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admin | Category: What Cause Ed | 31.03.2014
Conversational Discourse The benchmark of successful language acquisition is almost always the demonstration o fan ability to accomplish pragmatic goals through Interactive discourse with other speakers of the language. Teaching Pronunciation Because the overwhelming majority of adult learners will never acquire an accent-free command of a foreign language, should a language program that emphasizes whole language, meaningful contexts, and automaticity of production focus on these tiny phonological details of language? Accuracy and Fluency In spoken language the question we face as teachers is: How shall we prioritize the two clearly important speaker goals of accurate (clear, articulate, grammatically and phonologically correct) language and fluent (flowing, natural) language?
Affective Factors One of the major obstacles learners have to overcome in learning to speak is the anxiety generated over the risks of blurting things out that are wrong, stupid, or incomprehensible. The Interaction Effect The greatest difficulty that learners encounter in attempts to speak is not the multiplicity of sounds, words, phrases, and discourse forms that characterize any language, but rather the interactive nature of most communication. Questions about Intelligibility A now outdated model of English language teaching assumed that intelligibility should be gauged by whether nonnative speakers are intelligible to native speakers. The Growth of Spoken Corpora The intelligibility issue is now being described as a rapid growth of readily available corpora of spoken language –one of the key developments in research on teaching oral production. Genres of Spoken Language Research on spoken language has recently attended to a specification of differences among various genres of oral interaction, and how to teach those variations. In beginning through intermediate levels of proficiency, most of the efforts of the students in oral production come in the form of conversation, or dialogue. Redundancy The speaker has and opportunity to make meaning clearer through the redundancy of language. Reduced Forms Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc., all form special problems in teaching spoken English. Performance Variables One of the advantages of spoken language is that the process of thinking as you speak allows you to manifest a certain number of performance hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections. Colloquial Language Make sure your students are reasonably well acquainted with the words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial language and that they get practice in producing these forms. Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation. Interaction Learning to produce waves of language in a vacuum –without interlocutors- would rob speaking skill of its richest component: the creativity of conversational negotiation.
Imitative A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder” speech.
Intensive Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include any speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language.
Responsive A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or comments.

Transactional (dialogue) Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language.
Extensive (monologue) Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports, summaries, r perhaps short speeches.
Questo forum non rappresenta una testata giornalistica in quanto viene aggiornato senza alcuna periodicita. Because of the language ego that informs others that “you are what you speak”, learners are reluctant to be judged by hearers. Conversations are collaborative as participants engage in a process of negotiation of meaning. Materials, technology, and teacher education programs are being challenged to grapple with the issue if intelligibility, and to adopt new standards of “correctness” and new attitudes toward “accent” in order to meet current global realities. As the size and scope of corpora expand, so our understanding of what people really say is informed by empirical evidence.
As you plan and implement techniques in your interactive classroom, make sure your students can deal with both interpersonal and transactional with whom they are quite familiar.
Learners can organize their output both cognitively and physically through such clustering. Students who don’t learn colloquial contractions can sometimes develop a stilted, bookish quality of speaking that in turn stigmatizes them. One of your tasks in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other attributes of fluency. The stress-timed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important messages.
7.Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices (pauses, fillers, self-corrections, backtracking) to enhance the clarity of the message. Accomplish appropriately communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals. Imitation of this kind is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form. Intensive speaking can be self-initiated, or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are “going over” certain forms of language. Conversations, for example, may have more of a negotiative nature to them than does responsive speech. Implies that one does not actually teach conversation, but rather that students acquire conversational competence, peripherally, by engaging in meaningful tasks.

While fluency may in many communicative language courses be an initial goal in language teaching, accuracy is achieved to some extent by allowing students to focus on the elements of phonology, grammar, and discourse in their spoken output.
Our job as teachers is to provide the kind of warm, embracing climate that encourages students to speak, however halting or broken their attempts may be. So, for the learner, the matter of what to say is often eclipsed by conventions of how to say things, when to speak, and other discourse constraints.
Of special interest to teachers of English worldwide is the wider range of language varieties that are now available through such projects as the International Corpus of English, which contains data from the spoken Englishes of Hong Kong, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Nigeria, the Caribbean, and others. As research more accurately describes the constraints of such genres on spoken language, we will be better able to pinpoint models of appropriateness for students’ specific purposes in learning English. For example, in English our “thinking time” is not silent; we insert certain “fillers” such as uh, um, well, you know, I mean, like, etc. 3.Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours.
8.Use grammatical word classes, systems, word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.
Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.
Direct approach: involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies, and processes that are involved in fluent conversation. 9.Produce speech in natural constituents in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences.
Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification.
Tutte le immagini, audio e video di questo sono prese qua e la da internet, se qualcuna violasse i diritti di copyright, contattateci.. Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings. Tutto cio che queste pagine riportano appartiene a colui che ha le ha scritte, salvo ove diversamente indicato. Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.

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