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Formulated by the National Education Commission and Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) , the National Policy Framework on Higher Education and Technical & Vocational Education (2009)outlines a framework for tertiary education.
Policy 75: Establish salary scales for certified craft personnel commensurate with the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ). Policy 76: Ensure due recognition of NVQ competency standards in recruitment to state-sector posts, and in awarding government contracts.
Policy 88: Establish a standardised system to recognise non-NVQ programmes under the NVQ framework. The National Strategy on TVET Provision For Vulnerable People in Sri Lanka (2010) recognises that a shift to an inclusive vocational training system will help to relieve the root causes of conflict and social tension, build social cohesion, and contribute to social stability.” The Strategy identifies six vulnerable groups which need to be targeted by awareness campaigns on advantages of TVET. The six groups were selected according to vulnerability due to their limited access to skills training and resulting problems in finding employment. The following nine strategic goals form the framework for improving TVET for vulnerable people. The Formal TVET sector of Sri Lanka comprises 348 public sector training centres and about 670 active private and Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) training centres.
A large number of non-formal TVET in Sri Lanka focuses on IT and is offered on a fee-levying basis. Competencies are assessed through Recognition of Prior Learning” (RPL) against NVQSL before candidates are awarded a National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) certificate at the appropriate level. Higher education is administered by the Ministry of Higher Education, while the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development is responsible for TVET. The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development is in charge of formulating national policies and implementing youth development programmes. The Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) was established under the provisions of the Tertiary and Vocational Education Act No. The University of Vocational Technology (UNIVOTEC) University of Vocational Technology is the university established for the TVET sector by repealing act of National Institute of Technical Education of Sri Lanka(NITESL).
The Department of Technical Education and Training (DTET) The Department of Technical Education and Training was established in year 1893 and has expanded to 38 Technical Colleges today.
The Vocational Training Authority (VTA) which was established under Vocational Training Authority of Sri Lanka Act. The National Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) was established as the National Apprenticeship Board under the National Apprenticeship Act. The National Institute of Business Management (NIBM) was established in 1968 and later incorporated into the Act of Parliament No.23 of 1976. The main objective of the Ceylon German Technical Training Institute(CGTTI) is to develop automobile technology and other technical trades. The National Human Resources Development Council (NHRDC) is in charge of preparing human resource development policies, implementing the human resource development plan, conducting studies, research and surveys and running seminars and workshops related to human resource development. The International Centre for Training of Rural Leaders (ICTRL) assists in making training services,offered by governmental and nongovernmental organisations, efficient and effective. The Sri Lanka Institute of Printers (SLIOP) was established with the objective of improving quality of the printing industry. The National Institute of Fisheries and Nautical Engineering (NIFNE), established in 1999 by Parliamentary Act. In Sri Lanka, the private sector is already burdened with heavy taxation which would make the imposition of a training levy difficult. Therefore, a large proportion of education and training is provided free of charge, together with a daily allowance.
Encourage establishment of formal, long-term public-private partnerships at institutional and training center level. As of January 2012 there are 382 training centres that are governed by the Ministry in charge of TVET (Ministry of Youth Affairs and Skills Development). The National Vocational Qualifications Framework of Sri Lanka (NVQSL) is the key in unifying technical and vocational education and training. The National Competency Standards (NCS) are prepared in consultation with the industry and curricula, trainer guides, trainee guides and assessment resources are prepared based on the NCS . Assessments are competency-based and the system is benchmarked against qualification systems in developed countries. An operational manual for NVQSL is compiled by the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) with the assistance of the National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA), Vocational Training Authority (VTA), Department of Technical Education (DTET), National Youth Services Council (NYSC) and National Institute of Technical Education (NITESL). Assessments are conducted by licensed assessors who are hired by accredited training centres where trainees take competency based training courses. The Technical and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) is in charge of accrediting TVET institutions and courses. Assessment for course accreditation is based on National Competency Standards as outlined in the National Vocational Qualifications Framework for Sri Lanka (NVQSL). The main purpose of registration is to ensure quality of training in public and private TVET institutions. TVEC grants registration certificates to TVET institutions based on the assessment of adequacy and relevance of infrastructure, training equipment, teacher qualification, curricula and training delivery. According to the presidential task force report in 1998, two projects were initiated with donor support, mainly from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as briefed below. Main objective of the skills development project was to improve the quality and relevance of skills training programs to build high quality work force and address the mismatch of skills in the labour market of Sri Lanka. The project has supported facility development and capacity building of 6 national vocational training institutions, 6 technical colleges and 200 selected vocational training centers.
Under component 2 the following human resource development areas were covered by the project.
The goal of the Project is to improve the provision, access, relevance, and efficiency of the technical education system in support of the Government's economic and social objectives. The National Certificate (Vocational) is a new set of national qualifications designed to provide people with a high level of marketable skills.
The report provides an overview of European national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) and their qualifications, celebrating Cedefop's long-term work in the field and showing that the Centre can make a difference to European vocational education and training and, more importantly, to European citizens. Cedefop has been involved in the conceptualisation and implementation of qualifications frameworks for a long time. In the 1980s it significantly contributed to European cooperation in vocational education and training (VET) by developing a five-level (partly) competence-based structure. The work on transparency of qualifications starting in the 1990s, within the forum on transparency, directly led to the initial outline of the European qualifications framework (EQF) in 2003-04, a work which became a catalyst for NQF developments during the past decade.
The economic downturn and rising costs of further education in the UK has done much to change attitudes towards vocational training in the UK and university is no longer regarded as the only route to a rewarding career.

This resurgence of vocational qualifications should be welcomed and give young people confidence that whichever route they take after school, there are opportunities open to them. However, whilst the longstanding divide between vocational and academic training is finally narrowing, a new division has been created in its place with some suggesting that only certain forms of vocational training have merit. My own sector, retail, is amongst those to have received criticism for offering vocational training programmes to its workforce.
And whilst I appreciate that the concept of a Qualification in retail is new to the fore, those who dismiss them out of hand are missing the economic point. Service is now the largest sector in the UK, overtaking manufacturing and engineering as the dominant force in our economy. And lets not forget the impact of training and qualifications on the individuals undertaking them. Vocational programmes that are relevant to a real job, that train someone to be even better at what they do and train them to think differently about their job encourage confidence, motivation and ambition. You only have to meet the colleagues who are amongst the first to graduate from our Asda Skills Academy apprenticeship programme this week and hear them talk about their new found desire to progress - and their belief that such progression is within their grasp - to see the benefit of these programmes. Many will go on to look at other forms of education having gained confidence through an apprenticeship programme.
Like any industry, the retail sector needs to attract talent - our future leaders - in order to grow.
The United Kingdom is made up of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland. In the United Kingdom, vocational training on the job was commonly practised for a long time. According to the Department for Education and Employment (DFE), Britain’s main concern is to bring vocational and university diplomas together within a single framework in order to eliminate traditional barriers and allow greater flexibility within the system. At the end of compulsory schooling at the age of 16, young people can sit examinations leading to the GCSE, level 2 (General Certificate of Secondary Education).
Going on to a further education college to prepare- the Vocational Certificate of Education (VCE), which is at the same level as mainstream A-levels. Students who obtain A-levels with good grades (A to C) in 3 subjects, can go on to higher education at university or other higher education establishments.
The Young Apprenticeships programme designed to prepare 16-year-olds to enter an apprenticeship. Increased Flexibility is geared towards 14 to 16 year-olds and aims to improve vocational training and apprenticeship opportunities by fostering partnerships between schools and enterprises. 60 different certifications can be obtained through an apprenticeship lasting from 1 to 3 years. The national minimum wage for an apprentice aged between 16 and 18 stands at ?2.50 per hour. The number of non-university qualifications chosen by young people has increased considerably since 2004. The UK apprenticeships website: information for apprentices, parents and enterprises on how apprenticeships work and related benefits. National Careers Service: a site to help you choose your future profession and find relevant courses. UCAS: Portal for admission to higher education in the UK, information on registration procedures, diplomas, finding a course etc. I have had a lifelong interest in cooking, and had the good fortune to get a job as an apprentice chef with award winning celebrity Master Chef Paul Da Costa Greaves, a member of the Master Chefs of Great Britain.
It was under his guidance that I became a professional chef, and I have spent many nights and days working in award winning butchers and bakeries, to learn every aspect of my job.
It is divided into five grades and finishes with the Grade 5 Scholarship and Placement Examination.
Nevertheless, there is a widespread network of non-fee levying institutions which are funded through national and international charities. The Ministry of Education is responsible for drawing up national policies and plans, managing public schools, teacher education and quality assurance.
The general objective of the Univotec is to provide progressive upward movement to the students in the technical education and vocational training system, based on their aptitudes and abilities, to acquire university education. There are 09 Technical colleges upgraded to Colleges of Technology (CoTs) in the nine provinces to conduct emerging technology diplomas in the provinces. The Institute provides training courses for public and private institutions on computer usage, consultancy services and productivity improvement.
The Institute provides automobile training and aims to be considered a centre of excellence for training in the automotive sector.
It awards internationally recognised certificates and medals to youth and creates opportunities to improve their international experience.
It offers training on printing technologies and management; and fosters knowledge on new technologies through international cooperation. However, marketable skills are most needed by the most underprivileged in society who cannot bear the cost of acquisition of TVET skills.
The academic staff consists of 3 categories namely permanent -1191, contract-721 and visiting-1339 amounting a total of 3251 persons.
A competency standard is a document defining competency units pertaining to skills, standards and activities related to acquiring relevant knowledge, competencies and attitudes. The manual outlines agreed policies and processes for implementation of all competencies as outline in NVQSL.
Each level describes the learning process and requirements as well as occupational responsibility involved. Assessors examine trainees’ progress reports, practical and theoretical examination results and other relevant documentation before they admit trainees to NVQ Assessments. The National Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) or any other NVQ-accredited public vocational training center can issue NVQ certificates through the Recognition of Prior Learning System (RPL). Training institutions wishing to offer courses leading to award of NVQ qualification should be accredited by TVEC. Registration of training institutions gives confidence to students, parents, employers, the government and all stakeholders that training content, student assessment and certification meet specified standards.
Development of a policy framework for the institutionalisation of Competency Based Training (CBT) was one of the main objectives of the project component 1. The Project has supported the Government's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy through improving the country's skill-based competitiveness. The TEDP Project has provided consultancies and financial resources to prepare and implement a staff development plan.

Each of the programmes provides in-depth knowledge in its specific field, opening doors to NC(V) graduates in a range of occupations within its specific field. This approach directly influenced work at national level, for example influencing the professional qualifications structures of Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania. As such, ensuring the people who work in our largest sector have access to the most current, relevant and valuable training seems like a common sense and economically-minded approach to take.
We cannot afford to ignore the fact that for thousands of young people in our country traditional education simply does not work out. We will only be able to do this if we continue to invest in our people and showcase the fantastic potential within our industry for school and college leavers. The education and training system is decentralised, meaning that there are both differences and similitudes in the education and training systems in each country.
Confronted with rapid developments in terms of qualifications and the labour market, the public authorities have now structured the sector and set up a modular system for validating competences. The equivalent of the GCSE in Scotland is the Scottish Certificate of Education: Standard Grade. This degree allows students to take a job as a highly skilled technician or continue their vocational studies. These provide vocational qualifications or can act as a springboard to obtaining a university degree.- The HND (Higher National Diploma) is taken either full-time or as a sandwich course usually over a 2-year period. Pupils are enrolled in school where they study subjects coming under the national curriculum. This also applies to apprentices aged 19 if they are in their 1st year of an apprenticeship. I have first hand experience of Indian tandoor cooking and have trained in many areas from ice sculpting with a chain saw to chocolate tempering and design.
I employ every skill I have learned to create unique and inspiring dishes for the restaurant.
It stipulates the establishment of the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC).
The Commission engages in policy development, planning, co-ordination and the development of tertiary and vocational education at all levels.
Most of the courses conducted in DTET are long term certificate and diploma courses in the technical education streams. 12 of 1995 provides skills training to rural youth through a network of 6 National Vocational Training Institutes, 22 District Vocational Training Centres and 218 Rural Vocational Training Centres.
The Fund was established in 1999 to fulfill the human resource development needs of employers.
It encompasses 43 regional training centres that offer courses on personal development, career guidance, national heritage, beauty skills and job-oriented vocational skills. The Institute presently offers a number of distance, certificate and diploma courses; and three degree programmes. Special Teacher Training facility, National Institute of Technical Education of Sri Lanka (NITESL) later upgraded to University of Vocational Technology (UNIVOTEC) making Education Technology Faculty dedicated to staff development of the TVET sector. Given that training courses are accredited based on the National Vocational Qualification Framework of Sri Lanka (NVQSL), National Competency Standard and Competency Based Curricula are prerequisites in applying for accreditation. Are we to say that these people should be overlooked before they even start their working life? In return, our apprentices know that in tough times they have an employer who will invest in their future and provide them with opportunities to flourish. As national vocational qualifications (NVQ) recognise relatively compartmentalised working skills, horizontal mobility options have been set up to enable young people to move from one system to another. In parallel, they devote 2 days a week (or equivalent) to working towards a vocational qualification. Generally speaking, they spend one day at school and the rest of the time in the workplace.
Junior secondary level (grades 6-9) lasts four years while the senior secondary level (grades 10-11) lasts two years. Each of the nine provinces has a Provincial Ministry of Education which is headed by a Provincial Minister and assisted by Chief Secretary and Provincial Director of Education. It is committed to developing a nationally recognised system for granting of tertiary and vocational education awards; and maintaining academic and training standards in institutes, agencies and all other establishments providing tertiary education and vocational education. The University of Vocational Technology offers a Bachelor of Education in Technology (B.Ed.
Assessment includes inspection of supportive documents or, if no documents available, visits at the workplace to conduct practical tests. Meanwhile the UK can benefit from a highly skilled workforce helping to drive economic growth - a great investment. Qualifications are awarded by the competent chambers and guilds governing the various trades and crafts. This facilitates integration into the professional world and also allows students to continue with a Master’s Degree. Provinces are further divided into educational zones which are administered by a Zonal Education Office.
NAITA conducts island-wide training programmes aimed at small, medium and large scale enterprises. Tech) for teachers in the sector and short-term training courses for TVET trainers and assessors. Tests can also be conducted at training centers if the workplace does not offer adequate conditions.
Amendments to the existing Act were suggested in 2012 and are currently under consideration.
In case of failure to demonstrate required skills and competencies, candidates will be informed about shortcomings and advised on possibilities to upgrade skills to be awarded a NVQ certificate. Zones are further sub-divided into divisions which are headed by Divisional Officers who assist Zonal Directors. Bachelor’s degrees usually take three to four years, master’s degrees take two years and doctoral degree programmes take three to five years.

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