Id ego and superego psychology definition uno,zombie highway 2 guide,b.ed syllabus jnvu jodhpur 2012 - PDF 2016

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Perhaps Freud's single most enduring and important idea was that the human psyche (personality) has more than one aspect. Although each part of the personality comprises unique features, they interact to form a whole, and each part makes a relative contribution to an individual's behavior.
The id is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts. The id remains infantile in it's function throughout a persons life, and does not change with time or experience, as it is not in touch with the external world. On the contrary, it operates on the pleasure principle (Freud, 1920) which is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences. The id engages in primary process thinking, which is primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy oriented. The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world.
The ego operates according to the reality principle, working out realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction to avoid negative consequences of society. Often the ego is weak relative to the headstrong id and the best the ego can do is stay on, pointing the id in the right direction and claiming some credit at the end as if the action were its own. If the ego fails in its attempt to use the reality principle, and anxiety is experienced, unconscious defence mechanisms are employed, to help ward off unpleasant feelings (i.e. The ego engages in secondary process thinking, which is rational, realistic, and orientated towards problem solving. An important feature of clinical and social work is to enhance ego functioning and help the client test reality through assisting the client to think through their options. The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others.
The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. Behavior which falls short of the ideal self may be punished by the superego through guilt.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. A diagram to help you understand the basic argument that a person faces, according to Freud, everyday. The ego, super-ego, and id are the divisions of the psyche according to the psychoanalytic theory developed by Sigmund Freud. Most people who identify with the contemporary school of ego psychology place its beginnings with Sigmund Freud's 1923 book The Ego and the Id, in which Freud introduced what would later come to be called the structural theory of psychoanalysis. Although in his early writings Freud equated the ego with the sense of self, he later began to portray it more as a set of psychic functions such as reality-testing, defence, synthesis of information, intellectual functioning, and memory.
The word ego is taken directly from Latin where it is the nominative of the first person personal pronoun and is translated as 'I myself'. The super-ego is the part of the mind that acts as our conscience and tries to impose on the rest of the mind the expectations of society.
In his later works Freud also mentions a 'cultural super-ego' which is responsible for influencing the individual's super-ego.
The word id is taken from Latin where it is the nominative neuter form of the third person personal pronoun normally translated as 'it itself'. The personality of the newborn child is all id and only later does it develop an ego and super-ego.
The id is not affected by reality, logic or the everyday world, as it operates within the unconscious part of the mind. This form of process thinking has no comprehension of objective reality, and is selfish and wishful in nature. The ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave.


If a plan of action does not work, then it is thought through again until a solution is found. It develops around the age of 3 – 5 during the phallic stage of psychosexual development. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection. The id contains "primitive desires" (hunger, rage and sex), the super-ego contains internalized norms, morality and taboos, and the ego mediates between the two and may include or give rise to the sense of self. It is a completely unconcious part of the mind and thus continues to function even when we are asleep. This is because the id is hungry and the ego has worked out that if it cries its mother will feed it.
This is, in part, because the ego knows that its mother will nolonger come to feed it, but also in part, due to the super-ego which knows that crying is not a socially acceptable reaction to being hungry. The ego has no concept of right or wrong; something is good simply if it achieves its end of satisfying without causing harm to itself or to the id. This is know as reality testing, and enables the person to control their impulses and demonstrate self-control, via mastery of the ego.
For example, if the ego gives in to the id's demands, the superego may make the person feel bad through guilt.
The ideal self and conscience are largely determined in childhood from parental values and how you were brought up. The id works according to the pleasure principal, it seeks instant gratification to its desires.
The ideal self (or ego-ideal) is an imaginary picture of how you ought to be, and represents career aspirations, how to treat other people, and how to behave as a member of society.



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