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admin | Category: Electile Dysfunction 2016 | 03.04.2015
Many obese teens are confronted with bullying problems due to their weight, most often in middle schools. While speaking on the psychological effects of obesity, Petals Rainey, Leesville’s psychologist, discussed several issues.
Often, a student’s grades and social interactions will suffer once obesity becomes a problem. The major issue with obesity (besides obvious health concerns) is the low self esteem that can develop. There are many factors to consider when an individual is confronted with obesity, with obesity often leading to extreme issues such as anxiety, depression, and other psychological states. To navigate through and address all of the effects of obesity, there needs to be a thorough understanding of how it impacts all aspects of a person’s life.
To learn more about the physical effects of obesity and why it is such an issue in this modern world, Suzanne Tadlock, Leesville health instructor, provided a website on obesity and a few tips on how to fight it. Tadlock reasons that one of the more prevalent causes of obesity in today’s society is the availability of fast food in every city, with a McDonald’s on practically every street corner.
With obesity being a major issue, Tadlock takes her job as physical education specialist very seriously. Another major contributor to childhood (and therefore teen) obesity is the lack of physical exercise in the elementary and middle schools.
These health issues can lead to even more health problems, all adding up to become a plethora of disease and pain.
With all of this information, one can make the easy conclusion that obesity is a prominent issue in today’s society.
One important way to help people suffering from obesity is to encourage them to improve, and to be nice about it; obese people typically suffer from low self esteem and low sense of self.
Some of the signs that someone is suffering psychologically from obesity are, “not thinking that they’re attractive, and again, that ability to navigate in the social realm.
By boosting their pride and helping them to accept their bodies and how they are, people and students who suffer from obesity will not be so concerned with their appearances.
Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article!
The Demographic transition model (DTM) is a model used to represent the transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system. Most developed countries are in stage 3 or 4 of the model; the majority of developing countries have reached stage 2 or stage 3. In stage one, pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in balance. In stage two, that of a developing country, the death rates drop rapidly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, which increase life spans and reduce disease. In stage three, birth rates fall due to access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. In pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates were both high and fluctuated rapidly according to natural events, such as drought and disease, to produce a relatively constant and young population. Raising a child cost little more than feeding him; there were no education or entertainment expenses and, in equatorial Africa, there were no clothing expenses either.
During this stage, the society evolves in accordance with Malthusian paradigm, with population essentially determined by the food supply. This stage leads to a fall in death rates and an increase in population.[6] The changes leading to this stage in Europe were initiated in the Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century and were initially quite slow. First, improvements in the food supply brought about by higher yields in agricultural practices and better transportation prevent death due to starvation and lack of water. Second, significant improvements in public health reduce mortality, particularly in childhood. A consequence of the decline in mortality in Stage Two is an increasingly rapid rise in population growth (a "population explosion") as the gap between deaths and births grows wider. Another characteristic of Stage Two of the demographic transition is a change in the age structure of the population. In rural areas continued decline in childhood death means that at some point parents realize they need not require so many children to be born to ensure a comfortable old age.
Increasing urbanization changes the traditional values placed upon fertility and the value of children in rural society.
In both rural and urban areas, the cost of children to parents is exacerbated by the introduction of compulsory education acts and the increased need to educate children so they can take up a respected position in society. A major factor in reducing birth rates in stage 3 countries such as Malaysia is the availability of family planning facilities, like this one in Kuala Terenganu, Terenganu, Malaysia. Increasing female literacy and employment lower the uncritical acceptance of childbearing and motherhood as measures of the status of women.
The resulting changes in the age structure of the population include a reduction in the youth dependency ratio and eventually population aging. However, unless factors such as those listed above are allowed to work, a society's birth rates may not drop to a low level in due time, which means that the society cannot proceed to Stage Four and is locked in what is called a demographic trap. Countries that have experienced a fertility decline of over 40% from their pre-transition levels include: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Panama, Jamaica, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Surinam, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Lebanon, South Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and many Pacific islands.
Countries that have experienced a fertility decline of 25-40% include: Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Bolivia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Tajikistan, Jordan, Qatar, Albania, United Arab Emirates, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. The original Demographic Transition model has just four stages; however, some theorists consider that a fifth stage is needed to represent countries that have sub-replacement fertility. The decline in death rate and birth rate that occurs during the demographic transition leads to a radical transformation of the age structure.
Between 1750 and 1975 England experienced the transition from high levels of both mortality and fertility, to low levels.
McNicoll (2006) examines the common features behind the striking changes in health and fertility in East and Southeast Asia in the 1960s-1990s, focusing on seven countries: Taiwan and South Korea ("tiger" economies), Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia ("second wave" countries), and China and Vietnam ("market-Leninist" economies). Cha (2007) analyzes a panel dataset to explore how industrial revolution, demographic transition, and human capital accumulation interacted in Korea from 1916-38. Campbell has studied the demography of 19th-century Madagascar in the light of demographic transition theory. Greenwood and Seshadri (2002) show that from 1800 to 1940 there was a demographic shift from a mostly rural US population with high fertility, with an average of seven children born per white woman, to a minority (43%) rural population with low fertility, with an average of two births per white woman. A simplification of the DTM theory proposes an initial decline in mortality followed by a later drop in fertility. It has to be remembered that the DTM is only a model and cannot necessarily predict the future. DTM has a questionable applicability to less economically developed countries (LEDCs), where wealth and information access are limited. Some have claimed that DTM does not explain the early fertility declines in much of Asia in the second half of the 20th century or the delays in fertility decline in parts of the Middle East.


Until recently the history of the Transatlantic Slave Trade has largely ignored the role of the African people who resisted enslavement and fought to end slavery in various ways. On the plantations, many enslaved Africans tried to slow down the pace of work by pretending to be ill, causing fires or ‘accidentally' breaking tools. Saint Domingue was controlled by the French and had the largest enslaved population in the Caribbean. Samuel Sharpe, was an enslaved person who fought for freedom by organising a general strike in Jamaica.
Impact of obesity on male fertility, sperm function and, Male obesity on traditional sperm parameters . Although it is often played down as unimportant, self worth is an important factor to succeeding both in high school and in the world. According to the Stanford University Website, there are a plethora of health issues associated with obesity, including high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, joint problems (such as osteoarthritis), cancer, and metabolic syndrome, just to name a few.
They might be excluded from activities where they are expected to be thin, such as cheerleading, etc,” Rainey said. Rainey indicated that this, in itself, will improve their grades, as well as their way of life. The theory is based on an interpretation of demographic history developed in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson.[1] Thompson observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the previous 200 years.
These changes usually come about due to improvements in farming techniques, access to technology, basic healthcare, and education. Birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan, leading to a shrinking population, a threat to many industries that rely on population growth. The model is a generalization that applies to these countries as a group and may not accurately describe all individual cases. Family planning and contraception were virtually nonexistent; therefore, birth rates were essentially only limited by the ability of women to bear children. Thus, the total cost of raising children barely exceeded their contribution to the household. Any fluctuations in food supply (either positive, for example, due to technology improvements, or negative, due to droughts and pest invasions) tend to translate directly into population fluctuations.
In the 20th century, the falls in death rates in developing countries tended to be substantially faster. Agricultural improvements included crop rotation, selective breeding, and seed drill technology. These are not so much medical breakthroughs (Europe passed through stage two before the advances of the mid-20th century, although there was significant medical progress in the 19th century, such as the development of vaccination) as they are improvements in water supply, sewerage, food handling, and general personal hygiene following from growing scientific knowledge of the causes of disease and the improved education and social status of mothers.
Note that this growth is not due to an increase in fertility (or birth rates) but to a decline in deaths. As childhood death continues to fall and incomes increase parents can become increasingly confident that fewer children will suffice to help in family business and care for them in old age. Children are increasingly prohibited under law from working outside the household and make an increasingly limited contribution to the household, as school children are increasingly exempted from the expectation of making a significant contribution to domestic work. Working women have less time to raise children; this is particularly an issue where fathers traditionally make little or no contribution to child-raising, such as southern Europe or Japan. Fertility decline is caused as much by changes in values about children and sex as by the availability of contraceptives and knowledge of how to use them. Therefore the total population is high and stable.[10] Some theorists consider there are only 4 stages and that the population of a country will remain at this level. In an article in the August 2009 issue of Nature, Myrskyla, Kohler and Billari show that previously negative relationship between national wealth (as measured by the human development index (HDI) and birth rates has become J-shaped. When the death rate declines during the second stage of the transition, the result is primarily an increase in the child population. A major factor was the sharp decline in the death rate for infectious diseases, which has fallen from about 11 per 1,000 to less than 1 per 1,000. Mortality rose above the European Community average, and in 1991 Irish fertility fell to replacement level. The uniqueness of the French case arises from its specific demographic history, its historic cultural values, and its internal regional dynamics. Demographic change can be seen as a byproduct of social and economic development together with, in some cases, strong governmental pressures.
Income growth and public investment in health caused mortality to fall, which suppressed fertility and promoted education.
Both supporters and critics of the theory hold to an intrinsic opposition between human and "natural" factors, such as climate, famine, and disease, influencing demography.
It's been estimated that the crude death rate in 17th century rural New England was already as low as 20 deaths per 1000 residents per year (levels of up to 40 per 1000 being typical during stages one and two). It does however give an indication of what the future birth and death rates may be for an underdeveloped country, together with the total population size.
Nevertheless, demographers maintain that there is no historical evidence for society-wide fertility rates rising significantly after high mortality events. A lot of times when you find a lot of individuals who have weight issues, they have emotional difficulties, coping skill, some difficulties with social skills.
Without a corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, and the countries in this stage experience a large increase in population. As the large group born during stage two ages, it creates an economic burden on the shrinking working population. Emigration depressed death rates in some special cases (for example, Europe and particularly the Eastern United States during the 19'th century), but, overall, death rates tended to match birth rates, often exceeding 40 per 1000 per year. In addition, as they became adults they become a major input to the family business, mainly farming, and were the primary form of insurance for adults in old age. This change in population occurred in northwestern Europe during the 19th century due to the Industrial Revolution. Therefore, more than anything else, the decline in death rates in Stage Two entails the increasing survival of children and a growing population. A recent theory suggests that urbanization also contributes to reducing the birth rate because it disrupts optimal mating patterns. Even in equatorial Africa, children now need to be clothed, and may even require school uniforms.
During the period between the decline in youth dependency and rise in old age dependency there is a demographic window of opportunity that can potentially produce economic growth through an increase in the ratio of working age to dependent population; the demographic dividend. The reason is that when the death rate is high (stage one), the infant mortality rate is very high, often above 200 deaths per 1000 children born.
By contrast, the death rate from other causes was 12 per 1,000 in 1850 and has not declined markedly. The peculiarities of Ireland's past demography and its recent rapid changes challenge established theory.


France's demographic profile is similar to its European neighbors and to developed countries in general, yet it seems to be staving off the population decline of Western countries. The transition sequence entailed the establishment of an effective, typically authoritarian, system of local administration, providing a framework for promotion and service delivery in health, education, and family planning. Industrialization, skill premium, and closing gender wage gap further induced parents to opt for child quality.
They also suppose a sharp chronological divide between the precolonial and colonial eras, arguing that whereas "natural" demographic influences were of greater importance in the former period, human factors predominated thereafter.
A sixfold increase in real wages made children more expensive in terms of forgone opportunities to work and increases in agricultural productivity reduced rural demand for labor, a substantial portion of which traditionally had been performed by children in farm families.
Most particularly, of course, the DTM makes no comment on change in population due to migration.
Notably, some historic populations have taken many years to replace lives such as the Black Death. Because if you’re having difficulties at school, socially, then you’re not going to come to school, wanna come to school, and do everything you can to stay out of school, so you know, that could start as a short term problem that could morph into a long term problem.
Death rates may remain consistently low or increase slightly due to increases in lifestyle diseases due to low exercise levels and high obesity and an aging population in developed countries.
Many countries such as China, Brazil and Thailand have passed through the DTM very quickly due to fast social and economic change. Overall, the population dynamics during stage one is highly reminiscent of that commonly observed in animals. During the second half of the 20th century less-developed countries entered Stage Two, creating the worldwide population explosion that has demographers concerned today.
Hence, the age structure of the population becomes increasingly youthful and more of these children enter the reproductive cycle of their lives while maintaining the high fertility rates of their parents. When the death rate falls or improves, this, in general, results in a significantly lower infant mortality rate and, hence, increased child survival. The agricultural revolution and the development of transport, initiated by the construction of canals, led to greater availability of food and coal, and enabled the Industrial Revolution to improve the standard of living. The recent changes have mirrored inward changes in Irish society, with respect to family planning, women in the work force, the sharply declining power of the Catholic Church, and the emigration factor.
Subsequent economic liberalization offered new opportunities for upward mobility - and greater risks of backsliding - but these opportunities were accompanied by the erosion of social capital and the breakdown or privatization of service programs. Expanding demand for education was accommodated by an active public school building program.
Campbell argues that in 19th-century Madagascar the human factor, in the form of the Merina state, was the predominant demographic influence. Beginning around 1800, there was a sharp fertility decline; at this time, an average woman usually produced seven births per lifetime, but by 1900 this number had dropped to nearly four. It is not applicable for high levels of development, as it has been shown that after a HDI of 0.9 the fertility increases again [19].
Some countries, particularly African countries, appear to be stalled in the second stage due to stagnant development and the effect of AIDS. Over time, as cohorts increased by higher survival rates get older, there will also be an increase in the number of older children, teenagers, and young adults. Scientific discoveries and medical breakthroughs did not, in general, contribute importantly to the early major decline in infectious disease mortality, and the decline in fertility occurred before efficient contraception became available. More than two-thirds of that growth can be ascribed to a natural increase resulting from high fertility and birthrates. The interwar agricultural depression aggravated traditional income inequality, raising fertility and impeding the spread of mass schooling. After the next World War, we will see Germany lose more women and children and soon start again from a developing stage. Enslaved Africans tried to slow down the pace of work through pretending illness or breaking tools and they ran away whenever possible, escaping to South America, England or North America. The age structure of such a population is illustrated by using an example from the Third World today. This implies that there is an increase in the fertile population which, with constant fertility rates, will lead to an increase in the number of children born.
In contrast, France is one of the developed nations whose migratory balance is rather weak, which is an original feature at the European level. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries Merina state policies stimulated agricultural production, which helped to create a larger and healthier population and laid the foundation for Merina military and economic expansion within Madagascar.
Several interrelated reasons account for such singularities, in particular the impact of pro-family policies accompanied by greater unmarried households and out-of-wedlock births. From 1820, the cost of such expansionism led the state to increase its exploitation of forced labor at the expense of agricultural production and thus transformed it into a negative demographic force.
Many former slaves also worked with the abolitionists in Britain and elsewhere; you can read some of their stories in the abolitionists section. The second stage of the demographic transition, therefore, implies a rise in child dependency.
These general demographic trends parallel equally important changes in regional demographics.
Infertility and infant mortality, which were probably more significant influences on overall population levels than the adult mortality rate, increased from 1820 due to disease, malnutrition, and stress, all of which stemmed from state forced labor policies.
Since 1982 the same significant tendencies have occurred throughout mainland France: demographic stagnation in the least-populated rural regions and industrial regions in the northwest, with strong growth in the southwest and along the Atlantic coast, plus dynamism in metropolitan areas.
Available estimates indicate little if any population growth for Madagascar between 1820 and 1895.
The demographic "crisis" in Africa, ascribed by critics of the demographic transition theory to the colonial era, stemmed in Madagascar from the policies of the imperial Merina regime, which in this sense formed a link to the French regime of the colonial era.
The varying demographic evolution regions can be analyzed though the filter of several parameters, including residential facilities, economic growth, and urban dynamism, which yield several distinct regional profiles. The distribution of the French population therefore seems increasingly defined not only by interregional mobility but also by the residential preferences of individual households. These challenges, linked to configurations of population and the dynamics of distribution, inevitably raise the issue of town and country planning. The most recent census figures show that an outpouring of the urban population means that fewer rural areas are continuing to register a negative migratory flow - two-thirds of rural communities have shown some since 2000.



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