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This is a€?Writing about Character and Motivation: Psychoanalytic Literary Criticisma€?, chapter 3 from the book Creating Literary Analysis (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
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For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. In Through the Looking-Glass (1872), Alice, after entering Looking-Glass Land via a magic mirror, encounters two odd brothers, Tweedledee and Tweedledum.
The dream in Looking-Glass Land seems more a nightmare for Alice, for she is scared that she is merely a figment of someonea€™s dream, their imaginationa€”thata€™s an idea that might bring us all to tears!
We all have dreams, and we recognize that dreams often mirror the oddness and nonsense that Alice encounters in Wonderland and Looking-Glass Land. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, famously defines dreams as the a€?road to the unconsciousnessa€? in his monumental work The Interpretation of Dreams (1899).Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams.
Keep a dream journal for a least one week, jotting down those dreams that you can remember most vividly. Psychoanalytical literary criticism, on one level, concerns itself with dreams, for dreams are a reflection of the unconscious psychological states of dreamers. In this chapter, we explore three popular psychoanalytical approaches for interpreting literaturea€”Freudian, Lacanian, and Jungian.
You can analyze the thematic content of the work, especially the motivations of characters and the narrator(s).
You can analyze yourself or the reader of the literary work using reader-response theory, which we examine in detail in Chapter 6 "Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory". Here is a quick overview of some psychoanalytical interpretations that demonstrate these approaches.
Jacques Lacan shows us how a psychoanalytical reading can focus on the formal, artistic construction of a literary text.
Finally, a psychoanalytical reading can examine the reader and how a literary work is interpreted according to the psychological needs of the reader.
Keep this material, for you may have already developed an idea for your paper, which youa€™ll be ready to write after reading the rest of this chapter. Ultimately, much of Freudian psychoanalysis concerns itself with how the unconsciousness attempts to break through the repression barrier and enter consciousness. Freud posits that mental illnesses result from a faulty ego, one unable to accept the id-superego push and pull.
Central to Freuda€™s schematic of the mind is the Oedipal or Oedipus complexThe process of sexual development for boys defined by desire for the mother and feeling threatened by the father. At this point you may be shaking your head in skeptical amazement, for Freuda€™s theories do tax the imagination.
Therea€™s a bit more to Freud that wea€™ll want to examinea€”dreamsa€”but leta€™s look at another use of the Freudian OC in literary analysis. We must add another dimension to Freuda€™s theory to complete its frame, which will come full circle and connect us to Alicea€™s concern that she is a dream of the Red King. This chapter begins with a brief overview of the importance of dreams to psychoanalytic literary criticism.
The primary recipe for such symbolization and image making is a dash of condensationWhen two or more images or things are compressed into one composite image or thing.
Freud also suggests that the dream symbolism of condensation and displacement also operates through various defense mechanisms or coping strategies that we use every day.
In general, Freudian literary criticism is a powerful critical lens to use when viewing much literature. Jacques Lacan, in many ways, is more popular than Freud in literary analysis, though Freud is certainly more famous across disciplines.
As you remember, Freud posits that the mind is divided between the conscious and unconscious, the dividing line between the two states representing the repression barrier.
This a€?bondinga€? between the signifier and signified is arbitrary, argues Saussure, for we could have easily labeled the a€?essence of the cata€? a trilgy and been hollering for years, a€?Here, trilgya€¦trilgya€¦trilgy.a€? But Saussure contends that once an arbitrary sign is constructed, it remains bonded together and unchangeable, like two sides to a piece of paper. Lacan, then, views words, the signifiers, the marks of letters on a page, as central to the creation of meaning (or the essence of the signified). To a degree, the sign, split between the signifier and the signified, acts like a repression barrier: Freuda€™s unconscious becomes the Lacanian signifieda€”meaninga€”which can never be fulfilled since languagea€”the signifiera€”approximates meaning. Central to Freuda€™s psychoanalytic theory is the Oedipal complex, and Lacan modifies the complex by making it a product of language acquisition. During the Imaginary and Mirror stages, the child is subject to the desire-of-the-motherFound in the Imaginary and Mirror stages, where the mother is one with the child and satisfies all wants and desires., whereby the child has complete desire for the mother and believes the mother in turn exists solely for the childa€™s pleasure.
Lacan insists then language is a source of our desire but that language becomes the source of frustrated desire since words can never capture desire or the essence of meaning. In effect, metonymy works by displacement, residing on a horizontal axis that reflects the displacement; thus, a€?aa€? is displaced by a€?b,a€? which is displaced by a€?c,a€? and so on.
If Lacan subscribes to Freuda€™s Oedipal complex, then the father must become a significant player in the development drama of the individual. Finally, Lacan constructs the ideal realm called the Real, the ultimate place where the Imaginary and Symbolic stages can meet. Furthermore, Lacana€™s Imaginary, prelinguistic stage is appealing to feminist critics, for the Imaginary seems a maternal stage of unity that does not rely on a girla€™s symbolic castration to enter into the realm of the Symbolic, for both male and female are immersed into language, which casts each into a world of differences. Carl Jung, like Lacan, was a disciple of Freuda€™s, but unlike Lacan, Jung eventually split from Freud, believing that Freud focused too heavily on the importance of sexual desire and the repression that that desire causes. The collective unconscious can be accessed through various archetypesParticular images or symbols that are part of the collective unconscious. The overriding archetype for Jung is the SelfKey archetype that represents the total personality but is unknown, leading to the quest or search for a€?self.a€?, the image of wholeness or individuation. The mandala is beginning and end, perfectly balanced by the four chambers, which composes the unification of the whole Self.
Furthermore, every Self has its own masculine or feminine counterpart to the personality: the animaArchetype for the man.
Since the goal of the Self is harmony, as seen in the mandala, the Self undertakes the archetypal quest to achieve syzygyThe state of unity when the quest for the whole Self is achieved., the fulfillment of unity, of balance. Jungian criticism is often applied to literature that is considered more mythica€”fairy tales, fantasy, and medieval romances. Keatsa€™s a€?Urn,a€? as you have discovered, lends itself well to the psychoanalytic perspective. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
Leta€™s continue our journey with Alice in this chapter as we explore psychoanalytic literary criticism.
Freud, for example, contends that dreams are a€?the guardians of sleepa€? where they become a€?disguised fulfillments of repressed wishes.a€?Sigmund Freud.
This desire leaves him symbolically castrated, unable to have normal relationships with others (primarily women). Crews first provides a psychoanalytical reading of Nathaniel Hawthornea€™s life: he sees reflected in Hawthornea€™s characters a thwarted Oedipus complex (no worries, wea€™ll define that a bit later), which creates repression.
In other words, Lacan believes that our unconscious is a€?structured like a languagea€? and that a literary text mirrors this sense of the unconscious. We examine this approach in detail in Chapter 6 "Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory" on reader-response criticism.
It may be a commonplace by now that we all speak Freud whether we know it or not, but the commonplace remains both true and important. If the mind is unable to release those repressed desires through some outlet, then a person can develop a mental illnessa€”various neuroses like psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia. To summarize Freudian theory so far, the human mind is structured around the id-ego-superego triad that represents the tension between the pleasure and the reality principle; the ego is the moderator between pleasure and reality and is formed by entering the OC.
They are the primary outlets for these repressed desires, the a€?royal road,a€? as Freud expressed it, to the unconscious. And Freuda€™s theory of dreams may be his most important contribution to literary analysis. RepressionDefense mechanism in which one forgetsa€”or, alternately, actively refuses to think abouta€”something that was unpleasant or traumatic. You have at your disposal a wide array of literary tools to use: repression of the conscious mind into the unconscious, pleasure versus reality principles, the id-ego-superego connection, the Oedipal complex, dreams and dream symbolism, and the various defense mechanisms. Lacan positions language in this dichotomy by modifying the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure, who argued that words (or signs) work within a system of other signs (our language). Language, consequently, is a system of signs, where words take on their meaning only in relationship to other words. If Lacan is correct (and, of course, this is a pretty big a€?ifa€?), then our unconscious is a€?structured like a language,a€? and it follows that the human subject is divided between our name (for us, John Pennington and Ryan Cordell) and our signified (for us, the essence of a€?John Penningtona€? and a€?Ryan Cordella€?). If you say to a frienda€”a€?I would love to go to a movie tonight, wouldna€™t you?a€?a€”I = You and the You = Your friend. He argues that a child passes through the ImaginaryThe stage where the child believes in wholeness of identity; this is a prelinguistic stage. Again, a division occurs as the self misreads itself in terms of the image the self projects into the mirror (or interprets from the reflection).
Lacan contends that language operates as to preclude the childa€™s fulfillment of finding an objet petit a. Think about what happens when you stumble across a word you dona€™t know: you look it up in a dictionary, only to find that the word is defined by other words, which have their own meanings, which you could look up in a dictionary, whicha€¦and we are in an endless, infinite loop.

Remember, Freud claims that the dreamwork uses displacement and condensation to create the manifest content of the dream. Metonymy, being displacement, is a result of the Mirror stage where the child recognizes its reflection first as a complete substitution for itself (a metaphor), but it soon realizes that the reflection is of an Other, a displacement of the self (a metonym). To Lacan, though, the Real is only symbolic and beyond the reach of languagea€”it represents the unattainable; it represents desire.
His revising of Freuda€™s concepts a€?intoa€? language makes his theory particularly applicable to literary interpretation, for literature is based on language, which is structured like the unconscious. In Freuda€™s theory, a girl is defined by lackinga€”she desires the male organ that she does not have.
Jung felt that Freuda€™s theories were, simply, too vague and could be manipulated to fit any scheme. Junga€™s concept of the collective Self, as you can see, is diametrically opposed to Freuda€™s and Lacana€™s fractured and split individual self. Jung fathoms that the mythsAn archetypal story that mirrors the quest for the complete Self. In a€?On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetrya€? (1922), Jung explains how literature and the writer operate under the archetype.Carl Jung, a€?On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry,a€? in Twentieth Century Theories of Art, ed. Compare the classroom discussion with some critical applications of psychoanalytic theory to Keatsa€™s poem.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (19 MB) or just this chapter (765 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). He had a tall red night-cap on, with a tassel, and he was lying crumpled up into a sort of untidy heap, and snoring louda€”a€?fit to snore his head off!a€? as Tweedledum remarked. We dream, we wake, and we try to recollect our dream, which somehow seems to tell us something that we should know. Bonaparte analyzes Poea€™s stories from this perspective, reading them as dreams reflecting Poea€™s repressed desires for his mother. Furthermore, Hawthornea€™s ties to the Puritan past engenders his work with a profound sense of guilt, further repressing characters.
Consequently, our drive for unbridled pleasure is repressed by the reality principle and becomes sublimated or buried in the unconsciousThe part of our mind that is buried deep within consciousness and seeks outlets..
The goal of this chapter is not to provide you with an overview of Freudian psychoanalysis as it relates to treating mental illness; instead, our goal is to show you how to apply Freuda€™s theories to the interpretation of literature. Jacka€™s stealing of the goose that lays the golden egg from the giant and subsequent cutting down of the beanstalk, which leads to the gianta€™s demise, symbolizes Jacka€™s freedom from the fear of the fatherly authority as he becomes his own person, his own man. The ego balances the id and superego by repressing those id desires that are not socially acceptablea€”which includes the desire for the mothera€”into the unconscious.
When Lacan writes that a€?the unconscious is structured like a language,a€? he moves Freud from the biological realm into the realm of language.Dor, JoA«l. However, Saussure believes a sign is only an arbitrary marker between the signifierThe first part of the sign system that represents that sign or signifier, the actual word for the signifier, or an example. Lacan revises Saussure by suggesting that signs are not stable, but in fact are continually shifting; words are a mere approximation of meaning, thus Lacana€™s emphasis on the word over the actual a€?thinga€? the word represents. Language, consequently, throws a person into a sign system that never captures meaning, the human thrust into the language of desire. Lacan distinguishes the dual self by labeling the moia€?Me,a€? which in Lacanian thought represents the image a person has of himself or herself. When your friend respondsa€”a€?You have a good idea; Ia€™d sure like to goa€?a€”the I = Your Friend and You = You. The mirror reflection becomes an apt metaphor: you are the reflection in the mirror, yet that reflection only a€?reflectsa€? you (it truly isna€™t you). For Lacan the dreamwork is a manifestation of languagea€”displacement resides in metonymySubstitution of a name or word that is closely associated with the thing that is meant; for instance, a€?White Housea€? used to indicate the executive branch of the government.
The phallus or name-of-the-father is not the sexual organ itself, but a symbolic representation that is similar to the superego.
The Imaginary and Symbolic are like two sides of a sheet of paper, similar to the signifier and signified; the Real is like a MA¶bius strip constructed from strands of paper where the Imaginary and Symbolic become entangled and lost in the web between the Imaginary and the Symbolic. Whereas Freud suggests the literary work is structured like an authora€™s dream in need of interpretation, Lacan proposes that language itself is a dream of condensation and displacement; therefore, Lacana€™s theory is centered more in actual language and less in the peculiar workings of each individual author and reader.
Lacan, however, situates all this in language, revealing that women are marginalized not biologically but linguistically, for the privileged signifier is the phallus, or patriarchy.
Junga€™s complaint seems justified, for Freudian analysis can become reductive as a reader finds phallic symbolism in every knife and fork and yonic symbolism in the soup bowl. Joseph Campbell in The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) positions Jung in his definition of the monomytha€”the departure, initiation, and return of the hero who finds completeness and wholeness during the quest.Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 3rd ed.
We may tell friends our dreams, especially those strange ones that haunt our imagination, and they may venture an interpretation for us by reading our dream.
While such an interpretation is fascinatinga€”and can be quite usefula€”you probably wona€™t attempt to get into the mind of the author for a short paper. Initially, Freud categorized the mind according to three levels: the conscious (what we remember), the preconscious (what we can easily retrieve from our memory), and the unconscious (what cannot be retrieved into consciousness). During the oral stageStage in which a child is driven to incorporate objects with himself or herself, thus creating wholeness and unity., a child is one with its libido, its sexual desire satisfied by oral sucking, particularly of the mothera€™s breast.
At one point in his career Freud referred to women as the a€?dark continent,a€? and he is known most for his rhetorical question: a€?What does a woman want?a€? Indeed, Freud did not have an answer, and many feminists would argue that he didna€™t even have a clue! For literary critics, however, this theorya€”or storya€”that Freud creates, one that he develop from reading literature (Oedipus Rex), has tantalizing possibilities for literary interpretation. By chopping down the beanstalk, then, Jack symbolically castrates the giant and is able to give up his pleasurable desire for the land of plenty on top of the beanstalk and live in the world of reality. To remain psychologically healthy, according to Freud, the human mind must be able to let those repressed desires escape. Some symbols become more universal: agricultural images represent fertilization, as do spring and summer. We can now examine the theories of Jacques Lacan, who makes Freud even more applicable to literary interpretation.
Or to put it plainly, if you like cats, then having the word cat nicely printed in your lap is not as fulfilling as having that actual furry creature purring in your lap. Lacan claims that language creates our identity and places us within the system of language, which, as we remember, is arbitrary and approximate. The distance between the mirror and where you are standing symbolizes the gap or gulf between words and a persona€™s identity.
Metonymy is a€?the substitution of the name of an object closely associated with a word for the word itself.
Language as metonymy always leaves a gap or absence or lackThat which is created by language since no word can capture the essence of the sign or thing named., since no complete meaning can be attained. The phallus is another objet petit a, but it operates as an anchoring point along the horizontal axis of metonymy. Literary interpretation based on language, then, attempts to find meaning in a work that will elude us because language slides away from us.
Freuda€™s claim that the unconscious is a result of a persona€™s repressed desire (which of course is sexual, libidinal), is challenged by Jung, who argues that the mind is constructed of multiple layers of consciousness, the unconscious composing only one of those layers.
Archetypes are like universal Tupperware containers; a particular culture, society, or individual fills that container with its more a€?personala€? symbol-mixture that is molded by the archetype container yet maintains its individual flavor.
Cooper argues that a€?Jack and the Beanstalka€? depicts common archetypes of the Fool and Trickster, as Jack moves from the fool (for buying a€?magica€? beans) to the trickster (who can outwit the giant).J. There are no mice in the air, Ia€™m afraid, but you might catch a bat, and thata€™s very like a mouse, you know. Dreams are stories of our mind, albeit often bewildering narratives in need of interpretation. To Freud, dreams are the a€?royal roada€? to the personal unconscious of the dreamer and have a direct relation to literature, which often has the structure of a dream. But you will find, however, that examining the life of an author can be a fruitful enterprise, for there may be details from an authora€™s life that might become useful evidence in your paper. Crewsa€™s study is a model for psychoanalyzing characters in fiction and remains a powerful and persuasive interpretation. Freuda€™s map of the mind focuses on the tension between the conscious and the unconscious.
The id (the a€?ita€?) is the center of our instincts, our libido, which naturally seeks gratification, and is driven by the pleasure principle; the id is primarily sexual and aggressive in nature, purely biological.
Continued thumb-sucking during childhood, for example, represents a child not completely through the oral stage of development. He does not provide an adequate explanation for the girla€™s journey through the process; in fact, Freud claims that the girl has an easier route through the OC since she accepts the notion of castration because she doesna€™t have the male appendage. If dreams are fulfillments of repressed wishes and desires, then dreams provide a means for the pleasure principlea€”the ida€”to have a convenient outlet. Language, as Lacan defines it, represents a€?the unconscious [that] is structured like a language,a€? yet this language a€?is the discourse of the Other,a€? the Other being language.Dor, JoA«l. The Imaginary stage is prelinguistic, similar to the id with its chaotic collection of desire.
By this time, the child is cast into the Symbolic stage by being thrust into the language of differences. That Alice is able to cross through the mirror into Looking-Glass Land, for example, represents her desirea€”she is in an imaginary realm (her mind?) where she can attempt to satiate her desire. We commonly speak of the monarch as a€?the crown,a€™ an object closely associated with royalty thus being made to stand for it.a€?C.
Language, consequently, is like the unconscious, which strives to fulfill repressed desire. As the human subject floats through language on the metonymic plane, it searches for the phallus and temporarily finds the phallus as a metaphor on the vertical plane. Our desire for interpretation, in a sense, can only be temporarily reached via an anchoring point (a written paper), but that point will be undercut with subsequent papers and interpretations.

The shadow is the dark side of the Self that we all hope to hide; it is also the a€?moral problema€? that the Self must grapple with on its way to wholeness. Unlike Freud, who saw no value in religion, Junga€™s theory is cemented in religion, with the Self a reflection of God.
Literature is not necessarily based on the personal unconscious of the writer, but on the unconscious mythology that is part of the collective unconsciousness.
George Lucas, for example, wrote the original Star Wars Trilogy as a modern myth that exemplifies Campbella€™s archetypal patterns. But do cats eat bats, I wonder?a€? And here Alice began to get rather sleepy, and went on saying to herself, in a dreamy sort of way, a€?Do cats eat bats?
Jacques Lacan, a disciple of Freud, was influenced by Freuda€™s psychoanalytical theories and contended that dreams mirrored our unconscious and reflected the way we use language; dreams, therefore, operate like language, having their own rhetorical qualities. In turn, the superego (the a€?above mea€?) is the moral consciencea€”the a€?lawa€?a€”that tells us what is right or wrong, permissible or not permissible. Next, the child passes through the anal stageAggressive stage of development in which a child learns control of the bodily functions., whereby it experiences the mastery of its own bodily functions, gaining pleasure from the ability to control bodily functions.
In other words, the girl, already symbolically castrated, does not fear the father; instead, she turns toward the father for the missing phallus, her completion, and thus rivals the mother for the fathera€™s affection.
If fairy tales suggest Freudian designs, as Bettelheim tells us, then it seems reasonable other literature may reflect Oedipal desires. Freud identifies the dreamworkThe overall structure of our dreams, made up of the latent content, manifest content, and secondary revision. Secondary revision, finally, is the dream the dreamer remembers and attempts to interpret (or have someone else interpret); during the secondary revision, any gaps or illogicalities of the dream from the manifest content is filled in and smoothed overa€”the dreamer revises the story to make it more literary, to imbue it with more sense. Freudian symbol hunting can at times be a dangerous occupation, for every pena€”say the one you are probably holding in your hand right nowa€”is not necessarily a phallic symbol, even if as some Freudians pun: a€?Pen-is powera€?! During the Imaginary stage, the child has no clearly defined sense of self; instead, it is a mass of fluid desire, Lacana€™s image for this is an omelet or egg, a human Humpty Dumpty so-to-speak. Another way of understanding language as a gap is to open a dictionary to find a meaning of a word, as we have discussed earlier.
Thus the phallus becomes the privileged signifier, for it helps the split subject achieve temporary meaning in the endless journey through the language of desire.
Jung clearly separates himself from Freud, for the collective unconscious is much larger than the unconscious, suggesting that a commonality is shared by all humansa€”including the importance of myth, ritual, and religion. The anima embodies Erosa€”desirea€”a maternal archetype that is both positive (the nurturing mother) and negative (the devouring witch).
The quest to find the Self, consequently, is a quest for God within the Self, symbolized by Christ, the purest archetype of the God-in-the-human-self.
Do cats eat bats?a€? and sometimes, a€?Do bats eat cats?a€? for, you see, as she couldna€™t answer either question, it didna€™t much matter which way she put it. Another Freud disciple, Carl Jung, eventually rejected Freuda€™s theory that dreams are manifestations of the personal unconsciousness, claiming, instead, that they reflect archetypes that tap into the a€?collective unconsciousnessa€? of all humanity.Sigmund Freud.
Freud believes the anal stage is primarily aggressive and leads to the desire for mastery over others. You can probably see why nearly all of Freuda€™s critics have recognized the limitations of his claims about women. By telling a dirty joke or laughing at one, we are able to alleviate our fears or laugh at something that is normally not permissible. Another way to see secondary revision is to view it as interpretation: as we interpret a dream, we interpret a piece of literature. Freud once said that sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, but that leaves open the possibility that sometimes that cigar might mean something else. Freudian literary criticism is primarily external to a work of art: we read and interpret according to Freuda€™s theories, applying, for example, the id-ego-superego triad to Hawthornea€™s short story a€?The Birthmark,a€? as a student example demonstrates later in the chapter.
Metaphor is a€?an analogy identifying one object with another and ascribing to the first object one or more or the qualities of the second.a€?C. Cast into a language of desire, humans are unable to find stable meaning, for language cannot satisfy desire; we continually search for an objet petit a that will fulfill us, but that objet is based on a lack, for it is simply a product of language. However, the phallus can never be secured, for it too resides in language and quickly slips away. The doppelgA¤nger is the German literary term for the double, and it captures the dark side of the human. The quest for the Holy Grail in Arthurian legend, for example, symbolizes search for the unity of Self and God. The most recent example of this myth is seen in Harry Pottera€™s confrontation with Voldemort. To Cooper, the fairy tale is about the universal pattern where goodness triumphs over evil, where ingenuity and innocence defeat brutality.
She felt that she was dozing off, and had just begun to dream that she was walking hand in hand with Dinah, and saying to her very earnestly, a€?Now, Dinah, tell me the truth: did you ever eat a bat?a€? when suddenly, thump!
It follows, then, that the ego (the a€?Ia€?) is the moderator of the id (pleasure) and the superego (moral conscience). As with any Freudian readings, there are those who will reject Freuda€™s very premises, and this is true with Bettelheim, for many fairy-tale scholars have looked at the limits of his claims. Think of a slip of the tongue, where you are repressing some desire that unconsciously slips out in normal conversation. The latent content is like a bubbling cauldron of desire, so deep and seething that it appears unintelligible. If a dream has a narrative structure, then it follows that it requires reading and interpreting, making a dream similar to a poem, play, short story, or novel. And Freud contends that as the mind is split between the unconscious and the conscious, this schism is a product of the two great motivating factorsa€”ErosDriving force in humans that is concerned with desire, sexual desire, love, and so on. Lacanian psychoanalytic criticism, on the other hand, can be seen as internal to the work, for it focuses on the actual language of the literary work. However, the child passes through the Mirror stageStage where child passes from the Imaginary (believing in unity) to the Symbolic (which is a world of differences)., where it sees itself reflected in the mirror, and this reflection provides the child with an image of itself, one at first of ideal completeness. Thus the search for the phallus or name-of-the-father is a frustrated desire since it is a product of language.
Conversely, the animus embodies Logosa€”reasona€”and is paternal, symbolized by the Great Father, the Wise Old Man, the Lover, and the Destroying Angel archetypes. Such a quest becomes the foundation for a culturea€™s archetype, this archetype being a variation of the a€?big dreama€? of the collective unconscious, the grand archetype. In other words, the ego is the compromise of the id and the superego, a delicate balance of the mind. Finally, the child enters the phallic stageStage in which a child discovers his or her sexual organsa€”specifically, the presence or lack of a penisa€”and begins sexual development., where the childa€™s sexual desire is concentrated on the genitals, which become an erogenous zone that fulfills pleasure.
Freuda€™s OC approximates the tragedy of Oedipus Rex: the boy, as Freud tells us, has a desire for the mother and begins to see the father as a threat to this desire.
A clever definition of such a slip is as follows: Ita€™s when you say one thing, but mean a mother. To bring some meaning to this cauldron, the dreamwork operates by allowing the manifest content to provide a structure for the latent content; the manifest content orders and arranges the dream into a story that uses images and symbols to convey meaning. We see in Chapter 6 "Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory" that reader-response interpretation approximates Freuda€™s reader a€?wish-fulfillmenta€? as a textual strategy.
One thing we do know for sure is that Alice travels to liminal spaces when she tumbles to Wonderland and when she crosses over to Looking-Glass Land.
In effect, the oral, anal, and phallic stages reflect libidinal sexual desires central to the pleasure principle. To continue with our analogy, as the dreamer looks into the bubbling cauldron of the latent content, he or she takes a ladle and dips into the cauldron and pours latent content into a bowl, the bowl representing the manifest content, a smaller and more structured container. Lacanian psychoanalysis is textual, part of the artistic, formal construction of the literary work. Yet this image of completeness is quickly shattered, for the child must misread itself, for it simultaneously sees itself as unified and as an object, an Other. Hyde (1886) is a prototypical story of the double; it focuses on the experiences of the mannered Dr. As the shadow side of the Self is usually hidden or repressed inside, the anima or animus side of the Self is also internalized and hidden, for the Self is unwilling to recognize its feminine or masculine side.
The father, symbolic of the law or lawgiver, steps in and, with the threat of castration or emasculation, turns the boy away from the mother. That our desire for life will ultimately be defeated by the inevitable reality of death is a central concern that leads to repression. That is why the Self will project its opposite onto others, which explains erotic heterosexual love: the male and female are united, finding their anima or animus completed by their partner.
The boy then represses his desire for his mother (and his desire to be rid of the father) into the unconscious. It is important to note that during the Mirror stage the child begins to acquire language, learning immediately that what is desired and the words used to identify that object of desire are not the same.
Jung falls into the same trap as Freud to a degreea€”they both make essentialist assumptions about gender. Language in the Mirror stage fragments the myth of the unified self contained in the Imaginary stage. By successfully negotiating the OC, the boy is gendered; he learns how to direct his sexual desire to appropriate objects and usually grows into a healthy sexual human being. Stevensona€™s novel famously suggests that the shadow resides naturally in the Self, though the Self wears a mask to hide that shadow side to the world and to the Self.

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  3. | SuNNy_BoY — 25.02.2014 at 23:20:51 Plenty of momentary??solutions however a number of prevention methods.
  4. | MADE_IN_9MKR — 25.02.2014 at 22:52:25 For copyright drugs break down i've removed all.