Journal vermicomposting video,bridgepoint education jobs san diego,what is edl bc norte - Review

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This study was implemented to investigate the effect of using pre-composted and raw kitchen waste with the addition of woodchips and paper in vermicomposting with regard to temperature, loss of weight, fluctuation of total and available content of nutrients and viability of earthworms.
References1.Gustavsson J, Cederberg C, Sonesson U, van Otterdijk R, Meybeck A (2011) Global food losses and food waste.
Recent trend of declining sustainability in agricultural production is appearing as a major threat to most of the Asian countries. ReviewIntroductionWith the rapidly increasing population in most of the Asian countries, the major challenge facing the mankind during the beginning of the new millennium is to provide food sustenance for all the people of this continent. A However, in spite of such significant importance of using organic matter in tropical soils, large-scale availability of organic materials from traditional sources has remained a big problem.
While recycling different organic wastes in agriculture, it is essential to process them through an adequate period of composting. These epigeic earthworms being voracious feeders can consume large quantities of different organic materials. Such high nutrient content and other beneficial properties of vermicompost help in increased production of healthier crops. Occurrences of different diseases in the crops have also been found to come down due to use of vermicompost, thus, reducing the need of pesticide application to the plants. Protocol for vermicompostingBy following the conventional system of composting, vermicomposting is generally undertaken in small pits.
ConclusionIn recent years, vermicomposting is emerging as a simple, easily adoptable and effective biotechnology for recycling wide ranges of organic wastes for agricultural production.
Author's informationThe author is a soil scientist (professor) in the Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati University, India. JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser.
To combat the situation, increasing importance is now being paid on incorporation of organic materials for rejuvenating the health condition and, hence, the productivity of these soils. With per capita land area decreasing consistently, various measures are being adopted to increase the agricultural production from these shrinking resources to meet the emergent demand of escalating population. It is, therefore, necessary to utilize effectively all the organic resources available on and off the farm. Composting has been described as a biological process for converting solid waste into a stable, humus-like product, which is used as a soil conditioner ([Talashilkar][1989]). In spite of their high rate of consumption, they utilize only a very small part of the consumed food for their body synthesis and excrete about 90% to 95% of the ingested materials as vermicast. As shown in Table4, substantial yield increments in different crops on integration of chemical fertilizers with vermicompost prepared from organic wastes have been reported by[Ghosh] et al.
However, recent studies carried out at Institute of Agriculture, Visva-Bharati University have shown vermicomposting should preferably be carried out above ground level, in a place without possibility of water stagnation ([Chattopadhyay 2005]).
This can be taken up in small scales at household levels or at large levels as business propositions. He is working on vermicomposting biotechnology for more than 15a€‰years and has supervised three Ph.D.
Vermicomposting increased the total content of N, P, K, Ca and Mg and the availability of P and K.
Large scale availability of conventional organic manures being a big problem nowadays, major attention is being paid on recycling of different kinds of organic wastes for this purpose.
However, sustaining the food production from these decreasing land areas depends largely on one factor, maintenance of soil health at high levels for encouraging good growth of plants.
Apart from providing substantial plant nutrition, these composts promote soil aggregation, improve air-water relationship, enhance cation exchange capacity, increase water retentivity, provide energy and improve several other physico-chemical properties of soils ([Webber][1978];[Epstein][1997]).
The former practice helps an agriculturist or gardener to produce vermicompost from his homestead garbage for the purpose of utilizing the generated vermicompost for own consumption.
Apart from abatement of environmental pollution, such reuse of organic wastes in agriculture helps in the improvement of various physical, chemical and biological properties of the soils and, thus, helps in sustaining the soil health.
The recent trend of consistently reducing use efficiency of mineral fertilizers under high productive systems associated with the problems of gradual deterioration of soil health due to indiscriminate use of fertilizers is raising frequent questions about over dependence on mineral fertilizers in sustaining the health and, consequently, the productivity of the arable soils of this continent. Analysis of gut content of the earthworms has revealed the occurrence of different kinds of symbionts like microfungi, bacteria, protozoans, actinomycetes, etc. Similar results on different vegetables have also been observed under an ongoing research program at this center. The bed may be enclosed with brick-made structures with good numbers of holes or the wastes be kept as heaps without any enclosure. Process Biochem 18:14–15Datar MT, Rao MN, Reddy S (1997) Vermicomposting—a technological option for solid waste management. On the basis of the obtained data, a new type of vermireactor for separated pre-composting and subsequent vermicomposting of food waste has been developed. While recycling different organic wastes in agriculture, it is essential to process the materials through an adequate period of composting for improving their usability in the soils.
It has been appreciated that mineral fertilizers can only supply plant nutrients to the soils but they cannot take care of other physical, chemical and biological attributes of soil health. This calculation is likely to be by and large applicable to most of the Asian countries also. However, the major constraints related to large scale adoption of composting technology have been described to be their bulk volume, long time required for composting, incomplete decomposition of resistant components, lower nutrient values as compared to mineral fertilizers and, above all, the complicated processes of composting ([Chattopadhyay 2005]). All these studies have shown use of vermicompost to be able to reduce the application of mineral fertilizers substantially without affecting the crop yield.

A shed is to be provided above the bed to prevent entry of rainwater or sunshine.Wide ranges of organic wastes may be used for vermicomposting.
The gradually expanding market of organic foods for sustaining human health presents significant opportunities for undertaking such activity on commercial basis. J Solid Waste Technol Manag 24(2):89–93Delgado M, Bigeriego M, walter I, Calbo R (1995) Use of California red worm in sewage sludge transformation. However, due to some short comings of traditional composting systems, the technology of recycling of organic wastes has not been widely accepted so far. Thus, with escalation of human population, huge amount of varying natures of organic wastes are being generated in these countries every year.[Bisoyi] ([2003]) made a systematic assessment of the quality of some common organic wastes in India and has shown these wastes to be the source of large amount of nutrient elements in addition to organic matter. Good amount of studies have been and are being carried out at different levels to overcome these problems.
Earthworm guts provide congenial environmental condition for their proliferation, and hence, the total numbers of such microorganisms in earthworm intestines generally increase many folds as compared to their habitats ([Ponomarera][1962]). However, they should preferably be mixed with at least 20% to 25% cow dung or sprinkled with cow dung slurry. In this communication, a brief account of the concept, benefits and method of vermicomposting has been presented with relation to its agricultural use. Turrialba 45:33–41Edwards CA, Bater JE (1992) The use of earthworm in environmental management. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton4.DomA­nguez J, Edwards CA, Subler S (1997) A comparison of vermicomposting and composting. Under this situation, vermicomposting has recently emerged as a simple but efficient biotechnology for recycling wide ranges of organic wastes with the help of some specific groups of earthworms. Under this context, the concept of integrated plant nutrition system involving both inorganic and organic sources of nutrients has been conceived and gaining momentum ([Chattopadhyay 2005]). Successful recycling of these wastes in different Asian countries will not only add substantial amount of all the plant nutrients but will also bring in the much-needed organic matter to the soils, leading to betterment of soil health (Table1).
The food materials ingested by the earthworms are, thus, subjected to more intense microbial activity in the alimentary canal not only due to these higher concentrations of different microorganisms but also owing to increased surface area of the food particles meshed to very fine sizes while passing through the gizzard.
Various processes of improvements of quality of vermicompost as well as pace of such composting are being suggested now by different workers.
In view of the growing popularity of this biotechnology, various aspects of waste recycling in agriculture through vermicomposting have been dealt in this communication. Such integration of mineral fertilizers and organic manures has special significance for many of the Asian countries because the arable soils of most tropical and subtropical countries are poor in organic matter due to high temperature and more intense microbial activity ([Gaur 2006]). In addition to the activities of the microbes, occurrence of various enzymes in earthworm guts also helps such processes. They include microbiological inoculation, enrichment of quality, improved management procedures, etc. Chapman Hall, London, p 333Edwards CA, Niederer A (1988) The production and processing of earthworms protein. Hence, a regular and sizeable addition of organic material to soil is essential for maintaining optimum organic matter status and, thereby, sustaining the health of the soil ([Manna et al. In the present communication, the possibility of recycling different organic wastes in agriculture through vermicomposting biotechnology has been discussed.Vermicomposting biotechnologyBeneficial effects of earthworms in improving structure, aeration, nutrient status and some other properties of the soils and, thereby, the growth of the crops have been known since long ([Darwin][1837]).
These enzymes operate in near neutral to slightly alkaline pH range in the intestinal fluid of the worms ([Senapati 1993]). However, the knowledge about the efficiency of some groups of the earthworms in decomposing various organic materials was gathered later on, and the concept of utilizing this behavior for composting wide ranges of organic wastes was conceived during mid-twentieth century ([Senapati 1993]). This will allow the initial thermophilic condition of organic materials to subside to a tolerable level for the earthworms. The vermicomposting technology may be modified suitably based on the demands of specific situation as well as requirement of the operator. SPB Academic Publishing, The Netherlands, pp 169–180Elvira C, Goicoechea M, Sampedro L, Mato S, Nogales R (1996) Bioconversion of solid paper pulp mill sludge by earthworms. This rise in temperature in the organic materials during primary period of decomposition helps kill most of the mesophilic pathogens in the waste materials, making the resultant compost more safe for field application.After 10 to 15a€‰days of primary decomposition, epigeic earthworms are to be incorporated in the organic materials at 8 to 10 worms kga?’1 of waste. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 79a€“907.Edwards CA (2011) Medium- and high-technology vermicomposting systems.
All these components mix thoroughly with the food materials in the intestines of the earthworms and are released with their excreta to be known as vermicast. Selection of the species of earthworms for vermicomposting should primarily be based on their capacity for consumption of organic wastes, rate of multiplication and adaptability to local condition. These vermicasts undergo rapid aerobic decomposition in presence of different microbes, which activity is accelerated by various enzymes and encouraged by occurrence of numbers of growth promoting substances. Special care should be exercised to keep the wastes under moist condition through periodic addition of water during the entire course of composting. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 91a€“1028.Sherman RL (2011) Vermicomposting for businesses and institutions. Anecics reside just below the soil surface and feed on the organic materials mixed with the soils. Aerobic microorganisms, being more active decomposers than the anaerobes, degrade vermicasts more rapidly than the traditional a€?pit compostinga€™ methods, and a nutrient rich well-humified organic manure is obtained in shorter period of time which is termed as a€?vermicomposta€™ ([Chattopadhyay 2005]).Benefits of vermicompostingAs discussed earlier, vermicomposting biotechnology helps in recycling different organic wastes with the help of large numbers of aerobic microorganisms. This will not only help the earthworms to get a favorable environment but will also permit more intensive activities of the microorganisms in degrading the wastes. The third group is known as epigeics which live on upper surface of soils feeding mainly on plant litter and other organic debris available on the soil surface.

This results, in general, better nutrient status of the produced materials, as compared to those prepared by traditional composting systems.[Scot] ([1998]), while assessing the nature and properties of cattle wastes, digested with and without earthworms, observed availability of nitrogen to be higher in vermicomposted materials.
Periodic bottom-up turning of the waste materials will be particularly useful for the composting process by exposing the lower layer of the waste materials to the aerobic zones. As these earthworms can consume a variety of organic matters, they are most suitable for converting organic wastes into useful organic manures.
While working on nature and magnitudes of transformation of phosphorus during the course of vermicomposting of different wastes,[Ghosh] et al. This will accelerate the rate of decomposition of the organic materials and also encourage multiplication of the earthworms. Appl Ecol Environ Res 3(2):51–59Garg VK, Yadav YK, Aleenjeet Sheoran, Subhash Chand, Kaushik K (2006b) Livestock excreta management through vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. However, uses of anecic and endogeic earthworms in such composting process have also been reported by[Lavelle] and[Martin] ([1992]).
Environmentalist 26:269–276Garg VK, Gupta R, Yadav A (2007) Potential of vermicomposting technology in solid waste management.
A list of common earthworm species suitable for vermicomposting has been presented in Table2. Among the effects of different microorganisms and enzymes contributing to such increased availability of phosphorus, major emphasis may be given to the presence of very high concentration of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the vermicast.[Bhattacharya] and[Chattopadhyay] ([2002]) reported vermicasts prepared from mixtures of cattle wastes and fly ash to exhibit high occurrence of such microorganism. Such rich occurrence of phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria is likely to solubilize good amount of phosphorus from insoluble form in any organic waste material, and also to qualify vermicompost as a potential phosphatic biofertilizer.
Rate of composting becomes slower under low temperature levels.At maturation, the compost material assumes dark to brown coloration, becomes nonsticky and odorless. AsiaTech Publishers Inc., New Delhi, pp 468–511Gunadi B, Edwards CA (2003) The effect of multiple application of different organic wastes on the growth, fecundity and survival of Eisenia foetida. Increased nutrient availability and microbial activity due to vermicomposting, as reported by[Jambhekar] ([1992]), has been presented in Table3.[Ghosh] et al. At this stage, the moisture content of the composted materials is brought down by stopping the application of water. The compost materials are then sieved, and the worms remaining above the sieve are transferred to another vermicompost bed which is kept ready with partially decomposed mixture of organic waste. Since the numbers of earthworms increase considerably during the period of vermicomposting, the amount of organic waste can be increased accordingly under successive compostings. Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp 341–343Hand P, Hayes WA, Frankland JC, Satchell JE (1988) The vermicomposting of cow slurry. In case of larger production of composts, sometimes high intensities of light are provided from the top of the compost heap.
Pedobiologia 31:199–209Kaviraj P, Sharma S (2003) Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic and local species of earthworm. Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn was considerably higher in the vermicomposted treatments for all the wastes as compared to those without earthworms. Since most earthworms do not like high intensity of light, they tend to migrate from upper surface to lower depth of the heap. Similarly, adoption of vermicomposting technology has shown to increase the concentration of beneficial bacteria like nitrogen-fixing ones too ([Bhattacharya] and[Chattopadhyay][2004]).
This helps in accumulation of atmospheric N2 into the vermicomposted waste materials, thus, increasing their nitrogen status. The behavior is likely to facilitate the composting of different slowly degradable waste materials like saw dust, coir waste, sugarcane trash, etc. This will also reduce the possibility of less matured materials to be mixed with the compost.
Fungal Diversity Press, Hong Kong, pp 223–252Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1982) Total carbon and organic matter.
CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 27a€“4020.Nair J, Sekiozoic V, Anda M (2006) Effect of pre-composting on vermicomposting of kitchen waste. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 539–579Ndegwa PM, Thampson SA, Das KC (1999) Effects of stocking density and feeding rate on vermicomposting of biosolids. Comp Physiol Ecol 5:140–142Senapati BK, Julka JM (1993) Selection of suitable vermicomposting species under Indian conditions. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, pp 113–115Senesi N (1989) Compsted materials as organic fertilizers. Sci Total Environ 81–82:521–524Suther S (2006) Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production. Bioresour Technol 97(18):2474–2477Suthar S (2007) Production of vermifertilizer from guar gum industrial wastes by using composting earthworm Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier).
McGraw-Hill IncTripathi G, Bhardwaj P (2004) Comparative studies on biomass production, life cycles and composting efficiency of Eisenia foetida (Savigny) and Lampito mauritii (Kinberg). Elsevier Appl Sci Essex, pp 230–237Warma PR, AngLopez MJ (2002) The chemical properties of vermicompost derived from different feed stocks.
21a€“26 June 1992 21a€“26 June 1992Iftikar W, Roy G, Chattopadhyay GN: Effect of vermicomposted fly ash on some agricultural crops.
26 May 2011 26 May 2011Jambhekar H: Use of earthworms as a potential source of decomposed organic wastes.

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