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admin | Category: What Causes Ed 2016 | 20.01.2014
Across Italy, students are taking over high schools and universities, protesting planned cuts by the government. Italy's real problem, and a possible factor in its economic predicament, however, is the lack of connection between universities and the business world. As the following graphic shows, Italy's expenditure on higher education has been fairly stagnant, whereas Spain has invested heavily in it. In 2009 the Spanish government launched a policy initiative, Estrategia Universidad 2015, aiming to boost the competitiveness of Spanish universities.
Ongoing efforts to make the system more competitive internationally might be undermined by the recently elected government's plan to cut spending on education, a decision met with anger by the academic community. Italy, on the other hand, has been more successful in recruiting Asian students, with 12,750 students from that region in 2009, whereas Spain had only 3,850.
Spain and Italy are ranked in the middle of the U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems (24th and 30th, respectively, of 48 countries).
As Professor de Wit says, 'in both Italy and Spain the decision to implement reforms has not matched with the right conditions for successful reforms.
It seems evident that a decline of investment in higher education might negatively affect the ability of southern Europe's powerhouses to meet demand, restart their economies, and make their universities competitive at the international level. It’s not too late to book your educational trip for 2016 and our team are here to help – contact us today on 01332 347 828.
A geography trip to Iceland just got even better – discover our new and exciting opportunities. Rayburn Tours gives customers the opportunity to keep up to date with new destinations and products, the latest offers, and event promotion e.g. From the moment you start planning you will benefit from our school travel expertise, curriculum understanding and destination knowledge. You can rest assured that your groups’ safety is our number one priority and all of our trips exceed the benchmark for safe school travel as set out by the School Travel Forum – and an independent annual audit confirms this! Our 24-hour emergency telephone number ensures that you can reach a member of the Rayburn Tours team at any time, day or night, in the event of an emergency. In 2013, our customers rated our service as 4.7 out of 5 and 98% said they would use the services of Rayburn Tours again. Did you know that many of our destinations work well as a cross curricular trip giving you the option of combining with another subject group? That is evident in the case of Spain and Italy, where a debate is underway over the economic model followed over the last decades.
In 2010 the government introduced a bill aiming to boost domestic competition by offering economic incentives to universities. As Alessandro Monti points out in his book Investigation of the Decline of Italian Universities (2007), more than 1,000 laws and rules were introduced from 1990 to 2006. In 1998 both countries were spending less than the OECD average on higher education per student.

According to 2010-11 data released by the European Commission last May, Spain sends and receives more Erasmus students than any other European country.
In both countries, these can be at the local, regional or state level, rather than the national level. The current Mayor, Pierro Fassino, aims to transform the city into a university town (citta universitaria) to attract companies and foreign universities to set up operations there (link to the interview). The Chinese university will set up a branch campus in the city, apparently with a mainly Chinese student market in mind. According to OECD data, Italy had just under 66,000 foreign students in 2009 and Spain had 85,000 - both more than double the 2000 numbers. Half the international students studying in Spain in 2009 were from Latin America and the Caribbean. According to University World News, the Marco Polo overseas study programme has increased the presence of Chinese students in the country since its launch in 2004.
According to Hans de Wit, Director of the Centre of Higher Education Internationalisation at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 'culture and tradition are more relevant pull factors than academic ones in the case of Spain and Italy. The OECD's Education at a Glance 2011 includes both Italy and Spain in the group of countries with few or no programmes offered in English in 2009. SDA Bocconi School of Management of Milan became in July the first university from a non-English speaking country to set up a branch campus in India.
In the 'Environment' category, which measures government policy and regulation, diversity and participation opportunities, they are ranked 36th and 42nd. Your enquiry will put you in touch with a specialist, who will work to understand the objectives of your trip. An extra helping hand on your trip is also available in the form of a courier and so far in 2013 our customers have rated our on-tour staff as 5 out of 5!
The reform also initiated competitive and performance-based research funding, mergers between smaller institutions, and representation of the private sector on boards of directors.
According to Andrea Lombardinilo, an Italian academic, former spokesman for the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, and author of University: The Challenge of Change (2010), the recent reform will be incomplete without sufficient funding, especially for recruitment of young researchers and quality assurance. Ten years on, Italy remained roughly at the same position whereas Spain had managed to match the OECD average. Since its introduction in 1987, the Erasmus programme has transformed the culture of Spanish universities, incentivising them to establish international offices and create their own exchange programmes with other regions apart from Europe, using Erasmus as a model. As in the case of the UK, austerity brings with it a rise in tuition fees, though at a much more modest level. Italy has a long tradition of robust local and regional administration, necessary in a state where political instability is the norm. In Spain, the autonomous government of Valencia (Generalitat Valenciana) has provided land and other means of support to Berklee College of Music to set up a branch campus in the city. Interestingly, Spain received 3,428 students from Brazil in 2009, whereas Portugal had 3,813.

Full-degree recruitment is less likely to make revenue, as the reputation and branding of their higher education sectors are not high for non-EU markets. For Spain that might not be a problem, given the size of the Spanish-speaking population in the Americas.
According to de Wit, 'Italy has a long tradition of offering double and joint degree programmes, for instance in Argentina and other parts of Latin America. You cannot make students study faster if they have to work at the same time, a major concern in Spain. We can tell you how our trips offer students a first-class learning experience outside the classroom. Together we will help you launch the trip to students and parents and once you’ve booked, we will plan your bespoke itinerary and pre-book everything on your behalf – that can include travel, accommodation, visits, insurance and much more!
However, student protests in 2010 and 2011 hampered the government's plan to implement a full-scale overhaul of the university system.
He points out that there has been a 7.2% reduction in resources allocated to universities through the state-run Fondo di Finanziamento Ordinario (FFO) since 2009, and the number of academic staff and researchers has decreased from 64,000 to 54,000, one of the smallest numbers in Europe as a percentage of the population.
The launch of the Alfa Puentes programme will probably help them to increase their presence in Latin America. The government has asked local governments to raise fees by an average rate of €500 ($620) per student and imposed restrictions in the allocation of scholarships. The de facto federal nature of Spanish governance means that the states have extended powers in many sectors, including higher education.
This is a more likely future trend than branch campuses or franchise oprations, although there are some signs of interest in the Mediterranean region to attract Italian universities into this kind of operations, for instance in Albania'. In Spain, there was expectation of a rise in the number of enrolments and applications in 2011 due to the crisis, according to a 2010 OECD survey. Protests against Bologna and other reforms are more protests against their governments for having failed to invest in a good foundation for the reforms than against Bologna reforms as such.
According to research by L'Espresso and La Repubblica, Italian universities are 10 times more likely than other employers in the country to hire members of the same family. Some of the better private universities like Bocconi, Cattolica, Luiss and specialised universities like Politecnico might benefit from more incoming students'.
The BBC recently reported that the Politecnico di Milano will, in 2014, become the first Italian university to offer programmes in English.
The current crisis will have an extra negative impact as there are no means to invest in higher education, although for instance a student-loan system might stimulate students to study instead of work and thereby reduce unemployment rates among younger people'.
De Wit says that 'the media and political reaction is similar to that in the Netherlands in the early 1990s, when there was massive opposition to similar plans but within ten years was generally accepted'.

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