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This paper focused on the review of science education in Nigeria, its importance to national development and problems militating against its development.
Science education is very important to the development of any nation [21] that is why every nation must take it very serious in all institutions of learning.
Science education comprises three subjects namely biology, chemistry and physics which are combined with education and over the year there has been low enrolment of these courses in our institutions as identified by [2]; causes of this low enrolment include society disdain, mockery of teacher and low prestige of teachers [19]. Interestingly, as important as these courses are, students’ performance has not been encouraging in them and this is worrisome and called for investigation [13].
Despite all the great things science education can accomplished in the national development of a nation there are many problems militating against it especially in Nigeria. There are colleges of education where students of chemistry department are taught how to make dye and chalk; graduates of these departments can establish their own chalk business as soon as they graduate.
People in Nigeria lives in fear of uncertainty of death from bomb explosion: of gunshot from terrorist or armed robber and many a time from kidnappers. The recent attacked on a northern university where students and lecturers were cold bloodedly murdered including a professor of chemistry still remains an insomnia in academic arena. Many parents have lost their job and the effect is on the children; these children could not complete their education and eventually drop out of schools. Schools were closed down in many parts of the country; universities, polytechnics, colleges of education, secondary and primary schools where learning environment are no longer safe for learning remain in long compulsory holiday for months. Examination malpractices are the other of the day in the country institutions of learning as observed by [8], even in teachers training institutions.
Purchases of science equipment to schools are no longer done transparently since it is either the chief executive of the school or any of his or her relation who do the supply. Money meant for staff training are diverted to personal account while selections of those who benefit in staff training is on whom you know syndrome. Nigerian leaders are corrupt that is why we lack stable political system of government which affect science education as posited by [20] that in any stable political system, teachers and their education system are well catered for. Corruption is the greatest challenge to development of science education in Nigeria; corruption leads to many problems the country is facing presently.
Nigeria is a multiethnic country; this is affecting the country in many ways especially in education.
Employment is no longer based on merit; those who are qualified for teaching science are not given employment because they don’t have ‘godfather’ in the government. There is corruption in the land and no one is spared neither is any organ of government spared [2].
Scholarships and bursary meant for science students are diverted to non science students because of ethnicity. Yearly budget of Nigeria government revealed lack of focus and insincerity to good and quality education.
Science teachers should use different strategies as there is no single universal approach for specific class. Any government official who favoured anybody in admission, employment and promotion based on ethnicity or religion should be seriously sanctioned as someone who stole government money. Various professional bodies in tertiary institutions should rise up to the present challenge and ensure they curtail the excesses of their members in schools. Nigerians should change their orientation; worshipping wealth and position is not the best for us because it encourages corruption. Finally on corruption, the ongoing constitution review must be taking serious and it should stipulate a life imprisonment for any corrupt person; might it be in government establishment or private establishment, corruption is corruption once it is established the individual should be sent to life imprisonment.
Government should provide employment for young graduates; Nigeria is blessed with abundant resources that if properly harness unemployment will reduce drastically in the nation. Scholarship should be awarded to science students and be thoroughly monitored to ensure money is release on time for same purpose. Recognizing the critically important role the first five years of life play in determining human potential, the Pritzker Consortium on Early Childhood Development brings together the world's leading experts to identify when and how child intervention programs can be most influential.
To develop its groundbreaking research, the Consortium assembles and rigorously compares data from numerous studies conducted by experts across the globe. The Pritzker Consortium on Early Childhood Development, directed by Professor Heckman, recognizes the critically important role that the first five years of life play in determining human potential. For higher education, the new National Development Plan 2030: Our future – make it work (13 August 2012) by the National Planning Commission finally fills the gaps of the National Commission on Higher Education (NCHE) and the subsequent 1997 White Paper. National Institute of Social Development (NISD) an educational institution producing professional social workers to serve the social welfare system and to promote social development. The Sri Lanka School of Social Work at the National Institute of Social Development, functioning under the Ministry of Social Services, is the only institution that provides professional social work education in Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka School of Social Work conducts the three main academic programmes of the institute.
The training division conducts the Diploma programme in Counselling an eighteen month programme and several sponsored in-service and out-reach training programmes.
This degree aims to produce professional social workers with a good grasp of social work values, capable of managing social welfare services, competent to engage in quality teaching and research and promote peace and harmony in a multi-ethnic Sri Lanka.
The Mastera€™s degree aims to produce professionally qualified and managerially competent manpower to service the social welfare system and thereby promote Social development. This program is designed to provide advanced knowledge in social work encompassing a qualitative shift from knowledge acquisition to the development of analytical skills, critical appraisal and production of knowledge through critical inquiry. Within the field practicum period, students learn to apply the theoretical knowledge that they gained in class room lessons to real field (Ground) settings under the close supervision provided by trained professionals. The Diploma in Social Work programme is a full time two year programme conducted both in the Sinhala and Tamil media producing the much needed professional generic social work practitioners specially trained to work as effective social work interventionists in the country.
It is conducted through classroom teaching, on-site-teaching-learning and the course aims to produce generic social work practitioners.
This national diploma programme in child protection focuses on skills development of professionals in child protection, child welfare and the other related fields in Sri Lanka.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. China's National Minority Education: Culture, Schooling, and Development ePub (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open ePub (Adobe DRM) files. If you’re thinking of going to school or returning to finish your degree, you might want to consider going to college online. To get you going, we have listed 14 of the most affordable online colleges that offer bachelor’s degrees in Childhood Development. Holding the #1 spot for awarding degrees to Hispanics, and being recognized as one of the best values in public colleges, Florida International University Online offers online child development classes for students working towards their bachelors degree.
Get a child development degree online at Wayland Baptist University for an affordable rate.
For students who want to study childhood development while also exploring a Christian education, Wayland Baptist University might be the way to go. Work towards an affordable online child development degree at California State University with no on campus time required. California State University at East Bay offers an exciting online college program to students who wish to benefit from big university resources without the hassle of commuting and expensive tuition. Walden University offers a child development degree online for prospective teachers and educators. Walden University is a primarily online college that offers an online Child Development bachelor’s degree for serious students. Being a top online college, Northwestern State university of Louisiana offers an affordable online child development degree for students interested in pursuing a teaching career. Students in the Family and Consumer Sciences program at Northwestern State University of Louisiana who choose to earn a concentration in Child Development and Family Relations must complete 38 of the 120 required credit hours within the concentration. Ranked as #56 in online bachelors programs in 2014, Kalpan University offers an accredited child development degree online. Kaplan University offers a Bachelor of Science in Early Childhood Development that prepares graduates to take on careers in after school programs, daycare centers, and other childcare settings.
One of the benefits of attending a large, well known institution like the University of Phoenix is that you gain access to the wealth of resources available only to students at a top online college.
Ranked as a top national university by Forbes Magazine, the University of Wyoming offers future teachers several online child development programs.
The University of Wyoming may be best known as a fairly large state school out west, but it also has a reputable “Outreach School” aimed at providing professional students with the best online college classes possible. Brandman University offers a child development degree online for students interested in teaching the youth. Brandman University, part of the Chapman University system, is an affordable online college that makes accessible education a serious priority. Work towards an affordable online child development degree at Colorado State University for less than $10,000 a year. Colorado State University offers an innovative “Online Plus” program completely geared toward students who want to go to college online. The University of Washington offers a bachelor’s degree completion program through its online college division that is devoted entirely to early childhood and family studies.
For less than $7,000 a year, the American Public University offers a fully accredited online child development degree that’s accessible from any computer. Aspen University offers a child development degree online at affordable rates for students on a budget. Iris Stone began her writing career when she started working as a freelance writer and researcher in 2011. The paper viewed insecurity and corruption as major problems of science education development in Nigeria. IntroductionScience education deals with sharing of science content and process with individuals who are not considered traditionally to be member of the scientific community; the individuals could be students, farmers, market women or a whole community. Many of the developed worlds were able to achieve so much in science and technology because of science education.
The table below shows students ‘enrolment and performance in WAEC in the three subjects that make up science education from 2005-2009.
This paper focused on the importance of science education and problems militating against the development of it and the way forward.
Importance of Science Education to National DevelopmentScience education is very important to the development of any nation in many areas. Science and technology will not be possible without science education; for instance engineering, medicine, architecture etc will not be possible if there is no one to teach the students the core subjects needed for these courses. Many graduates of biology education are self employed and employers of labour; many owned schools for themselves where people works and earn their living while some are in to fish business.
If supported with fund many schools do not need to buy chalk outside anymore and they can equally produce for other schools.
The lives of nationals living in Nigeria are in perpetual danger of abduction or kidnapping.
Science infrastructures built with huge amount of money for schools had been destroyed while gas and oil installations vandalised; the resultant effects of these is on education. According to [11], these dropouts are used by politician as thugs, for assassinations and robbers robbing banks, poison the societies and make everybody feel unsafe.
A cultist who graduated in school through examination malpractices in many time end up in classroom as a teacher since teacher is the easiest job anyone could get in Nigeria because of lack of professionalism. CorruptionCorruption has eating deep into Nigeria system and it is manifesting in every sectors including education. In this case they neither supply the required specification nor the required quantity; in most cases they don’t even supply anything. Science teachers are not well catered for in Nigeria instead they are looked upon by the politicians as beggar.
According to [17] corruption leads to slow movement of files in offices, extortion in highways, ghost workers in work places, election irregularities and many more.
The world is in era of science and technology; every nation is craving for development in Information and Communication Technology [ICT] which cannot be fully achieved without science education. Lecturers in higher institutions have turned colleges and universities to supermarket shops where they sell handouts and books at outrageous prices. Where the scholarship is given to science students they introduce unnecessary bureaucracy into it that students may not get the money for many years or give up of the scholarship.


PoliticalNigeria has not been having a stable political system of government since her independence in 1960. EconomyNigeria is blessed with many natural resources on which her economy rest upon; however over dependent on petroleum has seriously affected the economy.
TeacherScience teachers are key factor to be considered when talking about the development of science education in any nation.
Many science teachers still hold to chalk and talk method which is not appropriate for science teaching in this age [3] Lack of good strategies in the teaching of science is affecting student performance and at long run affects student enrolment [16].
Way ForwardThere is no problem without solution, therefore what is happening presently in Nigeria as it affects the development of science education have solution if Nigerians are ready to pay the price. There should be no sales of handout in universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Someone who went to jail for stealing public money should not come out and become hero or king he should be seen as a bad person who has lost his respect and dignity.
ConclusionIn the light of the above review it is obvious that science education is very important to national development; insecurity and corruption are the major problems militating against its development in Nigeria. It then leverages the data to provide policymakers, non-profits, and the business community with more comprehensive and accurate research on the value of public investment in early childhood programs. The Consortium brings together the world's leading experts to identify when and how child intervention programs can be most influential, and has produced a growing body of research.
The Plan proposes a massified but differentiated post-school system, thus brining South Africa into the post-2000 global higher education community.
It is recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) as a degree awarding Institute, the Universities Act. This programme is conducted in two semesters of class room lessons followed by a six month long field practicum. It is designed in keeping with the qualification framework advocated by the Quality Assurance and Accreditation Council of the UGC in Sri Lanka. The paper discussed extensively onhuman capital development in TVE for sustainable national development in Nigeria.
According to Erhurua (2007) human capitaldevelopment presupposes investments, activities and processes that produce knowledge, skills, health or valuesthat are embodied in people.
Each remains in maturation arrest at the crossing-over stage until ovulation Each month one is ovulated Meiosis I not completed until ovulation Polar body Meiosis II not completed until fertilisation 2 nd polar body Zygote Oocytes, time and the completion of meiosis There may be a lengthy interval between onset and completion of meiosis (up to 50 years later) Accumulating effects on the primary oocyte during this phase may damage the cells spindle formation and repair mechanisms predisposing to non-disjunction. There are a lot of really wonderful online degree programs out there, and they’re usually much cheaper than traditional universities (who needs Harvard, anyway?).
In addition to being cheap options for your education, these schools are also of great quality, and many have been ranked with other elite schools by sources like U.S. WBU has a limited, accredited online college that offers Bachelor of Applied Science degrees in a few key areas: Applied Sciences, Human Services, Justice Administration, Business Administration, Religion, Management, and of course Early Childhood Development. This affordable online college even has a degree in Human Development, which is characterized by a cross-disciplinary study of biology, linguistics, sociology, psychology, and even anthropology. News, National University offers an accredited bachelors in child development degree online. The Education Department holds a special online college accreditation from National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), an organization widely considered the to set the standard for teacher preparation in K-12 education.
All of these courses, as well as the general education requirements, are available through the online college segment of the university, known as “eNSU.” Students also need to complete elective courses in specific fields, such as Culinary Arts, Early Childhood Education, Family and Consumer Sciences, and Hospitality Tourism and Management.
This entirely online college degree is a non-licensure program that focuses on various aspects of health, nutrition, ethics, lesson planning, child growth, and more, ensuring that you’ll be far ahead of the pack once you start seeking employment. Not only can Phoenix students attending college online major in Human Services with a concentration in Family and Child Services, they can also earn a valuable certificate in an area such as Family and Child Services, Gerontology, Human Services, or Addictions. In fact, UW offers an entire online degree program in Professional Child Development, which is mainly for adult learners who already have an associate’s degree.
The school offers classes that are each 8 weeks long and offered six times a year, giving motivated students multiple chances to jumpstart their education. A part of the reputable UW College of Education, this affordable online college program attracts students who have an interest in analyzing human behavior and applying evidence-based practices to early learning. Her freelance business soon took off and she now owns and operates a writing and editing firm that works with clients all across the country. As way forward the paper suggested life imprisonment for any corrupt individuals; government should invest on agriculture to provide job for people and scholarship for science students among others.
Science education in Nigeria concentrates on the teaching of science concepts, method of teaching and addressing misconceptions held by learners regarding science concepts. Launching of sputnik by the Russian government in October, 4 1957 would not have been possible if not for the position they placed physics in science education [21].
SecuritySecurity issue in Nigeria has been worrisome for more than two years now because of insurgence of Niger Delta and Boko Haram as averred by Horsfall [10]. Lecturers and students don’t know their fate every day until they retired to bed at night; even while sleeping they cannot sleep and close their two eyes because of armed robbers.
Majority of these dropout students are very brilliant who could have become renowned science educators the country would be proud of. Many brilliant students who should have been an asset for the academic institutions had been killed by terrorist while many had suffered untold hardship in the hands of kidnapper which later affected them both emotionally and academically. In Nigeria today it is not what you know but whom you know, that is why [14] said recruitment to job is tied down to criteria such as political favouritism, geographical area or quota system. Most of the science laboratories are empty building or buildings filled with fake or obsolete science equipment which are useful for nothing but mere demonstration.
Corruption makes school administrator mismanaged fund meant for purchasing science equipment and asked science teacher to make sure student still pass in examinations by all means.
Parents encourages their children to study science oriented courses which is good; children who have no ability for such courses opted for courses in humanity and art. Staffers of many polytechnics have taken over the affair of the institution because the chief executives are corrupt in awarding contract that never existed and mismanaged fund meant for science equipment. Stable political system of government is very essential to educational development of any nation [19]. The effect is on science education since science equipment and apparatus are inadequate in the country and the cost of importing these materials is high because of exchange rate.
The table below shows students’ enrolment in some years back in science in a college of education.
Nigerians must be ready to wage total war against corruption; it should be a war that everybody must take part in.
Violation of this law should be dismissal from the service and any book to be sold should be properly screen to know its worth in content and money.
If government can invent on agriculture, there will be job for the jobless and there will be improvement in economic security of the nation. However, there are other problems like unstable political system of government, poor economy, poor method of teaching and teachers’ attitude to teaching. Through this work, the business community is likely to gain new insight into the economic benefit and fiscal responsibility of supporting programs designed to help children five years old and under. However, the document has no conceptual framework to contextualise the proposals nor any implementation guidelines. Within the four year study period, two fieldwork placements (in the 2nd & 4th years) are conducted.
It implies building an appropriate balance and critical mass of human resource baseand providing an enabling environment for all individuals to be fully engaged and contribute to goals of anorganization or a nation. Effective implementation of TVE will lead to graduates acquisition of the required skills forgainful employment or future self-reliant for sustainable human capital development in the globalized world.TVE as an instrument for change and development and a provider of service oriented skills, which play asignificant role in economic revival for sustainable human capital development. In addition to TVE providing skilled manpower and reducing youth unemployment, it hascontributed significantly to economic development by reducing poverty through access to various income areas,supporting foreign investment and largely transforming attitudes of people to TVE (Adebambo, 2007). The non-disjunction involves only the single pair of chromosomes (meiosis I) or the single chromosome (meiosis II) shown; all the other chromosomes (not shown) disjoin and segregate normally. During prophase 1, matching chromosome segments pair, resulting in a cross-shaped tetravalent containing the normal and translocated copies of chromosomes 1 and 22. If one chromosome has an inversion compared to its homolog, they usually form a looped structure.
Students learn not just about child development, but emotional, mental, and physical growth at each stage of the lifespan.
This top online college program also meets the requirements for the Child Development Associates National Licensing Program, as well as those of the State of California Child Development Permits. One of the unique features of Walden’s programs is that it actually allows learners to specialize in one of eight concentrations, offering an unbeatable selection of customization options; you can choose the general track or opt for a focus area such as Preschool, Psychology, Family Health and Wellness, Child and Adolescent Studies, or Administration and Management.
Students in this accredited online child development degree program may also be happy to hear that they only need to take 33 of the 180 required credit hours in core classes – the rest are devoted to classes and electives related to their major. Online child development degree learners balance theory with practice as they spend time in virtual classrooms, explore electives, and absorb the latest research from the Haring Center and the National Center on Quality Teaching and Learning. Despite the time it takes to run a business she still does much of the writing herself, and her work has included a variety of content related to education policy, colleges and universities, academic programs, and graduates’ careers.
Many of the physics graduates have some knowledge of electronics that is enough for them to be able to have a little period of training as apprentices and then stand alone as electronic technician. Stretching the averment further, the former is politically motivated while the latter is religiously motivated; the reason for the insurgence is trivial to this paper but the effects on science education development is very germane.
These are many of the teachers we have in most of our schools; they got there through their godfathers who are politicians.
Cultists are all over the institutions of learning posing serious danger to academic communities.
Many of the teacher training institutions and universities cannot boast of the best academic staff because the best probably do not have godfather who can help them.
In many universities and research institutes, research has become history because government preferred to use research money for election or hire security for the family of government officials than science education research. When the time of employment come those who opted for humanity and art courses would be given job related to sciences without prerequisite qualification.
Military ruled for 34 years in Nigeria out of 53 years of existence as a sovereign nation; these years can be regarded as an era of colossus waste in both human and natural resources for Nigerians.
According to [7], all effort to shift focus of economy from oil industry to other economic activities has not yield positive result because of corruption.
Students don’t want to offer science in school because teachers are not making its teaching interesting; thereby affecting students’ enrolment in schools as seen in table below. There should be laws made specifically for corruption and this law must be enforced no matter whom the corrupt person may be. In these two Block field placements, students learn the practice of social work in communities and agencies under the close supervision of trained professional social workers. IntroductionEducation is considered the most effective means of bringing about total change that would ensure acceleratedeconomic growth and national development for any country. Any effort to increase human knowledge, enhance skills, productivity and stimulateresourcefulness of individuals is referred to as HCD.HCD as a process of increasing human knowledge, enhance skills increase productivity and stimulateresourcefulness of trainees should be systematic, sustainable and strategic. Prior andafter independence, the system of TVE in Nigeria was the continuation of the colonial system.
It consists of two successive cell divisions, producing four daughter cells (although in oogenesis only one of these develops into a mature oocyte; the others form the polar bodies). Each of the 23 structures is a bivalent, consisting of two homologous chromosomes, each having two chromatids. Note that we listed schools from most to least expensive, placing public schools based on the average of their in-state and out-of-state tuition rates. That being said, CSU’s program offers three course specializations in Adult Development and Gerontology, Women’s Development, and Early Childhood Development for learners who want to focus on a specific demographic. Students may choose to concentrate in Early Childhood Administration, Teacher Education, or Infants and Toddlers.
News & World Report as one of the top public schools, as well as one of the best universities in the south, and it is also listed as having one of the best online bachelor’s programs – clear evidence that eNSU is a top online college worth considering.
Students in this cheap online program (have you seen the tuition rates?!) learn about early childhood services, programming for older adults, supporting families in hospital settings, community outreach, and adolescent intervention in a setting that aptly combines theoretical coursework with field experience.
UW truly is one of the best online college options available, and is considered a top national university, a great choice for veterans, and a top-notch research institution, according to both Forbes and U.S. Perhaps most significantly, Aspen is recognized for its incredibly cheap online college tuition, but student-oriented websites like College Prowler have also noted its commitment to teaching and assistance available from college counselors.


Her interests actually span far beyond writing, and she is currently studying to be a physicist!
For instant, Semiconductor is very important in the modern technology that if properly learnt it is enough for one to stand upon for a living; semiconductor physics is part of what any graduate in physics will learn and should learn.
Worsen enough is science teachers also being cultist and encouraging all forms of examination fraud thereby discouraging hard work among serious science students. Appointment is no longer based on merit but on whom you know and the amount you can offer for such job. Those who originally studied sciences are schemed out of the job because of ethnicity; the attitude discourages young ones from studying science education. Male lecturers molest female students who are not willing to dance to their music of promiscuous life style. These leaders have no regard for education but concentrate on establishing their government for long years.
The law should touch every aspects of life; it should not be limited to money alone as it is presently.
The placements are full time and conducted during a total time period of twenty four weeks.
In Nigeria for instance, the educational systemoperated at post-independence placed emphasis on academic excellence rather than acquisition of technicalvocational skills which prepare the individual for a more useful and fulfilling life within the society.
The process should be systematic tothe extent that there should be a plan for which previous activities will provide support for upcoming activitieswhile facilitating the attainment of set goals. According to Alam(2007) human capital theory has powerful influence on the analysis of labor market.
Meiosis has two main functions: to reduce the chromosome number in the gamete to 23, and to ensure that every gamete is genetically unique. National University has received many recognitions over the years, including being listed as one of the best online colleges in the West by U.S.
This unique program prepares students for work in child development in several innovative ways, such as by requiring fieldwork, practicums, and an integrative capstone course.
You should note, however, that of the 120 credits needed to graduate, you will have to transfer at least 60 from a previous program. In [1] semiconductor, is very important in a growing economy like ours in Nigeria; it is useful in ceramic industry and a well trained physics education graduate can be well established in ceramic industry. All these discouraged students who want to study science education and killed the morale of those who are studying the course already. The few years of civilian rule has been years of lack of focus; government educational program changed according to the taste of the political party in power. This professional course anticipates the students to be committed learners working with people in need.
The process should be sustainable since the product (human capital)must make desired and enduring impact on the organization or society. Alam further noted thatinvestment in education and training produces benefit both to the individual, society and the nation as a whole.The return on investment for society and the nation will be a skilled workforce that will enable globalcompetitiveness and economic growth, while the return of the individual will be a better career path, increasedearning and a better quality of life. Amongst these is the problemof insufficient provision of instructional materials, tools and equipment. The truth is, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in Childhood Development, Family Studies, Early Childhood Education, or a related field can work in all these jobs and more.
News considers CSU a “top-tier” school, while Princeton Review named it a “Best in the West” option and Guide to Online Schools listed in in its selection of top online colleges for 2014.
Applicants to UW will be happy to hear that the institution has been recognized by heavy hitters such as U.S. Many science equipment and infrastructures are lying in waste in our schools because of instability in political government.
Attitude of many teachers to teaching are discouraging; they have been teaching for many years without upgrading their certificate by going for in-service training.
First, although theUNESCO Education for All (EFA) initiative has been successful in improving enrolment rates and the quality ofprimary education, a new problem has arisen in terms of how to promote employability among secondaryeducation graduates. The process should be strategic to theextent that there are well-defined goals and targets whose attainments are time bound.
Amaehule & Enyekit (2010) stated that effective implementation andutilization of TVE programs will inculcate the necessary skills and competencies that would help the youth to beself-reliant.
Experts in the field of TVE haveexpressed the necessity for adequate physical, human and financial resources to effectively execute a TVE basedcurriculum. That’s because degrees focused on childhood development are often interdisciplinary in nature and combine various aspects of education, psychology, communication, and social science. News and Forbes as a top national university, a best regional college, a top research institution, and a favorite among high school counselors. Secondly, global environmental, social and economic development trends provide arationale for TVE and human capital development, as a better skilled labor force is a required precondition forsustainable development, based on coping with environmental issues using appropriate technologies andmaintaining infrastructures that minimise pollution and reduce the greenhouse effect. Akaninwor (2001) in his study traced the technological backwardness in the country to lack ofinfrastructure and equipment for TVE. In advancednations individuals with technical skills and experience in relevant fields are highly respected and thuswork in tandem with those with formal education.
And these degrees are only becoming more valuable; for example, the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the need for preschool teachers will grow by 25% between 2010 and 2020!
The most important outcome of an effective HCD system is that it opens up decent employmentopportunities by enhancing workers’ abilities to secure and retain jobs, progress at work and cope with thechange. Puyate (2001) is of the view that instructional facilities should be lookedat vis-a-vis the curriculum in order to make TVE effective. The worth of every worker should depend on theperson’s skills and knowledge and not the stack of academic degrees one has.AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank all those who contributed to making this research successful. Whereas knowledge-based economies are likelyto increase employment opportunities for non-academic post-secondary and university graduates. Investment in priority areas of education and skills development become very important for reducing thegap between knowledge based workforce and a low-skilled workforce.
Alam (2007) states thatgovernments perceive increased demands for skills when the labor supply shows rapid growth, whenemployment grows quickly, or when employment increases significantly. He stressed on a TVE curriculum that will meet thepresent needs of the 21stcentury demands of the society. TVE isconsidered by development experts and donors to be a specific human capital development instrument that canbe effective in promoting socioeconomic progress. HCD has also emerged as the primaryand most effective means for reducing chronic absolute poverty, reducing gender-oriented and inter-generationalincome inequalities (Kazmi, 2007).HCD specifically improves skill levels of the workforce, impacts positively on economic growth, raisesproductivity levels and reduces unemployment Solow (Kazmi, 2007). They argue that governments havecalled TVE to help unemployed young people and older workers get jobs, reduce the burden on highereducation, attract foreign investment ensure rapid growth of earnings and employment, and reduce the inequalityof earnings between the rich and the poor. This work was sponsored by the ResearchManagement Unit, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.ReferenceAdebambo, K. Investments in TVE is seen as an approach to increasingeconomic competitiveness and reducing poverty increasing productivity, employability and sustainable nationaldevelopment (Wallenborn, 2010).2. Wagner (2005) stressed that TVE andprofessional training system would have a major positive impact on national competitiveness.
Colin (Alam 2008) also states that TVE can play vital role fordevelopment planning, but he warns that if the policy makers do not make it up?to?date, and TVE schools do nothave enough qualified teaching faculty and sufficient facilities to offer quality TVE, it will not be useful.
The ILO globalreport on information technology (2001a) points out that the full benefits of the new wave of technologicalchange cannot be appreciated without creating a striking balance of skills. This led to the establishment of the Nigerian Certificate in Education (Technical) (NCE,Tech) program.
Promoting a knowledge-basedeconomy puts a huge premium on acquiring an appropriate education and demand-driven skills.
Arriagada & Ziderman (Alam, 2008)criticize TVE, saying that it does not play an appropriate role in development and claim that the higherinvestment needed for TVE does not seems to be compensated for by high return. HCD hasreceived worldwide recognition as an important factor for achieving a rapid transformation of economies fromagrarian, to industrialized economies. However his definition ofTVE can explain a good significant role of TVE in development: “Vocationalization refers to effort by school toinclude in their curriculum those practical subjects which are likely to generate among the students some basicknowledge, skills and dispositions that might prepare them to think becoming skilled worker or to enter othermanual occupations”. Also, in the past,technical teachers were sent overseas for training because of the cost implication it was stopped. As elaborated in the ILOs World Employment Report 1998-99, demandfor skilled labour has been rising as a result of globalization, and the technological advancement has led tochanges in work organization. In recent times,they are trained through the Technical Teachers Training Program (TTTP) the resultant effect has been ashortage of teaching personnel in the technical schools. HCD is the intangible factor of the production that brings human intellect, skillsand competencies in the production and provision of goods and services. International Labor Organization (ILO) (2001b) claims that TVE isintended as a bold and courageous step to undertake, with the changing scenario for economic life by developinghuman capital for increasing productivity and sustainable national development. To compound the problem, the NPE just like the Ashbycommission recommendation ignored the issue of production of teachers for TVE. It is that human capability andproductivity engendered through knowledge and skills acquired from TVE, training and experience andfacilitated by an environment. Alam (2007) observes thatTVE not only benefits those who gain it through increased income, but also helps overall social development.The return on investment for the society will be a skilled workforce that will enable global competitiveness andeconomic growth, while the return for the individual will be an improved career path, increased earning powerand a better quality of life. Awakuna (2006) affirms thatthe problem of production of TVE teachers has resulted in their paucity which is one of the obstacles in TVE inNigeria.It was also noted by Aina (Agbolade, 2007) that government neglect in terms of inadequate funding of thetraining program has not helped the TVE teachers hence their insufficiency in the technical colleges.
Resource Allocation and Utilization as Correlates of Students Academics Performance inTechnical Colleges. Elements of human capital would include knowledge, skills, attitudes andmotivation belonging to an enterprise or society and engaged in the development of that enterprise or society tofulfil its objectives.3. According to Fagerlind & Saha (1989) the concept of ‘human capital’ suggests thateducation and training raises the productivity of workers and increases their earnings over their lifetime. Whilst theproblem of shortage of technical teachers exists in the country generally, a study carried out in one of the FederalColleges of Education (Technical) by Onyene eta’l., (2007) revealed that the teachers are qualified but fairlyadequate in the quantity needed. Concept of Technical Vocational EducationTechnical vocational education is defined according to Akerele (2007) as that aspect of education that exposesthe learner to the acquisition of demonstrable skills that could be transformed into economic benefits andsustainable livelihood.
Another study by Kalejaye (2007) revealed that present day technical teachersare good in theory but lacking in practice.
In the same vain, Ashaye (2007) countered this in his own studywhich revealed that technical teachers have practical knowledge but are hindered by lack of appropriateinstructional resources.Another problem of TVE in Nigeria is that it is seen by the society as education for the low status (Nwokomah,2005). Thus any education that is geared towards teaching technical skills andattitudes suitable to such skills can be regarded as TVE (Audu, eta’l., 2013). The Nigerian education systembefore independent and even after independence prepared students for basic "white collar jobs. According to Enyekit & Enyenili(2007) TVE includes preparation for employment in any occupation for which specialized education is required,for which there is a societal need, which can be most appropriately done in schools. The Nigerian society wrongly believes that those who are not academically biased study TVEsubjects. Curriculum Issues in Technical and Vocational Programs for SustainablePovertyAlleviation in Nigeria. It is because of this reason that most parents are not willing to encourage their wards to study TVEsubjects. In the proceedings of the conference of the Nigeria Association of Teachers ofTechnology (NATT), Lagos.Akerele, W. The urge for certificates and degrees in preference to technical vocational skills is as a result of thefact that when it comes to political appointments, leadership positions and decision making, degree holders indifferent fields are favored most than their counterparts with technical vocational skills (Nwokomah, 2005).4. ConclusionThe globalization process, knowledge economy and the emergence of new modes of production in the industriesin the 21stcentury has brought about new challenges for the developing economies and their labor markets.
Toface these challenges, it is imperative to be competitive in the world market, which to a large extent is driven byscientific and technological innovations. Education and training require to be made need-oriented, multi-skill andflexible to meet changing needs of the local industry and overseas demand.
However, there is a clear indicationnow that human skills plays an important role in sustaining the current pace of growth through enhancedproductivity of human capital.



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