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There are 340 million workers in the unorganised sector in India who are not covered by any social security measures, including the Minimum Wage Act 1948. The measure, if implemented, would reduce poverty levels in some states where the NFLMW is higher than the minimum wage specified by the state governments. The Global March welcomes the move towards a uniform NFLMW in India, and calls for a real and living wage for the workers, factoring in variations in inflation and the differing costs of living in rural and urban areas. This fact sheet will outline vocational and demographic trends in nursing, wage trends for nurses, the supply of nurses, workplace challenges, safe-staffing ratios, and the state of collective bargaining in nursing.
The nursing workforce is largely comprised of registered nurses (RNs), nurse anesthetists, nurse midwives, licensed practical nurses (LPNs), licensed vocational nurses (LVNs), and nurse practitioners (NPs).
NPs typically have completed a master’s-level degree in advanced practice nursing and have met state licensing requirements. RNs have completed a minimum of an associate’s degree in nursing and have met state licensing requirements. Between 2003 and 2014, the number of RNs increased from 2,449,000 to 2,888,000—an increase of 18 percent.[2] However, if other nursing specialties, like NPs are included with the number of RNs, then the number of RNs increased from 2,449,000 to 3,044,000—an increase of 24 percent. The percentage of men in the field increased slightly in the last 15 years or so, rising from 6.9 percent of RNs in 1995 to 10 percent in 2014. Most nurses are non-Hispanic Whites, nearly 70 percent in 2014,[7] but the percentage of minorities among nurses has been slowly increasing.
Among nurses who were 35 years old and younger in 2014, there was often increased diversity. In February 2014, among RNs who were 35 years old and younger, 10.9 percent were Hispanic or Latino. In February 2014, among RNs who were 35 years old and younger, 11.8 percent were Asian or Hawaiian Pacific Islander.
The robust supply of nurses comes from associate’s and bachelor’s degree nursing programs that are producing over 165,000 graduates each year. The debate about the nursing shortage must be held in conjunction with the debate about the working environment for nurses. With managed care restructuring of the health care industry in the 1990s, hospitals reduced staffing levels to lower costs.
Unless working conditions improve, expanding nursing school enrollments will not sufficiently increase the supply of RNs. RNs represented by unions have a voice in the workplace and they bargain contracts that address issues of effective patient care and safety.
RNs represented by the United Steelworkers Local 4-200, at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJ) in New Brunswick, NJ were awarded the American Nurses Association’s 2012 Outstanding Nursing Quality Award for the second consecutive year. In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum nurse-to-patient staffing ratios.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that the environment in which nurses work is also a breeding ground for medical errors which will continue to threaten patient safety until substantially reformed. Subsequent studies have shown that safe-staffing ratios may be an effective way to combat nursing shortages and fill vacancies by attracting students to the profession and encouraging experienced nurses to return to the profession. Soon after the nurse-to-patient ratio regulations went into effect in January 2004, the California Board of Nursing reported being inundated with RN applicants from other states. According to a 2010 study of California’s policy by Linda Aiken, et al., 29 percent of nurses in California experienced high burnout, compared with 34 percent of nurses in New Jersey and 36 percent of nurses in Pennsylvania, states without minimum-staffing ratios during the period of research. Nursing was historically an undervalued and underpaid profession, despite its high level of education, skills, and responsibility.
There has been a consistent union difference for RNs who have chosen collective bargaining to fight for better pay and working conditions.
Health care workers represent a large portion of all workers holding union representation elections.
Under Oakwood, 64 out of 153 nurses at the Salt Lake Regional Medical Center were declared supervisors. Unions, DPE, and the AFL-CIO continue to fight the Kentucky River ruling and its consequences, including continuing support for federal legislation to properly define “supervisor” under the NLRA.
The Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO (DPE) comprises 22 AFL-CIO unions representing over four million people working in professional and technical occupations. Women make up more than half of the professional and technical workforce[1] in the United States. While a larger proportion of women are entering the workforce, uneven representation across occupations and industries persists. Women have a lower workforce participation rate than men at every level of education; however, the gap shrinks at higher levels of educational attainment. The unemployment rate, those without a job but looking for work, was higher for women in 2013 at most levels of educational attainment; however, the differences were smaller for women with higher levels of education. Among those who were unemployed in 2013, the median duration of unemployment was, in general, shorter for women.
In professional and technical occupations, the unemployment rates for women in December 2014 were often lower than those for men. Among those who served in the armed forces, the unemployment rate has historically been higher for women than men.
In the 2012-13 school year, the majority of post-secondary degrees conferred went to women.
Despite high levels of education, and strong representation in professional and technical occupations, women still face a persistent wage and earnings gap. Amongst professional and technical workers, the wage gap persists in almost all occupational groups.
Median weekly earnings for both men and women were higher for union members compared to non-union members in 2014.[22] This premium was particularly pronounced for women. The Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO (DPE) comprises 22 AFL-CIO unions representing over four million people working in professional, technical and administrative support occupations.
The proportion of ACT children at or above the national minimum standards in reading, writing and numeracy, by parental education level.
The proportion of ACT children in year 3 achieving at or above the national minimum standards in reading, writing and numeracy by parental education levels.
Results within the ACT indicate that a higher proportion of students in year 3 whose parents have a bachelor degree or diploma are at or above the national minimum standard when compared with the proportion of students whose parents have a year 11 equivalent.
Minimum wage is the minimum amount of compensation an employee must receive for performing labor; usually calculated per hour. The intent of minimum wage legislation is to ensure that all members in the society who put in legitimate time at work are compensated at a rate that allows them to live within that society with adequate food, housing, clothes, and such essentials, and to avoid exploitation of workers. The minimum wage is defined as the minimum compensation that an employee must receive for their labor. For example, in the United States, the minimum wage for eligible employees under Federal law is $5.85 per hour, effective July 24, 2007. In defending and advancing the interests of ordinary working people, trade unions seek to raise wages and improve working conditions, and thus to raise the human condition in society generally. Many supporters of the minimum wage assert that it is a matter of social justice that helps reduce exploitation and ensures workers can afford what they consider to be basic necessities. Legally, a minimum wage being the lowest hourly, daily, or monthly wage that employers may pay to employees or workers, was first enacted in Australia via the 1907 “Harvester judgment” which made reference to basic wages.
Also in 1907, Ernest Aves was sent by the British Secretary of State for the Home Department to investigate the results of the minimum wage laws in Australia and New Zealand. Massachusetts passed the first state minimum wage law in 1912, after a committee had shown the nation that women and children were working long hours at wages barely sufficient to maintain a meager existence. In the 1960s, minimum wage laws were introduced into Latin America as part of the Alliance for Progress; however these minimum wages were, and are, low. In the European Union, 18 out of 27 member states had national minimum wages as of 2006.[4] Northern manufacturing firms lobbied for the minimum wage so as to prevent firms located in the south, where labor was cheaper, from competing.
The International Labour Office in Geneva, Switzerland reports that some 90 percent of countries around the world have legislation supporting a minimum wage.
It is important to note that for fundamentalist market economists, any and all attempts to raise wages and conditions of employment above what the unfettered market would provide, are futile and will inevitably deliver less employment and lower welfare for the community at large. The emerging international consensus based on current evidence suggests strongly that it is possible to reduce poverty and improve living standards generally by shaping the labor market with minimum-wage laws, and supplementing these with active training and skill formation policies.
Minimum wage is administratively simple; workers only need to report violations of wages less than minimum, minimizing a need for a large enforcement agency. Stimulates consumption, by putting more money in the hands of low-income people who, usually, spend their entire paychecks.
Increases the work ethic of those who earn very little, as employers demand more return from the higher cost of hiring these employees. Decreases the cost of government social welfare programs by increasing incomes for the lowest-paid. Prevents in-work benefits (such as the Earned Income Tax Credit and the Working tax credit) from causing a reduction in gross wages which would otherwise occur if the labor supply is not perfectly inelastic.
Indeed, it has shown to be appropriate for countries with low levels of GDP per capita, as for instance of Brazil, using a kind of Guaranteed Social Income (GSI) to try to bring millions people out of poverty.
This is in agreement with the alternate view of the labor market that has low-wage labor markets characterized as monopsonistic competition wherein buyers (employers) have significantly more market power than do sellers (workers). This view emphasizes the role of minimum wages as a market regulation policy akin to antitrust policies, as opposed to an illusory "free lunch" for low-wage workers. The estimation in which different qualities of labour are held comes soon to be adjusted in the market with suffi cient precision for all practical purposes, and depends much on the comparative skill of the laborer and the intensity of the labor performed.
The higher the minimum wage, the greater will be the number of covered workers who are discharged (Stigler 1946). In a background paper for Canadian Policy Research Networks’ Vulnerable Workers Series, we asked the author, Olalekan Edagbami, to disregard the outliers (studies that find extreme results, at either end of the spectrum) and focus on what the preponderance of research says about minimum-wage increases.
Simply stated, if the government coercively raises the price of some item (such as labor) above its market value, the demand for that item will fall, and some of the supply will become "disemployed." Unfortunately, in the case of minimum wages, the dis-employed goods are human beings. An individual will not be hired at $5.05 an hour if an employer feels that he is unlikely to produce at least that much value for the firm. The amount of labor that workers supply is generally considered to be positively related to the nominal wage; as wage increases, labor supplied increases. The upward sloping labor supply curve is based on the assumption that at low wages workers prefer to consume leisure and forgo wages. Other variables, such as price, may cause the labor supply curve to shift, such that an increase in the price level may cause workers to supply less labor at all wages. According to the Malthusian theory of population, the size of population will grow very rapidly whenever wages rise above the subsistence level (the minimal level needed to support a person’s life). Malthus’ gloomy doctrine exerted a powerful impact upon social reformers of the nineteenth century, for this view predicted that any improvement in the living standards of the working classes would be eaten up by population increase. The amount of labor demanded by firms is generally assumed to be negatively related to the nominal wage; as wages increase, firms demand less labor. The downward sloping demand for labor curve is based on the assumption that firms are profit maximizers.
Other variables, such as price, may cause the labor demand curve to shift, thus, an increase in the price level may cause firms to increase labor demanded at all wages, because it becomes more profitable to them. Because both the demand for labor curve and the supply of labor curve can be graphed with wages on the vertical axis and labor on the horizontal axis, they can be graphed together. The point at which the demand for labor curve and the supply of labor curve intersect is the point of equilibrium. Labor unions and their members are the most obvious beneficiaries of government-imposed minimum wages.
The success of a union depends on its ability to maintain higher-than-market wages and provide secure jobs for its members. Unions have not achieved their present magnitude and power by merely achieving the right of association.


The minimum wage legislation has, historically, been targeting teenage labor force under the assumption that increase of employment in this demographic sector with skill formation (educational attainment and on-the-job training) would benefit the economy. Economic theory, however, suggests that teens bear most of the dis-employment effects resulting from a minimum wage hike, compared with any other demographic group (for example, adult males), since minimum wages directly affect a high proportion of employed teens. Challenging the widespread view among economists, that an increase in the minimum wage will reduce jobs, is the recent work of economists David Card and Alan Krueger, both of Princeton. Even if the minimum wage had no effect on overall employment, there have still been strong arguments voiced against raising it. However, for workers in low-wage industries, those without skills, members of minority groups, and those living in areas of the country where wages tend to be lower, the impact can be severe. Current unemployment is just a part of the long-term price that teenagers of all races pay for the minimum wage. Unfortunately, many entry-level jobs are being phased out as employment costs grow faster than productivity.
The "outlier" case of the Netherlands, however, offers some very interesting information on this subject. A simple classical economic analysis of supply and demand implies that by mandating a price floor above the equilibrium wage, minimum wage laws should cause unemployment. Economically speaking, the theory of supply and demand suggests that the imposition of an artificial value on wages that is higher than the value that would be dictated in a free-market system creates an inefficient market and leads to unemployment. What is generally agreed upon by all parties is that the number of individuals relying on the minimum wage in the United States is less than 5 percent.
While there are no easy answers, a good first step is to frame the debate in realistic terms. On the core issue of minimum wage itself, political wrangling is unlikely to result in a real solution.
To prove the economic argument presented in excerpts from various academics (including several Nobel laureates) that the simplistic attitude of the “minimum wage legislation” will never work anywhere. Hence, the emerging international consensus based on current evidence suggests strongly that it is possible to reduce poverty and improve living standards generally by shaping the labor market with minimum-wage laws, and supplementing these with active training and skill formation policies.
New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.
Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. In order to have a uniform wage structure and to reduce the disparity in minimum wages across the country, a concept of National Floor Level Minimum Wage (NFLMW) was mooted by the Ministry of Labour and Employment, which has been revised at Indian Rs.100 (just over US$2) per day with effect from 1st November 2009.
However, in other states and for some occupations, the NFLMW paradoxically would be lower than the state statutory minimum wage. 135 for unskilled workers and the landless labourers are planning a demonstration demanding the same minimum wage rate and not the NFLMW at Indian Rs. RNs work in a variety of settings conducting examinations, administering medications, and coordinating patient care among many other responsibilities. LVN is the job title used in California and Texas, whereas LPN is used in the other 48 states. This amounts to an average of 54,000 new professional nursing jobs per year for the last 11 years.
To be eligible for an RN credential, most states require a minimum of an associate’s degree.
Nurses now care for more patients during a shift, which has led to a number of problems for both nurses and patients.
Studies have found that RNs feel powerless to change hospital policies that negatively affect working conditions. The United Federation of Teachers (UFT), an American Federation of Teachers chapter, represents 700 RNs at Brooklyn’s Lutheran Medical Center. RNs at RWJ reduced patient falls by 50 percent through “safety huddles” at the beginning of shifts. The ratios were designed to improve patient care, nurse retention, and working conditions for nurses by lowering the demands on an individual nurse. After adjusting for inflation, the mean weekly earnings for RNs who were union members increased 20 percent from 2004 to 2014.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 11, 2011 and 2014. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 11, 2014. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 11, 1996, 2014. Census Bureau, DataFerrett, Current Population Survey, Basic Monthly Microdata, January and February 2014. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 11, 2004, 2014. Census Bureau, DataFerrett, Current Population Survey, Basic Monthly Microdata February 2014.
Census Bureau, DataFerrett, Current Population Survey, Basic Monthly Microdata, February 2014. Mancino, “Recalculating: The ‘Nursing Shortage’ Needs New Direction,” Dean’s Notes, National Student Nurses’ Association, Inc. Shimabukuro, “The Definition of ‘Supervisor’ Under the National Labor Relations Act.” Congressional Research Service, July 5, 2012. While the status for women in the workforce has improved over the last several decades, many women still struggle for equality in many occupations.
While women were just under half of the general workforce (47 percent), they represented a majority of those in professional and technical occupations (51 percent).[1] The proportion of women to men in the workforce changed dramatically from only a generation ago.
In December 2014, 75 percent of all those employed in the education and health services industry were women. Approximately 32 percent of women over the age of 25 with less than a high school diploma were in the workforce in 2013, compared to close to 60 percent of men with less than a high school diploma. However, the median duration for Asian women was slightly longer than for men of the same ethnicity. While there are a number of factors that may influence the differences in earnings between men and women in the aggregate, (such as higher proportions of women in lower paying occupations) the wage gap continues even within individual occupations.
In 2014, the difference was smallest in community and social service occupations, where there was a 12 percent gap in median weekly earnings between men and women.
Estimates indicate that a women could earn as much as a half million dollars less over her working life because she is paid less than a man for the same job.
Bureau of Labor Statistics to be a management, professional, or related occupation as well as workers in non-professionally classified occupations where the person has earned an associate’s degree or higher. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 2, “Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 16 years and over by sex, 1972 to date,” 2013.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 11, “Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,” 2013. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 7, “Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population 25 years and over by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,” 2013.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 31, “Unemployed persons by age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, marital status, and duration of unemployment,” 2013. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, Table 23, “Persons at work by occupation, sex, and usual full- or part-time status,” 2013.
This information is based on the National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy, National Reportsfor2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. The writing results for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 should not be directly compared to the NAPLAN assessment results of earlier years.
To provide feedback or request an accessible version of a document please contact us or phone 6207 1983. Minimum wages are typically established by contract, collective bargaining, or legislation by the government. Such intent reflects the emerging human consciousness of human rights and the desire for a world of harmony and prosperity for all. The Harvester judgment was the first attempt at establishing a wage based upon needs, below which no worker should be expected to live. In part as a result of his report, Winston Churchill, then president of the Board of Trade, introduced the Trade Boards Act on March 24, 1909, establishing trade boards to set minimum wage rates in certain industries. By 1923, 17 states had adopted minimum wage legislation mainly for women and minors in a variety of industries and occupations. The minimum wage in countries that rank within the lowest 20 percent of the pay scale is less than $2 per day, or about $57 per month. The classical example of "social" aspect of minimum wages clashing with free market and pointing out the importance of "know-how" education is seen in almost every single Eastern European and Central Asian (former Communist) country.
Such a case is a type of market failure—always seen as a major shortcoming of any Communist economy—and results in workers being paid less than their marginal value.
His conclusion: "There is evidence of a significant negative impact on teenage employment, a smaller negative impact on young adults and little or no evidence of a negative impact on employment for workers aged 25 or older" (Saunders, 2007).
What good does it do unskilled youth to know that an employer must pay them $3.35 per hour if that fact is what keeps them getting jobs? If, accordingly, it is fixed by law above the market level, it must be at a point where the supply exceeds the demand. Economists graph this relationship with the wage on the vertical axis and the labor on the horizontal axis. As nominal wages increase, choosing leisure over labor becomes more expensive, and so workers supply more labor. In this theory, the labor supply curve should be horizontal at the subsistence wage level, which is sometimes called the "Iron Law of Wages." In the graph below, the "subsistence wage level" could be depicted by a horizontal straight edge that would be set anywhere below the equilibrium point on the Y (wage)-axis.
He put great emphasis upon the “reserve army of unemployed.” In effect, employers led their workers to the factory windows and pointed to the unemployed workers outside, eager to work for less.
Again, in a competitive labor market, the reserve army can depress wages only to equilibrium level. As with the supply of labor curve, this relationship is often depicted on a graph with wages represented on the vertical axis, and labor on the horizontal axis. That means they seek the level of production that maximizes the difference between revenue and costs.
Only at that wage will the demand for labor and the supply of labor at the prevailing wage be equal to each other. If that wage is above the equilibrium wage, then, according to this model, there will be an excess of labor supplied, resulting in increased unemployment. As the established elite of the workforce, union members are on the receiving end of the minimum wage's redistribution process. They have become what they are largely in consequence of the grant, by legislation and jurisdiction, of unique privileges which no other associations or individuals enjoy (Hayek, 1969). Thus, a great deal of the research examines the economic impact an increase in the minimum wage would have on teenagers. This estimate was confirmed in more recent studies by David Neumark of Michigan State and William Wascher of the Federal Reserve Board, Kevin Murphy of the University of Chicago, and Donald Deere and Finis Welch of Texas A&M. Their studies of fast food restaurant employment after New Jersey and California increased their state minimum wages found no evidence of job loss.
For 98.2 percent of wage and salary workers, there is no impact at all, because they either already earn more than the minimum or are not covered by it.
This is why in the United States economists have found that the primary impact of the minimum wage has been on black teenagers.
A number of studies have shown that increases in the minimum wage lead employers to cut back on work hours and training.
In that situation, employers are pressured to replace marginal employees with self-service or automation or to eliminate the service altogether.


It looks like some explanation might stem from the fact that over the past two decades the Netherlands has instituted and revamped the array of active labor market programs that apply in its labor markets, through its Foundation of Labor and Social-Economic Council.
In this data set, there is essentially no correlation between the minimum wage and unemployment among higher-educated workers.
This is because a greater number of workers are willing to work at the higher wage while a smaller numbers of jobs will be available at the higher wage. The inefficiency occurs when there are a greater number of workers that want the higher paying jobs than there are employers willing to pay the higher wages.
However, this statistic is largely ignored in favor of citations regarding the number of people that live in poverty. Ehrenberg, Labor Markets and Integrating National Economies (Brookings Institution Press, 1994), p. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution.
The NFLMW is a non-statutory measure so state governments are persuaded to fix or revise state minimum wage levels to ensure that they are not less than the NFLMW in respect of all scheduled employment, including in agriculture. At present, the central and state governments are empowered to notify any job in the Minimum Wage Act Schedule only when the number of employees is 1,000 or more. Further, the gap between the proposed NFLMW and the statutory state minimum wage level could create unrest between different categories of workers and the proliferation of child labour. Nursing professionals are typically distinguished by their education attainment and job responsibilities.
Nearly 43 percent of RNs were under 40 years old and 25 percent were between ages 41 and 50 in February 2014. There were 86,393 associate’s degrees awarded in nursing in the 2012-13 academic year.[13] In the 2002-03 academic year, just 45,117 associate’s degrees in nursing were awarded.
Union membership and the use of collective action is one of the only ways nurses can effect change in their workplace. In February 2013, UFT ratified a three-year contract that required the hospital to hire 25 additional nurses to achieve a lower nurse-to-patient ratio. The 2006 NLRB decisions – collectively known as the Kentucky River cases, after the name of the 2005 Supreme Court decision that sent the issue back to the NLRB – expanded the category of “supervisor” dramatically. DPE was chartered by the AFL-CIO in 1977 in recognition of the rapidly growing professional and technical occupations. Women are earning post-secondary degrees at a faster rate than men are, yet a wage gap persists. Within the numerous professional and technical occupations, women are disproportionately represented, with high concentrations in some occupations and far below average in others. While this is in part because women are over represented in occupations typically associated with this industry, such as teaching or nursing, women in other occupational groups are also clustered in this industry. Those not in the workforce either chose not to work or were no longer seeking work due to labor market conditions. While women are more likely than men to leave and then re-enter the workforce if they have children, which may affect accrued seniority or promotions,[15] even this is insufficient to explain the entire persistent gap. For example, a pharmaceutical sales representative with a master’s degree or an executive assistant with a bachelor’s degree.
The highest level of education that either parent has completed is the level of education that is reported. Both economic theory and practice, however, suggest that mandating a minimum monetary compensation for work performed is not sufficient by itself to guarantee improvements in the quality of life of all members of society.
Minimum wage for the first 90 consecutive days of employment for eligible employees who are under 20 years of age is $4.25 per hour. The minimum wage in the countries that represent the highest 20 percent of the pay scale is about $40 per day, or about $1,185 per month. Under the old regimes everybody "had" to have a work and was paid, mostly "close to minimum wage," for being at that work. Under the monoposonistic assumption, an appropriately set minimum wage could increase both wages and employment, with the optimal level being equal to the marginal productivity of labor (Manning 2003). If a day’s labor of a working jeweller be more valuable than a day’s labor of a common laborer, it has long ago been adjusted and placed in its proper position in the scale of value (Ricardo 1973).
Typically, the losers include young workers who have too little experience to be worth the new minimum and marginal workers who, for whatever reason, cannot produce very much. Thus, individuals whom employers perceive to be incapable of producing value at the arbitrarily set minimum rate are not hired at all, and people who could have been employed at market wages are put on the street (Kibbe 1988). The supply of labor curve then is upward sloping, and is depicted as a line moving up and to the right. Graphically, this is shown by movement along the labor supply curve, that is, the curve itself does not move. Only if labor supply became so abundant and demand were in equilibrium at minimum-subsistence level, the wage would be at a minimum level, as in many underdeveloped countries (Ibid., 1992). The demand for labor curve is downward sloping, and is depicted as a line moving down and to the right on a graph. If the wages are higher than the equilibrium point, then there will be an excess supply of labor, which is unemployment.
Additionally, firms will hire fewer workers than they otherwise would have, so there is also a reduction in employment. To fully understand how unions gain from minimum wage legislation, one must consider the essential nature of unions. Higher wages can be obtained only by excluding some workers from the relevant labor markets. However, there appeared to be serious flaws in the data that cast even more serious doubt upon the validity of the Card-Krueger conclusions. The unemployment rate for black teenage males has tended to rise and fall with changes in the real minimum wage.
When combined with the loss of job opportunities, this means that many youths, especially minority youth, are prevented from reaching the first rung on the ladder of success, with consequences that can last a lifetime. When these jobs disappear, where will young people and those with minimal skills get a start in learning the "invisible curriculum" we all learn on the job? The Dutch initiatives exhibit deep integration between training and skills formation and employment. Companies can be more selective in who they employ thus the least skilled and unexperienced will typically get excluded. Keep in mind that earning more than minimum wage does not necessary mean that one is not living in poverty. Young people join the workforce at the low end of the wage scale, build their skills, get an education and move up the ladder to a better paying job, just as members of the workforce have done for generations.
Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. There are 45 specific forms of employment identified in the central government’s agricultural and non-agricultural lists, while state governments have as many as 1,596 forms of employment on their lists. Among the 340 million workers in this sector in India are home-based workers, employees in household enterprises or small units, agricultural workers, labour on construction sites, domestic work and other forms of casual or temporary employees, including teachers. The low NFLMW would not be able to adequately support workers’ families which could lead to children being pulled out of schools and into work to augment family income. Nurses are integral to our health care system; however, their profession is difficult due to physical demands on the job, under staffing, and limitations on collective bargaining. Romano “California’s Nurse-to-Patient Ratio Law and Occupational Injury” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2015, Volume 88, Issue 4, pp 477-484. Some portion of the wage gap may result from decisions women make, personal job preference, or socio-economic circumstances; however, many still face overt or subtle employment discrimination, contributing to continued inequality.
While less than 10 percent of electrical and electronics engineers and computer network architects were women in 2013, more than 90 percent of speech and language pathologists and kindergarten teachers were women. For example, nearly 20 percent of women in management, business, and financial occupations worked in the education and health services industry in December 2014. Early differences in pay, even modest ones, may lengthen the time required to pay off education loans.
Employers may pay employees by some other method than hourly, such as by piecework or commission; the rate when calculated on an hourly basis must equal at least the current minimum wage per hour. It increases to $5.85 per hour after the first 90 consecutive days of employment or when eligible employees turn 20 years old, whichever occurs first.
Technical education did not make so much difference, in wages, to bother, so nobody bothered and, indeed, the whole Communist system dissolved via economics.
It’s called "unemployment." …The point is not that those struggling to get by on very low wages should be left to their own devices. First and foremost, minimum-wage legislation hurts the least employable by making them unemployable, in effect pricing them out of the market. In a paper published by the National Bureau of Economic Research, Neumark and Wascher reexamined their data, which originally came from telephone surveys. The data show a correlation in this data set between the level of the minimum wage and unemployment among lower-educated workers. Ultimately, these difficulties not only affect nurses, but jeopardize safe and efficient patient care. Smith “Implications of the California Nurse Staffing Mandate for Other States” Health Services Research. In industries with low representation of women, female employees are often clustered in specific occupations.
The point is that wages, properly considered, are neither the instrument nor the objective of a just society. Typically, as more workers are added, each additional worker at some point becomes less productive. Using actual payroll records from a sample of the same New Jersey and Pennsylvania restaurants, Neumark and Wascher concluded that employment had not risen after an increase in the minimum wage, as Card and Krueger had claimed, but "in fact had fallen" (Neumark and Wascher, 1996). These are jobs designed to help entry-level workers join the workforce, not to support the financial needs of a family. Further, this disparity translates to lower returns on social security and other retirement investments, possibly requiring women to stay in the workforce longer to make up the differences in earnings.
Pensions are low, unemployment high, and it should not surprise anybody when most of ordinary workers mentions that they had a better standard of living under Communists. When we say their wages are “too low,” we mean in terms of what society believes is decent. A review of the Card study of employment in California by Lowell Taylor of Carnegie Mellon University found that the state minimum wage increase had a major negative effect in low-wage counties and for retail establishments generally.
Firms therefore only hire an additional worker, who may be less productive than the previous worker, if the wage is no greater than the productivity of that worker times the price. The point of a wage, like any other price, is to ensure every seller finds a willing buyer and vice versa, without giving rise to shortages or surpluses—not to attempt to reflect broader social notions of what is appropriate. Since productivity decreases with additional workers, firms will only demand more labor at lower wages. That's especially true when employers can always sidestep any attempt to impose a “just” wage simply by hiring fewer workers (Coyne, 2007). Graphically, the effect of a change in is wage is depicted as movement along the demand for labor curve.



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