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Children with diarrhoea are at risk of dying due to dehydration, and early and appropriate fluid replacement is a main intervention to prevent death.
Even fewer receive solutions made of oral rehydration salts (ORS) alone (one-third), and the past decade has seen no real progress in improving coverage across developing countries. This year's World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) theme is Breastfeeding: a key to Sustainable Development. It will enable the breastfeeding movement (and beyond) to connect with a variety of development issues over the next 15 years (2030) for maximum impact. ORS (oral rehydration salts) is a special combination of dry salts that is mixed with safe water. Where can ORS be obtained?In most countries, ORS packets are available from health centres, pharmacies, markets and shops. Making the mixture a little too diluted (with more than 1 litre of clean water) is not harmful. Be very careful to mix the correct amounts, as too much sugar can make the diarrhoea worse, and too much salt can be extremely harmful to the child.
A child under the age of two needs at least a quarter to a half of a large cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool. A child aged two or older needs at least a half to a whole large cup of the ORS drink after each watery stool. The objective of this nationwide campaign against malnutrition is to address issues of status of women, the care of pregnant mothers and children under two, breastfeeding and the importance of balanced nutrition and health.
The four Poshan videos are hosted on a dedicated WAP page and accessible to all Vodafone India subscribers on their mobile phones. Vodafone India subscribers can also give a missed call on 1 800 120 8989 (toll-free) to receive a link to the WAP page via SMS.
With a substantial development of research and findings for breastfeeding over the past three decades, we are now able to expand on the health benefits for both women and children across the globe.
New Research Shows That Breastfeeding Matters Everywhere and Could Save Millions of Lives and Dollars"Political commitment and investment in breastfeeding by governments, donors, employers and civil society is urgently needed to ensure the health of women and children and to shape a more sustainable future for all. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is the largest, most comprehensive study of childhood diarrheal diseases ever conducted in developing country settings. Infant Feeding Support for Refugee Children is a group of mothers and other interested people, working as volunteers, to gather and co-ordinate support for the infants (newborns to age two years old and beyond) fleeing war and thus caught in the refugee crisis. A thousand children die needlessly from diarrhoea every day in India alone, due to basic errors in care from parents and health workers. Stopping the loss of millions of young lives from pneumonia and diarrhoea is a goal within our grasp. The Lancet Series on Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, led by Aga Khan University, Pakistan, provides evidence for integrated control efforts for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.The first paper assesses the global burden of these two illnesses, comparing and contrasting them, and includes new estimates of severe disease and updated mortality estimates for 2011.
Findings from the second paper show that a set of highly cost-effective interventions can prevent most diarrhoea deaths and nearly two thirds of pneumonia deaths by 2025, if delivered at scale. The third paper presents the results of consultations with several hundred frontline workers in high-burden countries and explores the barriers and enablers they face in dealing with these two diseases and potential ways forward. The final paper represents a call to action and discusses the global and country-level remedies needed to eliminate preventable deaths from these illnesses by 2025.
Integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD), a new global plan from UNICEF and WHO, represents the first-ever simultaneous effort to protect children from pneumonia and diarrhoea, the two leading killer diseases of children less than five years old. Children are more likely than adults to die from diarrhoea because they become dehydrated more quickly.Diarrhoea is also a major cause of child malnutrition.
1.35 million people in developing countries, most of them children, die every year from diarrhoeal diseases associated with lack of access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene and overcrowding.
Study will verify ability of infant Hydration Monitor (IHM) to assess changes of hydration status in newborns and infants by means of ultrasound velocity measurements through muscle tissues.
August 09, 2012 - Despite the fact that people in the world do it every day, most of us probably don't know $h!t when it comes to the real facts about going.
Do you remember how your mom took care of you when you got sick?Moms everywhere want to take care of their kids. To add insult to injury we have very cost effective vaccines, antibiotics and other treatments like oral rehydration salts and zinc that can prevent and treat the leading causes of pneumonia and diarrhea.
Pneumonia and diarrhoea account for nearly one-third of the deaths among children under five globally – or more than 2 million lives each year. Margaret Chan, Director-General of WHO and Anthony Lake, Executive Director of UNICEF"'We, as the leaders of WHO and UNICEF, are personally committed to the achievement of MDG 4 and new targets introduced through A Call to Action and A Promise Renewed. Thanks in large part to the increased attention to maternal and child survival brought about by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the world has made substantial progress in reducing child mortality over the past two decades.
The world population crossed 7 billion on 31st October 2011 according to the UN, and is as of Jul 2015, 7.38 billion.
The cultural imperative that boys are more desirable is causing acute gender imbalance in countries from India, through China to Korea and results in the termination of millions of female offspring. Historically the world population grew only very slowly from about 2.5 million at the beginnings of urbanization to some 50 million around the time of the black plague of the middle ages. Reproductive bottleneck in Y-chromosome diversity began about 10,000 years ago and continued for several millennia (Karmin M et al.
In 2015, research into the comparative population diversity of maternal mitochondrial DNA and the male Y-chromosome led to an astounding contrast.
Patriarchy depends on moral codes in which men exert their rights to control reproductive choice. Genographic project study of mitochondrial origins shows a deep split separating Khoisan mitochondrial inheritance from other groups, including those migrating out of Africa, and a deep division between two Khoisan types L0k and L0d going back 140,000 years, suggesting a separation of some 100,000 years possibly caused by long term drought in Africa Behar et al.
Boom and Bust is a characteristic of short term male reproductive investment to try to secure the most offspring possible trhough sexual investment at minimal cost to the male. By contrast, female reproductive strategies, particularly in humans, where pregnancy is at an extreme, involve a massive parential investment in gestation, with substantial risks to the mother, extended breast feeding, and long infant care, all of which severely drain a woman's physical resources. The most outstanding evidence that this is so comes from the most ancient gatherer-hunter populations that form the 'Mariana Trench' of our genetic African Eve. Fortunately 2002 figures showed a drop in fertility from the explosive figures of the 1980s. Few of the countries showing declines, bar China, have forced contraception or sterilizationon their populations. The table at the right reports the key results for 40 countries comparing each countrya€™s current fertility (column B) with the fertility rate that maximizes the FSR (number of effective taxpayers per beneficiary column C), the SR (number of effective producers per consumer column D), and per capita consumption for the low- and high-capital- cost scenarios (columns E and F).
South Koreans told to go home and make babies 20 Jan 2010 South Korea has one of the world's lowest birth rates. Contraceptive use in the developing world has risen from one in 10 couples to more than half of all couples. The reasons for this reduction are complex, but the critical factor is that cultural changes have increasingly liberated women from the home and child-rearing. Peter McDonald, argues that the southern European phenomenon is a result of the lopsidedness of moves to gender equality. Japan has seen a rise in its birth rate for the first time in six years, government statistics show.
Scarcity of oil may exacerbate falls in birth rate and cause a reduction in infant survival (Energy crisis 'will limit births' BBC 13 Feb 2004).
By any standard of ecological biodiversity conservation, all these population figures are vastly too high to preserve existing ecosystems. On 31 October 2011, a newborn baby somewhere in the world will become the 7 billionth member of the human race. In the latest 2011 UN predictions, a population of around 10 billion is conceived of for 2100 without yet reaching a peak.
The UN has yet to publish its detailed reasoning, but a collection of frequently asked questions issued alongside the new projections says that most of the difference is due to an upward revision of its fertility forecasts a€” a revision unrelated to current trends.
For many years, demographers reckoned that world fertility was headed inexorably for the rich-world replacement level of about 2.1 children per woman.
With much of Asia and Latin America on the same path, almost a decade ago the UN rethought the 2.1 end point.
Despite p-redictions world population growth is slowing, we are still heading for a population crisis unless family planning reaches replacement very soon.
Although world population growth is now beginning to slow as a result of social factors associated with the media, increasing education and role of women in society, the exploding population and its consequences in inevitable human impact on all aspects of the biosphere has been described as the most serious crisis ever to face the planet.
Indeed reproductive insecurity appears to be at the root of a major social shift which accompanied the social epoch of urban culture and the rise of patriarchal religious monotheism across the world. This conflict of views is illustrated by the Nov 1996 criticism expressed by Nafis Sadik, executive director of the United Nations Population Fund, at Pope John Paul's statement that hunger is not linked to over-population, saying the world's future food needs would be inextricably linked to demographic changes.
The world's population is now about 5.9 billion and it is still expanding very rapidly, despite a marginal slowing over the last couple of years. Though fertility rates are dropping, the sheer momentum of population growth ensures that at least another 3 billion people will be added to the planet between now and the year 2025; it could be as high as 4 billion taking it close to 10 billion total.
World population is a very significant factor in both poverty and hunger and in habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity.
Enforced population control measures, including sterilization often act selectively against women and have also resulted in atrocious rates of female abortion and infanticide, particularly in China, India and Korea. Population measures aimed at voluntary contraception, education, family-planning, empowerment of women to have autonomy over their own fertility and reproductive process, and the providing of economic circumstances in which full education and autonomy is possible. Religious patriarchs should publicly rescind harmful statements encouraging population growth, such as those opposing contraception and claiming sex is solely for procreation. Abortion remains a controversial issue of new medical technology, because it presents an ethical continuum.
Sept 1996: The world's population is expected to increase by about 72% between 1995 and 2050, from 5,700 million to 9,800 million.
World Population Growth Eases A December 1997 report of The Population Institute shows there is a slowing in the rate of population growth. Given these easing trends, the world's population will probably never double again, according to the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna in 1996 (New Scientist 17 Feb 1996 p8). Previously, sub-Saharan Africa had lagged behind the rest of the world in this critical component of population control, but in this study Africa had joined the trend. The demographic population model of the transition which has happened in the developed world. There is no guarantee the additional population caused by 2 and 3 can be sustained, or that the same educational and economic factors apply in the 'developing' world.. As people in industrialized countries became more prosperous, birth rates fell until once again they virtually matched the number of deaths, slowing the population growth again in the developed world. Third World nations are only beginning to do so, and it is this that is fuelling the world's current prodigious growth. But the fall in death rates has not been preceded by an equivalent agricultural revolution, nor accompanied by similar economic development. The populations of most developing countries have been growing at well over 2 per cent a year, many have topped 3 per cent - which means that their numbers will double in less than 23 years: In 1990, Kenya's population was growing at about 4 per cent annually. In developing countries, children are regarded as economic assets, who perform useful work for the family from the age of six or seven.
However although having many children may sometimes make sense for individual families, it is ruinous to the societies in which they live. The extreme contrasts between the rich and poor worlds is dramatized by comparisons of life expectancy at birth and infant mortality rates. The World Fertility Survey of 1984 revealed that many mothers in developing countries did not want any more children, but were not able to get contraceptive aids or information. Such situations are matched by other schemes in various countries from India through South Korea to Peru to institute forcible population control through sterilization or regulation.
The position of many religious leaders concerning contraception is little short of criminal. Correspondence between better education of women and the fertility rate (1991 Philips World Atlas).
Taslima Nasrin the authoress and doctor who was given a death fatwah for suggesting shariat should be revised, advocates 'freedom of the womb' and states that women must control whether they bear children or not. One way or another, population growth will slow down because many developing countries simply cannot sustain their escalating numbers. As the world population grows, so more efforts are made to bring in new productive areas to feed the unsustainable human populations that are burgeoning forth. On average, people in the richest developed nations eat between 30 and 40 per cent more calories than they need, while the people of the poorest nations on average get 10 per cent less than this basic minimum.
If their own country people cannot afford to buy food, landowners divert their efforts to growing more cash crops - such as cotton, coffee, tea, sugar or tobacco - for export.
The most important priority is to increase both production and consumption in developing countries.
Where small farmers have been encouraged and given credit, harvests have increased and hunger has fallen.
The solutions of the developed world are more high-tech, particularly the development of genetically-engineered varieties with even higher yields than the newer productive hybrids and with additional features such as pest-resistance and herbicide resistance.
In addition to being educationally deprived, many of the kids will arrive psychologically damaged after the hazardous journey north.
The current border-crossing kids will need lots of special services, including expensive psychological treatment for trauma, and La Raza types will demand it if adequate welfare goodies are not forthcoming.
Many of the Central American kids will drop out of school because the latin culture does not stress scholarship as a top value the way Chinese values do.
And because there will be even fewer jobs for unskilled foreigners in the near future, many of today’s needy kiddies will turn to crime in a few years to get by. A new report puts the price of educating the thousands of illegal immigrant children who recently crossed into the U.S.
The estimate comes from the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), which issued a report on the 37,000 “unaccompanied minors” – who mainly are from Central America – after analyzing data from the Department of Health and Human Services and education funding formulas in all 50 states. The numbers underscore the concerns critics have raised for months about the burden the surge is putting on local school systems and governments. More than half are in need of repair, with the total cost of bringing them up to good condition pegged at $4.5 billion.
State taxes and local property taxes pay for nearly 90 percent of the cost of K-12 public education. Against the influx, some jurisdictions are balking at paying their share for the unaccompanied minors that flooded across the border earlier this year. Maria Moreno, principal of Las Americas Newcomers School in Houston, estimates 140 of her 350 students this year are new arrivals from Central America.
The challenge in Texas and elsewhere is a shortage of qualified bilingual teachers and the higher cost of teaching students who speak no English.
As school districts are facing massive budget cuts across the country, school programs, teachers and students are taking the hit.
Across the country, 120 school districts had, as of October, moved to four-day school weeks while others are canceling field trips, shuttering after-school programs and charging students to play sports. School infrastructure showed to suffer the most in areas like restrooms, graffiti-covered walls, internal heating and cooling and classrooms and desks. Most telling is the discrepancy between what students think schools should cut versus what school officials have on their to-ax lists. And of the respondents, 97 percent said they are planning to attend college, and 64 percent plan to apply to an in-state four-year public institution.
According to a report released last October by the Campaign for America's Future, evidence suggests that cuts to education funding are leading to cutbacks from early childhood education programs, increases in class sizes and termination of art, music, physical education and other elective subjects. The $4 billion in cuts to Texas public schools last summer led to a huge hit to unemployment as hundreds of educators were laid off. Guidelines from medical authorities on diagnosis, treatment, symptoms, causes and risk factors, tests, training tips, feedback from the field, alternative medicine and much more for patients and health professionals. Yet few children with diarrhoea in developing countries receive appropriate treatment with oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding (39 per cent). If the mixture is made a little too diluted no harm can be done and there is very little loss of effectiveness. The real danger is the loss of liquid and nutrients from the child's body, which can cause dehydration and malnutrition.
The two papers in this Series will describe past and current global trends of breastfeeding, its short and long-term health consequences for the mother and child, the impact of investment in breastfeeding, and the determinants of breastfeeding and the effectiveness of promotion interventions. UNICEF and the World Health Organization, in partnership with close to 20 organizations, are leading the charge to mobilize global action to raise political and financial investment to support breastfeeding.
Custom-curated news highlights, resources, tips, thought-provoking opinions, commentary and practicaladvice on good practices to improve nutrition during the first 1000 days and protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding, in your inbox daily. Globally, diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of death among children under five, despite the existence of effective interventions, such as oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and zinc supplements as general treatments. A As a group we support the WHO recommendations on Infant FeedingA whereby milk, preferably mother’s milk, should be the only food given for the first six months and milk feed should be offered freely for a minimum of two years.
Our engaging, patient focused articles and interactive tools provide an invaluable, trusted health resource for you and your family.
Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) has tremendous therapeutic benefits, coverage of and demand for this product have remained low in many developing countries. Previous studies have shown that only 1 in 10 children with diarrhoea in India receive increased fluids to prevent death from dehydration, contributing to more than a million deaths every year.
The integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) proposes a cohesive approach to ending preventable pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths. Though it is intrinsically at the heart of what we and our partners do in addressing myriad global health challenges through thoughtful, efficient strategies, today integration is particularly at the fore. At six months, in addition to breastmilk, complementary foods with increased feeding frequency and changes in food consistency, quantity, and diversity as the child ages.

Changes of tissue hydration will be followed during first days of life in newborns and in acute diarrhea in small children during re-hydration therapy.
Likely, you walk into your bathroom in the morning sit down on a pristine porcelain bowl, do your business, and then flush away all the icky evidence with the easy push of a button or press of a lever. You might also be surprised to learn exactly what the leading killers of children under 5 are – two diseases, pneumonia and diarrhea. If we made them widely available, pneumonia and diarrhea would kill a fraction of the children that they do now. Nearly 90 per cent of deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea occur in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The number of deaths among children younger than 5 years has declined from more than 12 million in 1990 to 7A·6 million in 2010. Latest predictions from the UN estimate a higher population growth than previously of 9.3 billion by 2050 and over 10 billion by 2100 with higher rates possible.
Left: World population trends in the latest 2014 study show high confidence estimates of world population growing from the current 7 billion to 11 billion by 2100 with no sign of reduction (10% and 5% variations in darkening colours).
It is only with the industrial, scientific and medical revolution and the colonial expansion of Western powers, that the world population has climbed to the dizzy heights. Around 10,000 years ago, corresponding to the birth of agriculture, the diversity of the Y-chromosome underwent a collapse across vast areas on the human-colonized planet. Historically this has been aimed at population increase to dominate neighbouring cultures militarily. Women thus spread their investment more sustainably over a longer time period more consistent with the long-term survival of all their offspring and with the survival of future generations. Opposition from the Catholic Church has ensured that Brazil has no state family planning programme. Conservative Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan still have some of the highest birth rates on the planet.
Although concern has been expressed about countries from Japan to Italy and Germany about falling fertility and aging populations, other research in 2014 suggests that while relatively high fertility and young populations are favorable to public finances in rich countries because they have comprehensive systems of support for the elderly, a broader analysis that incorporates intergenerational transfers and the capital costs of equipping each new generation shows that low fertility, older populations, and gradual population decline favor the material standard of living (Lee R et al. Very low fertility does not adversely affect public finances in lower-income countries because public programs for the elderly are quite limited and the elderly do pay taxes. A 15 percent increase in the use of contraceptives means, on average, about one fewer birth per woman. In poor countries with a traditional patriarchal society, the spread of TV has opened many women's eyes to a whole new world, and modern birth control methods have allowed them to turn those aspirations into reality. Women have got the freedoms that arise from better education and employment, but not in their relations with their men or in terms of state services for the family.
Many solutions to the problem have been proposed, ranging from family-friendly tax breaks to legalising polygamy. The number of births for 2006 has been estimated at 1,086,000, an increase of 23,000 from a year earlier. Paradoxically perhaps, the more feminist attitudes that have helped bring about the dramatic decline in family size in the past 50 years will need extending rather than dismantling, if family sizes are to rise from the worst-case Italian model. More than a third of the planet's land surface including its most productive land is now commandeered for human monoculture. But he and colleague Sergei Scherbov estimate that the world probably won't reach 7 billion until early in 2013, though it could be as late as 2020.
The world has seen a dramatic decline in fertility in recent years, with the average woman now having only 2.5 children, half as many as her grandmother 50 years ago. Raw census data suggest that the average woman has 1.2 children, but this hides a multitude of problems.
Zhao says China's recent overadjusting of its fertility rate will turn into an overestimation of as much as 100 million by 2030.
Earlier this year, the UN unexpectedly raised its estimates of future population, suggesting that the world would have more than 10 billion people by 2100. In 2003, its UN population division, under then-director Joseph Chamie, decided that its 'medium variant' projection should instead assume convergence at 1.85.
Every day we share the Earth and its resources with 250,000 more people than the day before; every year, there are about another 90 million mouths to feed. There is urgent need to realize an abatement of population growth before we all suffer the consequences severely next century. Education, and empowerment of women are the key to informed, voluntary non-destructive population abatement. It is a matter of individual conscience which needs to be discussed further through continuing ethical debate, rather than religious edict and violent conflict. Because the population densities are substantially lower outside Asia it should be possible to limit the loss of diversity in most continents (NZ Herald).
The world's population grew more slowly in 1997 than in other years and the population of about 5.9 billion will reach 6 billion by mid-1999.
An unacceptable amount of damage to biodiversity and serious famine could occur before the transition is reached (Sarre). Since the Second World War, death rates in developing countries have fallen dramatically, partly as a result of the reductions in killer diseases like smallpox and malaria, much faster than they had done during Europe's population explosion.
Basic health and sanitation, from breast-feeding, immunization programs and simple mixtures of salts to prevent dehydration from diarrhea through basic health care, education on health and family planning, to clean water and enough food, would prevent most of the infant and child deaths.
Birth rates would fall heavily if all the women who said they wanted no more children actually succeeded in stopping their childbearing: the number of births would be cut by about a quarter in Africa and about a third in Asia and Latin America.
Often these measures fail, or undermine confidence in the initiative by using clandestine methods of deception to lure or entrap people into sterilization procedures without fully explaining the implications. Rapid population growth is linked to poverty, and the education of women and all must be tackled together.
The Pope has emphatically declared condoms are not to be tolerated, even if a person has HIV. Male-led revolutions have so often and so tragically been mere power exchanges in a basically unaltered structure. It will either happen through family planning and development, or by famine, disease and war brought about by collapsing economies. By overstressing soils and ecosystems through application of artificial fertilizers, and pesticides, many of the best productive areas of the planet are slowly being reduced to marginal lands. There are however wide differences: Kenyans on average get 92 per cent of what they need, but the poorest 40 per cent of the rural people suffer serious malnutrition, attempting to subsist on less than three quarters of their requirements. At least 400 million of them get less than 80 per cent of their basic needs, and are condemned to stunted growth and constant danger of serious illness. Governments, saddled with huge debt burdens, will tend to encourage this to earn foreign exchange. The Green Revolution helped boost grain production in the Third World and technological advances improved yields in developed countries.
Ominously, after four decades of growth, the global harvest began to falter in the second half of the 1980s. A US government survey suggests that ozone, may have reduced American harvests by 5-10 per cent during the 1980s.
In the past, Third World governments have usually concentrated resources on the cities and on industry, neglecting farming and the countryside; food prices have been kept low to please city dwellers, to the ruination of agriculture. Their maize production doubled by 1981 and more than trebled by 1985 - a bad year in the rest of Africa" (Lean 28). While these may help significantly in specific cases, the potential problems of epidemic disease of such monoclones, the loss of wild diversity upon which new vigour depends andthe release of disruptive genes into wild ecosystems and natural varieties remain little-explored problems..
Set up in 1952, it is made up of autonomous associations in each country, run by local people for local people, implementing programmes of their own making. While an urban Mexican child probably has attended school, speaks Spanish (rather than Kanjobal) and knows how a pencil works, the Central American kiddies may have none of those advantages. One indication: some parents give birth control pills to girls because of the likelihood they will be raped.
School sounds like a swell idea in the abstract, but Centrals don’t understand the daily grind of studying as a prerequisite to success. Some of the teens already have gang tattoos, so there will be plenty of opportunity to hook up with experts.
Thirty-five states are still spending less per pupil than they did in 2008, and school infrastructure is suffering. A total of 2,866 immigrants are now living with sponsors and attending public schools, according to government data.
According to one report in 2006, it costs at least 30 percent more to teach a non-English speaking student than it does to educate the average English-speaking student. Immigration hearings are taking place and it will take, by many estimates, at least two years to get through the backlog. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of issues related to culture and mass immigration. Findings showed that nearly 60 percent of all students had to hand-copy information from an overhead because the school couldn't afford paper to make copies. Students also reported having to personally pay for sports uniforms more than other school items. The top three items students said schools should cut are school newspaper or broadcast outlets, summer school and field trips -- in that order. Although just 13 percent said budget cuts affected their ability to get the classes they need to graduate, cuts to just programs and teachers -- leading to fewer opportunities and larger class sizes -- have shown to affect students' college readiness. Special programs are also being cut as a result -- including those that assist students with special needs as well as Advanced Placement courses, extracurricular activities and special academic programs for science, foreign language and technology. An estimated $5 billion cut from California's education budget would start with a hit to school busing programs. News on developments in the control, management, treatment and prevention of diarrhoeal diseases. This study surveyed caregivers and health care providers in India and Kenya to gather information about perceptions and use of various diarrhea treatments, assess reasons for low ORS use, and identify opportunities for expanding ORS use. Almost 4 in 10 receive less to drink than normal, thereby tragically *increasing* their risk of death as compared with carrying on as normal. How can we do better to improve the knowledge of citizens and health workers to manage child diarrhoea more effectively?" Join HIFA2015 and Discuss - It's Free! It brings together critical services and interventions to create healthy environments, promotes practices known to protect children from disease and ensures that every child has access to proven and appropriate preventive and treatment measures. For the very first time, there is a global plan to simultaneously take on the two diseases killing more than 2 million young children each year: pneumonia and diarrhea. Proven, affordable tools should be at-hand for every mom, such as safe water and sanitation, oral rehydration therapy (ORT), zinc, nutrition, breastfeeding, and rotavirus vaccines. Vaccines alone have the power to prevent almost 1 million child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhea every year. The mortality rate in children under 5 years has dropped from 88 deaths per 1000 livebirths in 1990 to 57 in 2010—a 35% reduction.
During the 20th century, the world's population increased almost fourfold, from 1.6 to 6 billion.
There is no evidence this was a result of direct biological or genetic factors as there were no differences between differing Y-clades. Patriarchal religions extend this to a utopian vista of acheiving world dominance through force of numbers. The !Kung-San mitochondrial tree even contains two ancient branches which show the population was divided for around 100,000 years, proably due to drought in the Kalahari.
To everyone's surprise in 2002 a very significant drop was detected in the fertility rates of a broad spread of diverse countries spanning the developed and developing world comprising half the world's population and with little in common between their governments and social attitudes.
Even so, millions of its women have attended sterilisation clinics, and fertility has halved in 20 years to today's 2.3.
In India the Muslim community grew by 36% between 1991 and 2001 and now stands at 13.4% of the total population.
Thus, in Ethiopia only 4 percent of women use contraception and the fertility rate is seven, while in South Africa 53 percent use some method and average fertility is 3.3.
Suitors are more likely to have set up home on their own before marriage, are better house-trained, and Nordic governments are better at helping couples juggle family and work. The WHO suggests putting up the price of alcohol or forcing people to wear seatbelts (Russia's population falling fast Steven Eke BBC 23 June, 2005). But the health ministry expects the rate to fall this year and continue a downward trend that may see a 30% drop in the population in the next 50 years (Japan birth rate shows rare rise BBC 1 Jan 2007).
But the new agenda may be less about creating new freedoms for women and more about instilling new responsibilities in men and the state.
In the midst of this situation the Bush administration encouraged by the religious right, has cut funding for the UN Population Fund, on the basis the agency was supporting coercive family planning in China. Up-to-date figures have to adjust for both this and the changes since the last census, which could be decades in the case of some African countries.
State demographers believe people are hiding tens of millions of babies to evade the one-child policy, and so estimate that the rate is 1.8. However the population problem is complicated by severe economic and energy-consumption inequities. Good education, free access to contraception, responsible use and advance reproductive advice is a constructive alternative. The growth rate has slowed because of lower fertility rates in countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, the Population Institute said.
Unlike most previous population estimates, the IIAS's new numbers consider not only the effect of future changes in the number of children per family, but also the possibility that death rates may change in the future because of changes in the rates of starvation or disease and in the quality of medical care.
The experts were also asked to choose high and low extremes that were 90 per cent certain to embrace the true value. However some resources, such as fuel for heating depend in a more complex way on whole families, so one has to take into account more than the raw figures to estimate how the impact is accommodating. Birth rates have declined somewhat, but they remain high, and may not fall enough to complete the demographic transition before other constraints such as malnutrition and the costs of environmental damage become limiting factors. The average woman in the Middle East and Africa bears between six and eight children, while her equivalent in industrialized countries bears only two. Children provide security in old age, and while infant mortality remains high, parents need to have a lot of babies to make sure that enough survive. Having to cater for such a disproportionate younger population puts added strain on the productive members of society.
Gambians are lucky if they reach the age of 43 and half of all Angolans die before reaching 45. Maternal health care, and spacing and reducing the numbers of births would help reduce maternal mortality.
There is clearly a great unfulfilled need for family planning, but it, alone, is not enough. Such population methods have been particularly suspect when applied without consent to people deemed retarded or undesirable by state eugenics programs. It is essential that the women of the world be given the ethical freedom to make basic decisions about their own fertility.
Some of the best regions are close to major populations and are appropriated for urban and industrial development. Developed regions and Asia have greatly increased their per capita food production since the 1960s. Similarly, meat, milk and fish production rose by 2 per cent annually between 1965 and 1986, while the harvest of vegetables, pulses and fruit grew by 2.5 per cent a year. At one stage, in the 1970s, American farmers lost six tons of soil for every ton of grain grown. Governments increasingly accept that this bias must end, but that will not in itself address the problem adequately.
It splits up big estates, which are usually much less intensively farmed, and gives poor farmers and landless people the means to grow enough food to feed their families.
Although it does important work through influencing public opinion at the national and international level (for instance, persuading governments to include population policies in their constitutions), it is this grass-roots approach that has allowed it to achieve such impressive results.
The Centrals need to be brought up to zero (if possible), and that will cost a lot of American tax dollars. And a lot of them were illiterate, not only in English, but also in Spanish, and spoke a tribal dialect, a mountain dialect, so it really made it difficult to place these students in any kind of a classroom setting.
Plus, there are kidnap gangs en route and sometimes kids are killed because it’s dangerous to travel on the top of freight trains. As a result, an estimated 80 to 90 percent of Lost Boys suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, which can lead to substance abuse, depression and crime according to an expert on the condition. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the average age of K-12 public school buildings is 44 years old. In a letter to Education Secretary Arne Duncan, John Huppenthal wrote, “It is unreasonable to ask Arizona schools and Arizona taxpayers to pay for these expenses. We believe this constitutes a "fair use" of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. Half of all students also reported that their school didn't have enough computers or functional computers, nor were their enough textbooks for each student. The last items on students' "should-cut" lists, starting from the bottom, are teachers, administrators, "other," guidance counselors and sports -- all items that schools have shown to most commonly choose to cut first. Facing a 12 percent drop in state funding and declining enrollment, the school district has closed 40 percent of its schools, dismissed 11 percent of its staff, increased class sizes and decreased the number of courses offered. However, it has been difficult to prioritize and target interventions because previous studies cannot be easily compared or combined due to differences and limitations in the methods used.
By contrast, more than 1 in 3 are inappropriately given antibiotics, which are not generally recommended for childhood diarrhoea.

Families and communities are working together, with support from governments, states, corporations and non-governmental organizations, to prevent the conditions that cause diarrhoea and thereby rapidly reducing child mortality. They cause 2 million children to die every year and account for a massive 30% of all under 5 deaths.
Until very recently there were fears that in the next century, world population would explode to some 12 billion people, leaving little room for wilderness areas to preserve wildlife and putting extreme pressure on food production, water and non-renewable resources. The conclusion is that the effect was driven by cultural changes associated with agriculture in which powerful men were able to reproductively exploit large numbers of women and transmit their reproductive success on to their male heirs, squeezing the majority of males out of the reproductive race. At a time when there has been a manifest need to curtail runaway population growth, the leaders of the world's great patriarchal religions have, almost without exception been ordering their populations to continue to multiply, making frontal attacks on any effective form of contraception and family planning.
Patriarchal cultural and religious attitudes to reproduction tend to stoke population growth and cultural dominance, exacerbating what is already an explosive migratory expansion of Homo sapiens, as a dominant world species lacking natural predators and held in check only by parasitic disease and human-human conflict. San women have thus regulated their fertility according to the difficulties of their environment, by various means, including protracted breast feeding, sometimes up to the age of four, which delays ovulation. Increasing use of contraception (lower left) and improved female education (lower right) both correlate with falling fertility rates and reduced population pressure. We expect that public transfer programs will become more generous in countries that have not yet embraced them, so that higher TFRs will maximize their FSRs in the future. Not having children has become a statement of modernity and emancipation, and women are unlikely to give up the new freedoms.
About half the jobs held by Swedish women are part- time, creches are near-universal and paid parental leave lasts for a year. In most of the world , fertility rates are plunging because women have decided they want to become more like men.
The White House continued to withhold funding even after the State Department declared these charges were false (Sachs R605).
The suspicion is that millions of births and deaths have not been counted and there is huge uncertainty about the rate at which women are giving birth. But Zhongwei Zhao of the Australian National University in Canberra says other figures in the 2010 census suggest the raw data may be nearer the truth. The heart of the problem is this: the new UN estimates record that both world population and global fertility rates are currently slightly lower than presumed when the last projections were made two years ago.
If current trends are not reversed, or at least slowed down, we could be facing a global population of close to 14 billion by the year 2100. Some people have suggested that reducing meat production could release grain areas currently devoted to animal feed. Their predictions were then combined statistically into an approximately bell-shaped curve, and these aggregate predictions were used to project the world's population. With increasing divorce rates and more elderly people living alone, the trend is towards smaller, more numerous households, especially in the developed world.
Birth rates stayed much the same as before, but death rates fell, causing population to grow.
The results are evident in mounting poverty, unemployment, slums and squatter settlements; lack of access to education, health care, drinking water and sanitation, and family planning services. They also frequently result in killing or abortion of female offspring in countries where boys are prized.
The position that men whether layman or pope can pass infallible judgement on the reproductive rights of women is indefensible. Lack of long-term sustainable productivity will lead to continuing crises in food production as populations crest in the early 21-st century. Cash crops also receive most of the Third World's credit, fertilizers and pesticides, and agricultural advice. Western Europe, where population growth has stabilized, now produces about 30 per cent more food for each of its people than in the mid-1960s. The World Commission on Environment and Development, reporting in 1987, attributed the increase mainly to the development of high-yielding new seed varieties, a ninefold increase in the use of chemical fertilizers, a 32-fold rise in pesticide applications and a doubling of the world's irrigated cropland, from 135 million hectares in the 1960s to 271 million hectares in 1985.
In 1988, for the first time in history, the United States produced less grain than it needed for its own people.
Climatic conditions were almost normal in 1989; so that year's failure must have had other causes. The world has some spare capacity; 20 million hectares of US farmland were held in reserve in 1988, and bringing them back into production would increase the world's cropland by 2 per cent. Increasing food prices may benefit the middleman rather than the farmer; concentrating attention on the richer landowners, as during the Green Revolution, will do little, or nothing, to help the poor or reduce hunger. One of the best-known member associations is Pro Familia in Colombia, which won a special award from the United Nations in 1988. They asked readers about budget cuts at their schools, and received more than 1,850 teen responses. By studying more than 22,000 children (9,439 cases and 13,129 controls) across two continents with consistent methods, GEMS provides important, new data that will help researchers, policymakers, donors and advocates make evidence-based decisions to help to reduce the global burden of diarrheal diseases. This shows that the unrestrained population growth is largely confined to Africa, with other continents stabilizing and some countries expereincing a population decline due to rapidly falling fertility rates. Recently those fears have been renewed but with the massive rise focused on Africa (see above figure). Estimates of this 5,000 year phase of extreme reproductive polygyny suggest that for every reproducing male there were 17 reproductive females effectively making harems the predominant form of sexual relationship. The Catholic church has waged war not only on abortion but cursed any effective form of contraception as simple and protective of disease as the condom.
They have fed mankind with the dangerous myth that humanity is somehow above nature and that it is our god-given right to hold dominion over the Earth and subdue it.
In 1994, the mullahs ruling the country went to a UN population conference in Cairo and declared opposition to much of the international agenda for cutting birth rates. The Muslim community fares poorly in literacy compared to other groups - which is seen as one reason for their increasing numbers (Indian Muslim community growing BBC 7 Sep 2004). At the same time, future pension and health care reform in rich industrial nations and many Latin American countries may well reduce the TFRs that maximize their FSRs. In 1998 researchers associated with the Asian Development Bank in Laos, one of the world's poorest countries, invited people there to say what help they wanted most. They are also taking over from their brothers and husbands the role of shaping their societies. All this is unheard of in Italy, where only 12% of employed women have part-time jobs, and in eastern Europe, where fertility rates have plunged since the collapse of communism wrecked state-funded family support services. Population in the sub-Saharan Africa is expected to rise from 667 million to 1,085 billion by 2025 where total fertility rates remain at 5.4. Population cannot be addressed without addressing educational, gender, and economic inequity between the developed and developing world. The institute's best estimate is now that the world's population will grow from its present 5.75 billion to 10 billion by 2050, reach a peak of around 11 billion by 2075, and remain almost level or decline slightly towards 2100.
People had no more babies but that they lived longer, as food supplies increased, public health improved and, eventually, proper sanitation spread.
To enforce male fertility upon all women in the Christian dogma that all sex necessarily must result in procreation of life is a runaway form of male dominion. As food production has fallen, particularly in Africa, more and more has had to be imported.
Africa has also increased its food production in absolute terms, but not enough to keep up with population growth; it now produces 27 per cent less food for each African than in 1967. Distributed evenly, the 1986 harvest could support 6 billion people - the projected population of the earth for the year 1998" (Lean 25). In 1989, for the third successive year, the world as a whole produced too little to satisfy demand.
However since these reports we have had increasingly graphic evidence of climatic disruption of production. But the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that soil degradation could take 65 per cent of all the Third World's rainfed (non-irrigated) land out of production by the year 2000.
It is much more effective to focus on small farmers, who both make up the bulk of the poor in many countries and have the greatest potential for raising production.
With little direct support from the government, Pro Familia operates 43 family planning centres, and over the course of 23 years has seen the population growth rate reduced from 3 to 1.7 per cent.
Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. In many cases, they have actively encouraged over-population and have gone out of their way to prevent family-planning schemes. Although in many countries there are still a large number of people at or below child-bearing age and actual birth rates will remain very high for some years to come, this fall has already led to a downgrading of future population predictions and fears of a population crash with societies full of the elderly unable to support their own services.
The men requested jobs, but the women's number-one priority was family planning (The Unmet Need for Family Planning Scientific American Jan 2000).
To cope with this Singapore's prime minister has announced financial incentives for families, increased maternity leave, and cut working hours so single people can meet more easily. But the inaccuracies make it harder to answer a more important question: is human population set to peak within the next few decades or will it carry on growing beyond that? That is because of the huge demographic bulge of twentieth-century baby boomers a€” now adult and fertile. It is that over 90 per cent of births now take place in the countries least able to cope with the resource and environmental consequences of burgeoning populations. But even sufficient food production in theory is not necessary going to solve malnutrition problems. There is a 95 per cent probability that the population will be between 6 and 17 billion in 2100, says Lutz.
In Africa, the average number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births is 106, reaching a peak at 169 in Mali and 154 in Sierra Leone. Significantly the rise of television dramas which portray women as independent career-seeking businesswomen and creative artists and models seems to have had a specifically moderating impact on Brazilian population growth, despite the heavy impact of Catholic opposition. Costa Rica achieved an even greater decline, 53 per cent, over the same period; 66 per cent of its women - three times the proportion in the rest of Latin America - use contraceptives despite little effort to spread family planning. Every year about 11 million children under the age of five die from hunger or hunger-related diseases. World grain stocks fell from a record high in 1986 to approaching their lowest levels ever. In 1997 temperatures rose to 0.6 deg C above the norn for the 20th century and were accompanied by a large-scale El Nino oscillation.
The key to their success has been the recruitment of local women to run community workshops and to make house-to-house visits, dealing not just with family planning, but with health care of all kinds. The leaders of both the Christian and Islamic world share an agenda of male reproductive right and a calculated determination to multiply the faithful by advocating unrestrained fertility even in the face of the manifest damage such policies have caused. Italy the country that is home to the Catholic Church, noted for its opposition to artificial birth control, is notching up super-low fertility rates way below replacement levels.
The UN expects 15 million deaths from AIDS in the next five years, the great majority in Africa. These values are lower than the FSR-maximizing values because families bear most of the costs of child-rearing while governments, except in lower- income countries, are typically burdened more by the elderly. These high rates reduce economic growth, stress environmental resources and young populations with excess adolescent men cause manifest political instability and violence. The past few years have seen a plethora of scientific papers asking 'can the world feed 9 billion?' It won't be long before the work is revisited to see whether we can feed 10 billion.
But as they age, and if fertility rates continue to fall, population growth must subside and could go into decline. Between now and the turn of the century, the number of people in the Third World will grow by over 900 million, or 24.6 per cent.
Increased use of contraceptives, delayed marriages and a rise in death rates in many countries contributed to lower fertility rates. The reason seems to be that it has a good record in promoting health and education and in tackling poverty" (Lean 20). Its wheat harvest more than doubled under the impact of the Green Revolution between 1965 and 1972; one of the most spectacular increases in history. Both the demand for imports and the inability to pay for enough of them will worsen over the next decades.
Prices rose by 48 per cent between 1986 and 1989, compounding the problems of countries and families that already could not afford to buy enough to eat" (Lean 28).
The main education tool is a health guide with diagrams and a calendar, directed principally at women with small children, to remind them of the dates for vaccinations, dental check-ups, and other medical appointments. Secondly, I accuse political leaders, almost all of whom follow a policy of national growth, regardless of the consequences. At just 1.2 children born to each Italian woman, the rate is little more than half the figure needed to prevent the population plummeting, closely matched by Greece, Spain and Czechoslovakia (Pearce R540). Still, one-third of the upper- middle-income countries and all high-income countries except Uruguay currently have fertility below the level that maximizes the support ratio.
Meanwhile the population of industrialized countries will grow by only 56 million, or 5.2 per cent.
From the mid-1980s through the mid 1990s, world population rose by 85 to 100 million people per year.
In Western Europe, North America and Japan infant mortality is 10 or less per 1,000 live births.
It provided food aid to the newly-emergent Bangladesh and for a while became the world's second biggest donor after the United States. The instructors and health teams often have to operate in areas ravaged by guerrilla war, drug trafficking, and extreme poverty. McDonald calculates that the population of Italy is set to crash from 56 million now to just 8 million by 2100.
Every year some 14 million children die in developing countries before they reach their fifth birthday.
And if a child does not get enough to eat in its first years of life, its brain will not develop properly. Although it is essential to relieve short-term famine, food aid undermines local production in more normal circumstances. That, too, will help reduce fertility as couples see daughters as well as sons as potential heads of a new generation (Pierce R540). Likewise Spain would lose 85 per cent of its population within the same time frame and Germany 83 per cent. The UN's previous 'medium variant' projection, published in 2008, concluded that world population would rise from the present 7 billion and peak in mid-century at around the 9.15 billion expected in 2050. Over-population is a problem particularly in less developed countries, with almost 98 per cent of the increase in population occurring there. Every year, too, half a million mothers die in pregnancy or childbirth - all but 1 per cent of them in the Third World.
One study followed up malnourished Indian children under five for the next 17 years of their lives - and found that their capacity for work was 30 per cent less than that of children from the same class and the same villages who had had enough to eat" (Lean 25).
We are a high-quality species, and all our social thinking should be directed to this thought" (Porritt R550). The fertility rates that would maximize consumption, taking capital cost into account, are reported in columns E (low-capital-cost scenario) and F (high-capital-cost scenario).
Russia's population decline is accelerating, according to the country's official statistics agency, equivalent to 100 people dying in Russia every hour. We are a high-quality species, and all our social thinking should be directed to this thought" - Desmond Morris (Porritt 115). Environmental degradation, stagnant economies, hunger, malnutrition and child-deaths plague poorer countries experiencing runaway growth.
An African woman is 500 times more likely to die from giving birth than her counterpart in one of the richer developed countries. Using either of these measures, current fertility is higher than the consumption-maximizing level in every lower- income country except Vietnam and every upper- middle-income country except China, Hungary, and Thailand. About 80 per cent of the world population lives in less developed countries and 74 of these countries are on a course to double their populations over the next 30 years. Another 100,000 to 200,000 women die each year as a result of illegal abortions, and again the great majority are from developing countries" (Lean 20). This raises significant questions about private enterprise and the ethics of 'free' financial markets. In these four countries, fertility is too low with use of the low-capital-cost scenario and too high with use of the high-capital- cost scenario. However, we emphatically are not suggesting that these lower-income countries should be aiming for fertility as low as shown in the Table. China, India, the United States, Indonesia, Brazil and Russia are the five populous countries in the world.
Development will likely lead to consumption and public support age profiles similar to those of richer countries. Consider the nine countries with TFRs above 1.6 births per woman in 2005 to 2010 (Australia, Canada, Chile, Finland, France, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay).
In these countries, the TFR exceeds or is very close to the consumption-maximizing fertility level.
Under any plausible assumption about the capital costs of higher fertility, these nine countries did not have fertility rates that were too low.

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