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admin | Category: Improving Erections | 13.10.2014
Empirical investigations of the role of human capital require accurate measures across countries and over time. It is widely accepted that human capital, particularly attained through education, is crucial to economic progress. Our earlier studies (1993, 1996, and 2001) constructed measures of educational attainment of the adult population for a broad group of countries. The new data improve on our widely used earlier information by using more observations of censuses, surveys, and enrolment-rate figures and by employing better methodology. We use the new data to estimate the relationship between education and output based on a production-function approach.
Source: Country fixed-effects instrumental variable (IV) estimation in Table 6 of Barro and Lee (2010). Our improved dataset on educational attainment should be helpful for a variety of empirical work. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. Barro, RJ and JW Lee (1993), “International Comparisons of Educational Attainment”, Journal of Monetary Economics, 32:363-394. Barro, RJ and JW Lee (1996), “International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality”, American Economic Review, 86:218-223.
Head of the Asian Development Bank’s Office of Regional Economic Integration (OREI) and Acting Chief Economist.
This chart shows ending age of compulsory education or legal school leaving age around the world.


This column describes a new dataset on educational attainment for 146 countries at 5-year intervals from 1950 to 2010. An increase in the number of well-educated people implies a higher level of labour productivity and a greater ability to absorb advanced technology from developed countries (Acemoglu 2009).
We use consistent census and survey data compiled from UNESCO, Eurostat, and other sources to provide benchmarks for school attainment by gender and age group. The estimates for the group of advanced countries, East Asia and the Pacific, and South Asia are the highest at 13.3%. For example, our previous estimates have been used to study the linkages across countries between education and important economic and social variables, such as economic growth, fertility, income inequality, institutions, and political freedom. The ending age of compulsory education states the minimum age which a person is legally allowed to leave compulsory education. It is only through our work together as parents and a religious community that we can teach our children our shared beliefs and values.
All children in grades Pre-K – 12 who will be attending RE must be registered in advance. The new data, freely available online, use more information and better methodology than existing datasets. Empirical investigations of the role of human capital require accurate and internationally-comparable measures of human capital across countries and over time. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age groups among the population aged 15 years and over (see Barro and Lee 2010). We use enrolment-rate data to fill in missing observations at 5-year intervals by forward and backward extrapolation from the benchmark statistics.


Thus in 2010 the gap between rich and poor countries in average years of schooling remained at 4 years, having narrowed by less than 1 year since 1960 (see Figure 1). The results imply that, on average, the wage differential between a secondary-school and a primary-school graduate is around 77% and that between a college and a primary-school graduate is around 240%. We anticipate that the new data will help to improve the reliability of these types of analyses.
Among the many new results is that the rate of return to an additional year of schooling on output is quite high – ranging from 5% to 12%.
As part of this analysis, we construct new estimates of mortality rates by age and education level. In 2010 the level and distribution of educational attainment in developing countries are comparable to those of the advanced countries in the late 1960s.
These estimates control for the simultaneous determination of human capital and output by using the 10-year lag of parents‘ education as an instrumental variable for the current level of schooling.
We also use estimates of completion ratios applicable to each country and level of schooling.
These estimates are close to typical Mincerian return estimates found in the labour literature.



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