketball test (components and accuracy of the dribble, chest pass, jump shot, and lay-up) could be used to determine sport skill ability. Winnick (2000) suggests elementary age students with disabilities should receive 30 minutes daily and secondary students 45 minutes for three days per week.
Thus, physical therapy, for example, is a related service that may be recommended to help a child benefit from physical education.
Public Law 93-112 Section 504 specifically mentions physical education, intramurals, and interscholastic athletics, noting that where these services are provided for individuals without disabilities, people with disabilities must also be afforded the opportunity to participate, without discrimination on the basis of their disability.
A concerned parent, teacher or other staff may make this contact through the student's teacher or other school personnel.
Lists of assessment tools used with children with special needs can be found at the PE Central Web site, and also includes a discussion of types of tests, with specific examples of each type, which can be used for assessments related to adapted physical education.
Big data delivers information that provides a better understanding about customer insights, views and perceptions about your business. Republican voting assemblies included the centuriate assembly, which voted on matters of war and peace and elected men to the most important offices, and the comitia tributa (tribal assembly), which elected less important offices. For placement along the restrictive least restrictive continuum primary consideration must be given to the environment in which the student's learning needs are best met. An appropriate individualized curriculum is intended to provide experiences that teach and reinforce skills necessary for safe and successful participation in the physical education setting. However, APE activities are individually prescribed for students with disabilities while the regular PE curriculum is assumed to be appropriate for all typically developing students.
Wherever appropriate, students receiving adapted physical education should be included in the regular physical education class. The psychomotor domain, the primary realm of learning for physical education, involves planning skills, tasks and applications for physical and perceptual motor learning. A skilled educator keeps in mind the learner's abilities and makes changes to instruction on an individual – or differentiated – basis. Tier 3 interventions may also include parent and family involvement and adapted physical education services. Regardless whether a state requires physical education or not, students with disabilities are required to have some form of physical education.
Further, all students with disabilities are required to have physical education whether general or adapted. This benefit can be accomplished by increasing range of motion, improving gait, or teaching a child to transfer to the pool deck so he or she can learn to swim and eventually be included in regular education programs. In other words, students with disabilities have a right to participate on the regular athletic teams provide by schools, or the school must provide appropriate special athletic opportunities such as Special Olympics or Wheelchair Sports, and funding should be made available (Stein, 1978).
Referral policies differ from district to district, and the local school district should be consulted for specific information.
Standardized scores and standard deviations from the mean on a formal assessment are not singular, defining criteria upon which to determine eligibility. You can thus pulse the current and potential customer’s needs and preferences that can help make your business more engaging and relevant to them.Identify purchases versus customersA purchaser is different from a customer for the former is one who actually makes a purchase and uses your products. Lepidus was exiled, and when Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra of Egypt at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, he became the undisputed ruler of Rome and the first emperor. To remove a student with a disability from the general PE environment, the burden is on the school system to clearly justify and document why this student's needs cannot be achieved in general physical education. Physical education placement in special or separate classes should occur only when the nature or severity of the child's disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily (IDEA, 1997). For example, all fourth-grade students might take the Connecticut Physical Fitness Assessment and then work on physical fitness components. When instructional design is approached with the abilities of all learners in mind, opportunities abound for all to learn and succeed. Instruction should be focused on the abilities of each student, making modifications only as needed. Teachers must equip themselves with the tools to facilitate growth in each of their students, often within the general education setting" (Winship, 2011).
For example, if general physical education is not required for non-disabled high school students, students with disabilities should still receive physical education services. Over the years, local education agencies (LEAs) have sometimes configured their physical education services in ways that make it confusing to interpret if compliance has been achieved. Therefore, if a student is interested in competing in winter sports such as alpine skiing, cross country skiing, figure skating, speed skating, snowboarding, or snowshoeing, then the school should provide means to achieve this endeavor.
A formal, standardized test that does not allow for demonstration of a student's strengths and needs may be an inappropriate test for the student.
A customer may be interested to your products but have not purchased but remains to be an active follower of your business. While some children can be appropriately served in a general physical education class, many students need adapted physical education because they cannot safely or successfully participate in the unrestricted activities of the general or specially designed physical education program. Note that, although students might attend school in a district that provides particular sport competitions, they can participate in other districts as well as regional games.
The report includes a table of Applications of Asse The 4 V’s in Big Data for Digital Marketing You are using an outdated browser. Purchasers are not merely leads but already converting ones and whose loyalty you need to retain while a customer are potential leads that you need to help convert. For physical education curriculum guidance, refer to Connecticut's Healthy and Balanced Living Curriculum Framework for Physical Education (CSDE, 2006). Special Olympics and other competitive organizations will let athletes participate in regional games, if the local district does not provide that opportunity (U.S. In the past years, only a few marketers take the time to keep tabs on the big data flowing across the different aspects of their marketing campaigns.
Using big data analytics will give you a better marketing stance to engage in a marketing campaign that will produce better customer retention of purchasers and lead conversion of customers.Get a free Big Data eBook here.
This time around, there is no way of stopping the surge of big data explosion upon the emergence of better online marketing analytic tools, mobile marketing schemes, internet technology and social media platforms.
If you are not at least acquainted with big data by now, then you should not wonder why your online marketing campaign is probably lagging behind your competitors.The essence of big data within the marketing conceptIt is high time to demystify the implication of big data explosion within the marketing concept. For a concise understanding about big data, it is a popular term that refers to a wealth of information in the form of either a structure or unstructured data that internet marketers can use in order to predict and analyze business circumstances that can lead to a more confident decision making process. The data volume buildup may be from unstructured sources like the social media and machine based data that can be collected.
The relevance of the volume of data collected may be filtered using analytic tools in order to identify important metrics that are found to be relevant to your business.What does big data volume means to your business? To its simplest term, the volume element refers to the amount of data available for your digital marketing campaign. This may impact the following aspects of your business market:Customer identification data. Use big data analytics in order to know the unique identity of each including the source of the traffic directing them to your site and the channels that they use when visiting your site (whether mobile, desktop, PDAs, etc…). This will help you improve your website design and development approach in creating a more responsive website that can cater to the different viewing needs of your customers.
You can also reinforce your marketing efforts on sites with more referral of customers to your business in order to pursue profitable sales.Descriptive data of your customers.
You can review the available data to know their demographic information like sex, age, education, lifestyle, profession, marital status and even knowing who their children are. These are information not readily available to you however but social media has a lot to help you in obtaining the data that you need. Use the information to help you develop your products and services that are tailored to meet your customer profile to ensure that they will like and prefer your business over others.Quantitative data on your customer’s direct engagement to your business. This information will help you understand the purchase history of your customers, their inbound and outbound communication to your business, social media interaction such as sharing or liking your web page content and other web analytic data like number of visits and product reviews and comments of your customers. You can use the data to re-structure the way you do your digital marketing approach to improve customer engagement to your business.Qualitative data. The information that you can get from analytics through qualitative data will help you pursue the more productive marketing strategies that can help you convert leads to sales better.
The data here involves your customer behavior when shopping, obtaining their opinion and motivational indicators. Extract these data from email conversations, comments, feedbacks and through your customer service communication.2. Managing complex forms of data is something that digital marketers continue to grapple with and needs to find a more accurate data management system to apply to their business advantage.
Organizations are often overwhelmed in embracing the loads of information that are available for them and managing them is a big challenge among marketers in today’s digital marketing era. Mobile purchases are on the rise and you need to make your business more mobile friendly to reach more leads.Develop mobile apps to cater to the fast paced mobile browsing activities of your potential customers. You want to be sure that you cover every opportunity of connecting your business to your customers in a highly mobile marketplace.4.
This may also be applied to the variability of data streaming that can be inconsistent, making it harder for organizations to react quickly and more appropriately. Generally, big data veracity has an impact on the confidence reposed by the marketer to their database. However, in a volatile big data environment, accuracy becomes an issue among digital marketers regarding the collected data for their business. Here’s how you can mitigate the inaccuracies of big data in your system:Immediately assess data value as soon as you receive them. What might be a customer’s preference today may change rapidly and your inaction may cause you a lost potential lead for ROI.Organize data information according to groups, value or significance. This will give you a better focus on how to approach each data for a better actionable marketing strategy.Focus on using data according to its purpose.



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