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All stock photos are provided by Dreamstime and are copyrighted by their respective owners. As and when a woman conceives, her body would start undergoing a sea of physical and emotional changes. With the hormonal levels rising rapidly during the first few weeks of pregnancy, a woman would start to experience several issues and conditions that if not controlled, can lead to complications during pregnancy and birth. It is quite common for pregnant women to experience changes in their blood pressure levels during pregnancy. It is considered imperative to understand how the blood pressure levels in the body would fluctuate during pregnancy. Accordingly, the blood pressure levels in the body would drop during the first few weeks of the pregnancy. Very often it is not the low blood pressure levels that one needs to be worried about, but high blood pressure that could put both the mother and the baby at risk of several health related complications during pregnancy and afterwards as well. High blood pressure levels in pregnant women can sometimes reduce the blood flow to the placenta, thereby cutting off the regular supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus.
In certain cases, the placenta would separate from the uterus and cause excessive internal bleeding in the mother in addition to cutting of the oxygen, nutrient supply to the fetus for good. High blood pressure levels during pregnancy can put a woman at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later on in her life. In this case, the woman in question would develop high blood pressure after about 20 weeks into her pregnancy. A woman suffering from chronic hypertension would develop high blood pressure levels before her pregnancy or before 20 weeks of pregnancy. While the above mentioned conditions would not cause any serious health related concerns during pregnancy, a condition called preeclampsia which usually develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy can seriously affect the health of the mother and child.
Caused by either one of the conditions mentioned above (gestational or chronic hypertension), preeclampsia is characterized by very high blood pressure levels and the presence of high protein levels in the urine. The symptoms of preeclampsia can progress over time or can cause sudden side effects in the body that would be hard to ignore. In most cases of preeclampsia, doctors would recommend inducing labor to deliver the baby a few days before the due date in order to avoid complications. Although the best and safest cure for preeclampsia during pregnancy is induced delivery, there are a few medications that can help bring down the blood pressure levels without causing any serious side effects to the mother or baby.
It is considered imperative that the medication prescribed by the doctor for preeclampsia is taken regularly and in the right dosage as mentioned by the doctor. Any form of hypertension during pregnancy would need to be handled carefully in order to prevent future complications. Never miss these appointments and make it a point to get your blood pressure levels and urine checked during every visit.
If you have been prescribed medications to control your blood pressure levels, makes sure you stick to them even if you feel well. It is considered imperative that you gain at least 12 kilos of weight during pregnancy in order to support the growth and development of your baby. Symptoms of peripheral edema include swelling of the affected area(s), which causes the surrounding skin to "tighten." The swelling from peripheral edema is gravity-dependent (it will increase or decrease with changes in body position). In the case of pulmonary edema, there is often no evidence of fluid retention or noticeable swelling on examination of the patient's extremities. Lymphedema is the swelling of one or more of the legs and arms caused by poor function of the lymphatic system.
Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema »Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an imbalance in pump function in which the heart fails to adequately maintain the circulation of blood.
Medical professionals can measure an individual's colloid osmotic pressure to diagnose pulmonary edema.
Everyone in Bali is born with one of four first names, based on birth order: Wayan, Made, Nyoman, or Ketut.
Colloid osmotic pressure, also referred to as oncotic pressure, is a measurement of pressure exerted within the cardiovascular system by proteins found in blood plasma. Osmotic pressure in general refers to the pressure that must be maintained on either side of a cell membrane to prevent a solution, or solids dissolved in a liquid, from passing through that cell membrane. Another way in which colloid osmotic pressure affects the cardiovascular system is in intravenous (IV) therapy.
Measuring an individual's colloid osmotic pressure is one way that medical professionals diagnose pulmonary edema, and it can be used to calculate a patient's likelihood of surviving a critical case. MedicalAssessment™ is a computer-based medical history questionnaire designed by medical experts for adults 18 years and older. Making accurate diagnosis of your problems is dependent on having a clear understanding of your medical history and current symptoms. Of course this takes time, time you are rarely given when you have an appointment with your busy and often preoccupied health care professional. The MedicalAssessment™ system is designed to significantly increase diagnostic accuracy and thereby helps your health care professional find the real source of your health problem. MedicalAssessment™ is not a quick web test where you type in a few obvious symptoms and get back a generic list of possible causes. 3)A list of the medications you are taking that may be producing or augmenting your current problems.
4)A Stress Score that reflects your current stressors and the risk this stress carries in regard to your personal heath. 7)Recommendations on what to do next to address each of the possible health problems discovered from your MedicalAssessment™ questionnaire. Swelling (edema) of the legs result from liquid from veins (made leaky by the local high blood pressure) seeping (yellow arrows) into the surrounding tissue. Chronic venous insufficiency is a pathological condition of the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the lower extremity caused by long-term pooling of the blood which may affect both the superficial and the deep venous system. Signs of venous insufficiency can range from edema and development of varicose veins (seen early in the disease) to skin color changes and ulceration (resulting from long-term or chronic presence of disease). If you believe you have venous insufficiency, then you should see your healthcare provider, or a Family Practice, Internal Medicine, or Hematology specialist.
Hypertension-or-High-Blood-PressureWhen arteries become narrow due to plaque deposition, the blood pressure increases against vascular walls.
Blood-CholesterolCholesterol Deposit on the Walls of the blood vessels, leads to the formation of plaque, that narrows the blood vessels resulting into less or no blood flow. Renovascular-HypertensionWhen kidney problems combine with high blood pressure, it leads to renovascular hypertension. Orthostatic HypertensionWithin three minutes of standing there is a sudden fall of systolic and diastolic pressure.
Hypertension and ObesityObese people have 60% more chance of getting affected with hypertension. Pregnancy-Induced-Hypertension-This condition primarily strikes pregnant women in the 20th week of gestation. Hypertensive-Retinopathy-Prolonged and untreated Hypertension may lead to Hypertensive Retinopathy.
Lower Blood Pressure Naturallyreduce stress, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy lifestyle, follow dash diet.
Any person who is manifesting the high blood pressure symptoms may suffer from debilitating physiologic anomalies. The common high blood pressure symptoms include dizziness, headache, elevated BP readings, visual problems including blindness and nape pain.
Independent treatment plan for managing the high blood pressure symptoms involves preventive measures. Dependent treatment plan for managing the high blood pressure symptoms involves medical interventions. The blood pressure of a suspected hypertensive person should be measured when they are standing, lying, or sitting. As a conclusion, monitoring of high blood pressure symptoms is very critical for preventing the occurrence of serious complications. Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Optical Coherence Tomography in Neuro-OphthalmologyTony Garcia1, Ghislain Bonnay2, Ayman Tourbah3 and Carl Arndt1[1] Ophtalmologie, Hopital Robert Debre, Reims University Hospital, Reims, France[2] Service d’Ophtalmologie, Troyes General Hospital, Troyes, France[3] Service de Neurologie, Hopital Maison Blanche, Reims University Hospital, Reims, France1. A 54-year-old woman suffered from multiple sclerosis and had already a left demyelinating optic neuritis a few years ago.
An 11-year-old girl with no family history of Leber’s disease suddenly presented with severe painless central vision loss in the right eye.
A 47-year-old man was admitted for visual field disorders with papulosquamous eruption of the palms and soles within two weeks following a previous asymptomatic general skin eruption.


A Beddiaf, J De Seze, Nevrite optique dans la sclerose en plaques : donnees diagnostiques et pronostiques. K Kallenbach, J Frederiksen, Optical coherence tomography in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis: a review.
K Gugleta, M Mehling, A Kochkorov, M Grieshaber, R Katamay, J Flammer, et alPattern of macular thickness changes measured by ocular coherence tomography in patients with multiple sclerosis. O Outteryck, H Zephir, S Defoort, M Bouyon, P Debruyne, I Bouacha, et alOptical coherence tomography in clinically isolated syndrome: no evidence of subclinical retinal axonal loss. M Siger, K Dziegielewski, L Jasek, M Bieniek, A Nicpan, J Nawrocki, et alOptical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis: thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer as a potential measure of axonal loss and brain atrophy. V Parisi, G Manni, M Spadaro, G Colacino, R Restuccia, S Marchi, et alCorrelation between morphological and functional retinal impairment in multiple sclerosis patients. J De Seze, F Blanc, L Jeanjean, H Zephir, P Labauge, M Bouyon, et alOptical coherence tomography in neuromyelitis optica. While most women would experience low blood pressure levels during the initial stages of the pregnancy, some would experience sudden spikes in the blood pressure levels which could cause serious complications in the pregnancy. This is done to make sure that the change in blood pressure levels does not affect the health of the mother and the fetus. This can be considered as the body’s natural reaction to the sudden increase in the levels of the progesterone hormone (which would cause the walls of the blood vessels to relax).
The blood pressure levels would also remain low throughout the first and third trimester, and come back to normal during the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Accordingly, high blood pressure levels in the body can cause the following conditions in pregnant women.
In most cases, the delivery would be initiated by the doctor in order to save the lives of both the mother and the baby.
And this would happen even if her blood pressure levels return to normal after the pregnancy. Some of the more serious side effects associated with preeclampsia in pregnant women include migraines, vision problems (increased sensitivity to light, blurred vision or loss of vision), swelling in the face and hands, abdominal pain and abnormal weight gain (more than 5 pounds in just one week). Depending on the severity of the situation, the patient would be given medications to curb seizures and other complications during the delivery. These medications would usually be prescribed by the doctor after carefully ruling out other forms of treatments to bring the blood pressure levels down. Stopping the medication after some time or changing the dosage would cause side effects as well. Talk to your doctor (or a nutritionist) about creating the best diet for you during pregnancy and stick to it in order to gain the right amount of weight in a healthy manner.
For example, if a person is lying on their back (supine), the swelling will not appear in the legs, but will appear in the area around the sacrum.
The special nature of these protein cells helps ensure that fluids pass in and out of the capillaries at the proper rate. Colloidal osmotic pressure refers specifically to the relevant pressure for a solution of plasma proteins.
Fluids used for IV treatment typically contain either colloid or crystalline solubles, depending on the substance required for the relevant treatment.
This condition, in which fluids escape from the circulatory system and fill the lungs, can be fatal if not treated promptly. Whether you have yet to discuss your health with anyone or even if you have seen a multitude of physicians and technicians but still have not discovered the answer to your health problem, the MedicalAssessment™ System offers significant advantages as a step toward the determination of your health problems. With this in mind, the team of professionals at MedicalAssessment™have developed a comprehensive, computer-based, medical history questionnaire for adults age 18 years and older, that will maximize the gathering and processing of your personal health information. Having an accurate diagnosis will prevent treatment delay and avoid the use of potentially inappropriate and unnecessary therapies and medications that can result from an inaccurate diagnosis. Venous insufficiency develops when the valves of the veins, that usually keep venous blood flowing out of the legs towards the heart and lungs, become diseased and no longer close properly. Valvular incompetence resulting in backward flow of venous blood causing local high blood pressure and resultant capillary dilation (right). Chronic venous insufficiency causes pooling, reverse flow, and abnormally high pressure of the venous blood of the lower extremities. When this pressure goes beyond normal blood pressure, it is called high blood pressure or hypertension.
Copying the lifestyle of hypertensive parents keep you at risk, but if a person practices healthier lifestyle, this factor will not take effect at all.
These measures are practiced by the hypertensive person even without the supervision of any health care provider. It includes the use of prescribed medications that can help reduce and maintain normal blood pressure.
Their only aim is to share their opinion on the concerned topic, and help the reader understand it better. IntroductionIn optic nerve disease excluding glaucoma, mainly three ophthalmoscopic presentations of the optic disc can be encountered: an apparently normal optic disc, an atrophic or an edematous optic disc. Compressive disease (case 4)Compression of visual pathways caused by a pituitary adenoma induces axonal loss responsible for RNFL loss on time domain OCT.
Other hereditary optic neuropathiesIn the authors' clinical experience, OCT is also useful in the morphological evaluation of optic neuropathies encountered in other hereditary diseases such as recessive optic neuropathy and Wolfram's disease. Gradual RNFL reduction following initial increase of RNFL thicknessIn optic disc swelling, an increase in the RNFL thickness can be quantified by OCT. Dilated capillaries in the retina adjacent to the optic nerve head were found in both eyes. J Fernandez, Progressive changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer in patients with multiple sclerosis. I Pan, M Freedman, C Demeulemeester, Differences in retinal nerve fiber layer atrophy between multiple sclerosis subtypes.
C Gundogan, S Demirkaya, G Sobaci, Is optical coherence tomography really a new biomarker candidate in multiple sclerosis? J Munoz-negrete, Optical coherence tomography versus automated perimetry for follow-up of optic neuritis.
J Munoz-negrete, Follow-up of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with optical coherence tomography. Don’t attempt to stop taking the medications or change the dosage without prior consent from the doctor.
Opting for small exercises like walking, swimming or yoga can keep you fit in addition to preventing conditions like high blood pressure. Being overweight can put you at increased risks of contracting conditions like preeclampsia. The skin over the swollen area appears tight and shiny, and often when pressure is applied to the area with a finger, an indentation appears. Maintaining the proper pressure ensures that the body tissues maintain the proper levels of liquid and that too much liquid does not escape from the capillaries.
These proteins are relatively large molecules, meaning that they do not readily pass through the cell membrane. A common example of an IV therapy using a crystalline solution is intravenous saline used to counter dehydration. It can occur as a result of cardiovascular disease or because of a rapid change in air pressure such as that experienced when climbing at high altitudes. Who could have guessed that capillary colloid osmotic pressure could affect the rest of the body so much?
Moreover, early detection of hypertension can help them to acquire proper interventions and precautionary measures to maintain normal blood pressure.
Good or bad, Right or wrong is solely readers decision and should be taken under the guidance of a medical expert. The importance of this axonal loss predicts visual acuity changes and visual field recovery after surgery for pituitary adenoma [23]. Depending on the underlying disease, the condition will either resolve with normalization or shift to optic atrophy with axonal loss. H Kardon, Tracking retinal nerve fiber layer loss after optic neuritis: a prospective study using optical coherence tomography. I Pan, et alQuantifying axonal loss after optic neuritis with optical coherence tomography. J Munoz-negrete, Optic disc cupping after optic neuritis evaluated with optic coherence tomography.
C Frohman, R Zivadinov, E Eggenberger, P Calabresi, et alRetinal architecture predicts pupillary reflex metrics in MS.


A Cree, Distinctive retinal nerve fibre layer and vascular changes in neuromyelitis optica following optic neuritis. R Eggenberger, Optical coherence tomography: another useful tool in a neuro-ophthalmologist’s armamentarium.
Under normal conditions, oncotic pressure tends to cause fluid to be drawn into the capillaries. Their size also affects the tendency of liquids to move out of the capillaries, maintaining the proper amount of liquid and pressure inside these tiny blood vessels. This solution contains sodium chloride, or salt, which occurs naturally in a crystalline form.
This retinal layer is composed of non myelinated axons (myelination is generally posterior to the cribriform lamina). The postoperative recovery is significantly better if the preoperative thickness is greater than 85.00 ?m [24].
A bilateral papilloedema, venous engorgement, white exudates and superficial retinal folds was found (Figure 22).
M Liebmann, R Ritch, S Zafar, D Lefton, et alImaging of the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer in acute optic neuritis. C Frohman, A Conger, et alMacular volume determined by optical coherence tomography as a measure of neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis. C Klawiter, J Shepherd, K Trinkaus, et alOptical coherence tomography differs in neuromyelitis optica compared with multiple sclerosis.
J Balcer, et alOptical coherence tomography helps differentiate neuromyelitis optica and MS optic neuropathies. D Gamble, In vivo retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by optical coherence tomography predicts visual recovery after surgery for parachiasmal tumors. In order for the solutions to remain within the circulatory system, appropriate pressure must be maintained within the blood vessels. Treatment includes maintaining oxygenation of the body tissues as well as treating the underlying cause. OCT can quantify a decrease in thickness due to the atrophy by axonal loss or increase in thickness related to edema. On the OCT, there is a slight RNFL swelling in its nasal superior part, however the mean thickness remains within normal limits (figure 2). Figure 5.Visual field (case 2)On ophthalmoscopy, a left temporal disc pallor indicative of previous optic neuritis was noted (figure 6).
Toxic optic neuropathy OCT can be useful for the follow-up of visual loss in patients with toxic optic neuropathy due to smoking, alcohol consumption or treatment for tuberculosis. Papilledema (case 7)Optic disc swelling due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension is referred to as papilledema [26]. Secondary intracranial hypertension Many different diseases can be responsible for increased intracranial pressure such as infectious meningitis (case 9).
Figure 29.Visual fields (case 9)Serological tests on blood and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed a syphilitic infection. This review aims to illustrate the usefulness of this RNFL quantification in the exploration of optic nerve and anterior visual pathway diseases.2.
In the early stages of toxic optic neuropathy, RNFL edema may be detected in some patients before permanent visual loss occurs. It may be responsible for the deterioration of visual function and progression to optic atrophy. Figure 23.Visual fields (case 7)After spinal puncture and acetazolamide medication, she recovered normal visual acuity. As in other diseases with initial optic disc swelling, OCT enables to monitor RNFL thickness reduction after causal treatment. K Song, et alOptical coherence tomography is less sensitive than visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis. Materials and methodsAn extensive review of the literature on applications of OCT in optic neuropathy was performed.
Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) or Kjer's disease (Case 5)In dominant optic atrophy (DOA), there is bilateral symmetric optic nerve pallor (Case 5) related to retinal ganglion cell death.
There is an increase level of creatinine, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and cholesterol profile (high LDL and low HDL).
It is a pre-planned diet to help people with hypertension to acquire the best and most effective dietary program. The PubMed search engine was applied to the keywords "optic neuropathy", "optical coherence tomography" and "retinal nerve fiber layer".
Thus, axonal loss is often present in both eyes even if symptomatic optic neuritis affects one eye only.
This is not the case for RNFL thickness changes which only enable to monitor the progression of the disease. Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION) At the initial stage of an anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, there is most often a progressive optic disc swelling.
Lastly, lifestyle modification such as avoid smoking and limiting alcohol intake should be practiced.
Studies exploring the various diseases of the optic nerve were classified according to the OCT results obtained at the initial visit.
This RNFL loss predominates in the temporal quadrant [3] [7], a clinical model demonstrating the coexistence of axonal loss and demyelinating lesions in MS.Other parameters have been evaluated with OCT in MS, especially a decrease in macular volume which is correlated with axonal loss [8] [9]. The relationship between central and peripheral macular thickness is an indicator of the evolution of the disease [10]. Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) (case 8)At the acute phase, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy associates peripapillary telangiectasia, tortuosity of retinal vessels and a peripapillary RNFL swelling with apparent optic disc swelling (figure 25-27).
In addition, in MS, RNFL loss is considered to be a fairly accurate indicator of overall axonal loss, both ocular and extraocular.
Within a few months (generally less than six months), diffuse optic atrophy occurs without excavation [29,30]. ResultsThe average RNFL thickness is the most common parameter encountered in all publications.
In the early course of the disease, there is a correlation between the decrease in RNFL thickness and neurological disability assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) [11] which represents the global axonal loss in MS. Refractive media disordersUltra-red light has to pass through the transparent media of the eye to reach the retina. It represents the average of all measured thickness values in a predefined annular zone adjacent to the optic disc. In case of corneal dystrophy, cataract, vitreous opacity, there is a signal decrease and RNFL thickness measurements become less reliable.
Thus, at the early stages of MS, OCT is less sensitive than VEP for detecting clinical and subclinical optic neuropathy [13].At distance of the initial attack of optic neuritisthere is no correlation between RNFL thickness (a marker of axonal loss) and P100 latency (a marker of demyelination) [14]. DiscussionAs in macular disease, OCT has become a precious tool that contributes to improve management of optic nerve disease. Inflammatory diseases: Multiple sclerosis (case reports 1 et 2)Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of optic neuropathy, therefore the evaluation of RNFL thickness in MS was the subject of numerous publications [1,2] At the initial stage of optic neuritis, RNFL thickness is within normal limits, after 2 months it decreases and stabilizes between 6 and 12 months [3,4] as highlighted in case report 1. This review illustrates the many indications in neuro-ophthalmology, although there are limitations to its use.
Degenerative diseases: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) or Devic's disease (case report 3)In Devic's syndrome, unlike MS, optic neuropathy is severe and is associated with spinal cord lesions without brain damage (figure 10). In OCT, the significant decrease in the thickness of the layer of ganglion fibers reflects an atrophy more severe and diffuse than that observed in MS, mainly in the upper and lower quadrants [19,20].
Axonal loss may be masked in cases with optic nerve head swelling due to the inhibition of orthograde axoplasmic transport at the initial stage of the disease.Despite the high utility of OCT in neuro-ophthalmology, exclusive RNFL thickness analysis is not sufficient for assessing optic nerve disease. As in MS, there is a correlation between the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the overall neurological disability assessed by the EDSS [21].
OCT results should always be interpreted in the light of clinical ophthalmoloscopy and visual function (visual acuity, perimetry, visual evoked potentials).8.
OCT can thus provide morphological arguments in the differential diagnosis of Devic’s syndrome and MS. The average RNFL loss is 15 ?m in a patient suffering from MS, whereas it is 39.00 ?m in the case of Devic's syndrome [22].



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