Education and training for the 21st century white paper,survival games update error,storming juno critica,tornado preparedness kit list kilimanjaro - PDF 2016

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Enter your details below to receive a free course guide and a consultation with a Course and Careers Advisor. Companies need new techniques to train their professionals for the challenges of the 21st century.
With the end of the millennium upon us, many writers have put time and ink into considerations of how things will be different in the next century. Assuming that our information and technology systems survive the dreaded "Y2K" computer problem, the most accurate answer for most next-century questions may actually be a rather anticlimactic one: In the 21st century, things will be very much like today, only more so. Managers began coming to grips with 21st-century issues when they realized that most professionals had computers on their desks and telephones in their pockets and that both of these systems use networks to connect people who are often significantly removed from each other in time, space, thought and emotion. The biggest challenges for business leaders of the next century are going to revolve around coming to understand fully how global business practices have evolved - based on advances in the use of technology as well as the ability to connect with others and to be contacted by others, almost anywhere and anytime.
Consider that there has been more information produced in the last 30 years than during the previous 5,000 and that the information supply available to us doubles every 5 years, according to Mr. The differences between 1990 and 2000 will probably be less ex-treme than the differences between 2000 and 2010, as we experience a world that is demanding not only a rethinking of management competencies, but a fundamental redefinition of the social contract between employer and employee, between colleague and colleague, between worker and work itself. Major leadership challenges for the 21st century can be grouped into three categories: market forces, people issues and leadership competencies. Market forces will continue to drive change in organizations at a macroeconomic level, and these forces will demand more from our organizations and our leaders. Larger organizations in most industries gain economies of scale as they distribute overhead expenses across more units of production.
In contrast to demand-based market forces, the supply of human capital is undergoing a pervasive and powerful shift. In the minds of many managers, people issues involve relationships with the staff of an organization.
What may not be apparent to tomorrow's managers is that tomorrow's staff will have very different expectations of, and demands on, their organizations; importantly, the employee-employer relationship in the best organizations of tomorrow will look very different than it did in the 20th century. Diversity will become a strategic differentiator and not merely a desired demographic profile. As the work force continues to grow more diverse, those able to accept individual differences in the workplace and to look at them as a source of creative energy and productivity will have access to a larger and more talented work force. There are market aspects to this people question as well - specifically in terms of continuing to attract and retain the best people.
In a quickly changing world, talented human capital will be a prime ingredient of business success. A new critical portfolio of leadership competencies - the need for many of which we have seen coming for some time and for which we ought to be better-prepared - will make the situation more complex.
The evolving nature of business conducted by global organizations will also call for a fundamentally different kind of leader.
In light of these 21st-century leadership challenges, how can organizations best approach the challenge of developing true leaders? We should note that our consideration of the issues of management education and development is based primarily on the situation in professional services firms. To address the leadership challenges of the next era of global business, traditional degree-granting programs and professional schools as well as traditional methods (for example, books, lectures, discussions, case studies) will continue to be necessary, but increasingly not sufficient. Most pointedly, the traditional learning methods most commonly employed in management education provide learning experiences that are inadequate in several respects: 1.
Provide accurate, timely feedback: Theories of adult learning always include the provision of accurate, timely feedback to the intended learner.
Increase People- and Time-Sensitivity: The opportunity to reach out and touch someone at almost any time or place puts a premium on the ability to be sensitive to others and their time. Create realistic practice opportunities: Why is it that most professions, with the exception of business, actively incorporate practice activity into the learning process?
Teaching masters to teach - or giving them incentives to spend time teaching - is a significant challenge, but it has an enormous upside potential. Create lifelike situations: When the cost of mistakes is high in terms of lost lives, health or human welfare, extensive simulations have been developed to train people in the skills necessary to reduce the risk of mistakes or to improve the quality of response to a crisis. Permit opportunities for problem-finding and issue diagnosis: Most textbooks and instructional aids focus on providing users with exercises, problems or vignettes of a situation to be analyzed or solved. Use master-apprentice relationships: Business educators in formal educational programs are rarely masters of business.
Create mentor-protege relationships: An extension of the master-apprentice challenge for business education mentioned above is a lack of real mentor-protege relationships. Threaten ego or job security: Significant life events, particularly those that are unexpected and personally threatening, have the ability to create years of learning in only a few moments.
Questions of leadership and management are ultimately social questions - they involve how groups of people work together and interact. The terms of these new contracts are only beginning to be understood, but prescient business leaders (and those interested in developing the effective leaders of tomorrow) have already begun to address the issues. The terms of these new social contracts in organizations (see accompanying article, page 46) will be substantially different from those of past generations.
Effective professional development in the future will focus less on rote learning of tools and study of cases, and more on experiences that guide the learners to ask such questions as What can go wrong? In the next century, the keys to business will be considering the full range of stakeholders and insuring that all members of the organization are treated fairly and equitably and that they feel central to the value proposition of the organization. What may be required above all, however, is a fundamental rethinking of the value of, and approach to, business education and learning - where what was traditionally called training is re-created more broadly as professional development, and where the goal is not merely transferring knowledge but building differentiated and self-regenerating professionals who are positioned to deal with unforeseen challenges, excel in their work and grow as quickly as their environments and responsibilities demand. The primarily economic model of corporations from the 20th century may be inadequate for the future, and needs will continue to change in the next 20 years. The main challenge with respect to stakeholders is balancing their different interests in both the short term and the long term. The primary tool for addressing the problematic privileging of one stakeholder group over others is the company's values and mission statement, or statement of purpose. While the exact details of the new social contract have not yet been fully articulated, what is clear is that companies will increasingly need and desire an expanded portfolio of skills and competencies in their people. A culture of entrepreneurship with good overall business understanding, including independent initiative and leadership, responsiveness, fast decision-making and flexibility.
A true valuing of teamwork, collaboration and cooperation - without sacrificing a sense of urgency and a focus on results.
Increased appreciation of and respect for individual contributions made while working in a team environment. To close this loop, the very best organizations and employers will look for (and require) individuals who are willing to uphold this new contract and are capable of creating every day through their work an organization that grows along with the needs and demands of its employees as well as the market and society. Articulation of how the organization's mission, vision and values align with personal mission, vision and values. Openness and willingness to accept feedback - and a willingness to respond or move on in one's career.
Ability to offer a fair day's work while taking responsibility for one's own work-life balance.
Mark David Nevins, Mark David Nevins is the director of training and development for Booz-Allen & Hamilton's worldwide commercial consulting business. Articles published in strategy+business do not necessarily represent the views of the member firms of the PwC network. With roots in multiple disciplines, these degree programs prepare the administrators, faculty, and policy makers who direct the current and future higher education enterprise. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges PDF (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open PDF (Adobe DRM) files. This sort of fin-de-siecle prophesying is nothing new: Human beings seem ever mesmerized - no less today than were the medievals 1,000 years ago - by the symbolism of the end of a millennium.
Organizational leaders have been struggling with the same challenges in various forms for the last 10 or 20 years and have yet to find generalizable solutions. According to Price Pritchett in "New Work Habits for a Radically Changing World" (Pritchett & Associates, 1998), since 1983 the work force in the United States added more than 25 million computers, and the number of cellular telephone subscribers jumped from zero in 1983 to 16 million by the end of 1993. It is a truism that our lives as managers and professionals (including how we communicate, how we work together and even how we think and feel) differ significantly now from our lives before the ubiquity of personal computers, cell phones and network connectivity essentially reformed our communities. For these purposes, market forces can be viewed as the cumulative effects of the behaviors and wants of those in the market either demanding or supplying a good or service. The supply of labor is more diverse, and individual workers must possess a greater degree of technical expertise to be successful.


These issues are traditionally housed under human resources away from the core business and are seen as nice to attend to, but not critical. With their increased complexity and globalization, organizations are demanding skills and abilities from their leaders that are only beginning to be understood, never mind mastered. The managers of tomorrow are growing up in a world where diversity is a productive, exciting and enjoyable reality, not a target achieved by setting quotas; today's most promising youth have known nothing but the postmodern world, wherein many of the traditional taxonomies, structures and borders (including those of race, ethnicity and other age-old social dividers) have not only been called into question, they have been subverted or simply ignored. Typical of postmodernity's general questioning of the idea of objectivity, there will increasingly be many right ways of doing most things - not just one right way as articulated in the employee policy book or previous norms of behavior.
In 1991, nearly one out of three American workers had been with his or her employer for less than a year, and almost two-thirds for less than five years, according to Mr. Businesses will have to accommodate the shift of power from owners and senior management to knowledge workers, while at the same time professionals will become less concerned with the traditional concept of a career and more interested in what we might term self-fulfillment. Strategic focus and vision, coupled with a practical sense of when to be flexible and adaptable, will be most critical for survival. Answering this question means considering traditional models and methods for management education, examining how these are evolving and highlighting new approaches. Our experiences have been most intensely in professional services (such as management consulting, accounting, taxes, audit, law, executive search, advertising and public relations).
To develop professionals for success in an environment of strong market forces, changing people issues and shifting leadership competencies, a new educational model will have to be forged. They fail to provide accurate, timely feedback on competency development in the areas most germane to success. They are insufficiently people-sensitive and time-sensitive (attributes that are critical in many performance-oriented professions such as litigation and acting).
They need to create better practice fields (as in competitive sports) or practice sessions (as in music training) for skill development. They should include lifelike situations, including crises, for learning under pressure (similar to state-of-the-art flight simulators for pilots). They must permit problem-finding and issue diagnosis as a central part of the experience (the learning method used in most professional services firms).
They should use master-apprentice relationships in the learning process (as is done in dentistry and medicine as well as in craft trades) so as to guide an effective ongoing development process. They need to create mentor- protege relationships to facilitate continuous learning beyond the formal educational process (like methods used to develop mastery in sports as well as the performing and visual arts). They should threaten a trainee's ego and job security by placing him or her on the firing line to prosper or fail based on decisions and actions (consider survival training for the military or difficult developmental assignments for multinational executives). Is it not possible for professionals to learn all that they will need to know through reading, classroom activity, computer-based instruction and vicarious experiences?
Feedback - either as the confirmation of one's ideas or approach, or information that indicates disconfirmation or error - is necessary for people to update their beliefs and expectations regarding the outcomes of their future actions.
It is easy to be intrusive or curt without necessarily knowing it - particularly via phone (intrusive) or e-mail (curt). Other professions have developed learning methods that require the learner to demonstrate the value of his or her learning through degrees of mastery and excellence. Their ability to develop students as apprentices is minimal, and their interest in doing so is often equally low.
Such relationships would typically evolve between senior professionals and their junior counterparts. Some unexpected events are disasters that start people thinking again about the safety of others and the environment. Increasingly, 21st-century challenges are forcing the creation of new social contracts between companies and their employees. For example, the prestigious Aspen Institute, which for the last 50 years has engaged groups of senior executives and other powerful public figures in discussions of the great works of social and economic philosophy, recently created a seminar titled "Shaping the 21st-Century Corporation," with the aim of facilitating dialogue on the question of the role of the corporation of the future, and its relationship with its employees and the world around it. Each organization will have to decide how the contract should be adapted and tailored to its environments and needs - but ignoring the imperative for a redefinition of the essential employer- employee contract will undoubtedly lead to disaster for organizations in which leadership skills and highly motivated and talented people are critical to success. Short-term success may not necessarily depend on taking this new social contract seriously, but those organizations that do not address these fundamental issues will probably not have much at all to worry about in the longer term, because they will join the many once-successful businesses that have quietly disappeared. Organizations prospering at the end of the 20th century that have begun proactively to deal with these questions and challenges are going to be well-positioned to succeed. Executive-level courage is needed to fight off owners asking for more short-term profits - often the most pressing problem, but an insidious one because it hides behind the glitter of short-term rewards and immediate gratification. If the mission statement says that the primary value is wealth accumulation for the owners or stockholders, then focusing on short-term profits is to be expected.
For their part of the bargain, organizations will be expected to provide a set of processes and systems that not only are maintenance-focused, but are driven directly by the business's core value proposition and reflect a valuing of the individual employee's professional development. He has global responsibility for formal and informal training and development programs for all of the firm's professional staff.
Reviews and mentions of publications, products, or services do not constitute endorsement or recommendation for purchase. At a time when higher education is changing rapidly, these programs are poised to frame the future of an educated society. The common feeling now seems to be that resetting the calendar with so many zeros will mark a period of discontinuity with the past (even though - as purists like to note - the 21st century actually begins on Jan.
Barring radical changes in human nature, the next few generations of managers will probably be found working through the same issues that they and their predecessors have been struggling with for much of their careers - only more so.
In 1993, more than 19 million people carried pagers, and close to 12 billion messages were left in voice mailboxes. Marshall McLuhan was astoundingly prescient with his ideas about a future global village, and historians of management will certainly look back one day with some amusement at a business era avant la technologie.
The truly successful managers and leaders of the next century will be determined not by what they know but by how fast they can learn. These forces include increasing globalization as well as (if recent trends are an indication) the creation of increasingly massive multinational organizations through mergers and takeovers.
Being global, or more precisely, offering products or services in a variety of countries and cultures, increases the size of the market to be served. At an absolute minimum, companies must be able to accommodate diversity; the most successful companies will leverage their diversity to create new ideas and better match these differences to work demands. With the advent of the 21st century, these people issues are increasingly establishing themselves at center stage.
One of the most important of these will be the ability to balance employee needs (globally) and customer wants (globally and locally) - a balance that will become harder to strike, and to strike profitably and efficiently, in the coming years.
The work itself will increasingly demand the use of interdependent teams, as few individuals will be capable of knowing and doing it all. Demonstrating flexibility and empathy, while remaining true to the core values of the organization and finding ways to circumvent unpredictable impediments, will be characteristic of tomorrow's leaders. As suggested earlier, the best answer needs to be expressed in terms of the wants and needs of both the employee and the organization and the ways the evolving nature of that relationship will be integral to the success of the enterprise. And the professional-services environment is an excellent laboratory for considering the benefits of management education, given that the business of these firms is essentially management itself.
Traditional models fall short in their ability to link the knowledge, skills and concepts covered to the practice of leadership within actual work organizations. The timeliness of feedback involves both the time between the behavior and the feedback, and the ability of the intended recipient to hear and understand the message. It is equally easy to fail to keep relevant parties personally informed (all e-mail users are not equally engaged in their e-mail) or to secure the necessary buy-in from key stakeholders.
Even most business internships - the primary way in which business education tries to provide business experience for students - are not practice sessions.
While case studies can permit some problem-finding and issue diagnosis possibilities, the amount of information excluded by the case writer is enormous. In contrast with other professions, one might be led to believe that management is something that need not be known in order to be taught. The essence of such relationships is the desire on the part of the mentors to share with, care for and develop more junior professionals - often out of a desire to regenerate their wisdom in another person. Other unexpected events are less severe - they may be breaks from ways people have done things in the past, or they may be events that go beyond the responsible parties' ability to forecast. This trend of revising demands and expectations on the part of both employer and employee will certainly continue in the next century, and in the best organizations it will take center stage. Executive seminars at the most important business schools, not to mention professional meetings and conferences for management development professionals and educators, have also begun to create forums to discuss how to realign the wants and needs of an organization with the constituent members who represent its most valuable assets.


The challenges for developing the next century's successful managers and leaders are no less intimidating. Other stakeholders to be considered on an issue-by-issue basis are indirect owners (bond-holders, debt-holders), communities and regulators (government). If the purpose and value proposition are broader and include employees, customers, clients and others, then it is the leadership team's responsibility to balance the value to these multiple stakeholders accordingly. This book examines all aspects of how Higher Education programs operate - from their marketing, focus on student affairs and community colleges, the emergence of online programs and core curricula. They will be characterized not by how they can access information, but by how they can access the most relevant information and differentiate it from the exponentially multiplying masses of non-relevant information.
Coming hand in hand with increases in scale and a global footprint are a greater diver-sity in the work force and deeper requirements for specific technical expertise. Technology advances have greatly reduced the costs of reaching these different geographically dispersed markets.
At the same time that organizations struggle with increasing deregulation (open and free markets), they will have to contend with an older work force that will find it difficult to stay abreast of change. Less than half of the work force in the industrial world will be holding conventional full-time jobs in organizations by the beginning of the 21st century: Every year more and more people will be self-employed, temporary or part-time. Constant training, retraining, job changing and career changes will become the norm in the 21st century.
The social contracts that organizations make with their people will be as important as the value propositions they convey to the marketplace and their customers - and the truly superb organizations will have a seamless union of external and internal value propositions. The key issues, as we see them, relate to the themes of leadership, relationship-building and collaboration - because it is through attaining mastery in these areas that organizations and their leaders in the next century will survive and flourish. Client service through focused, developmental assignments is, in effect, the raison d'etre of many professional services firms. In many ways most training currently being offered in business contexts is not well-suited to the active and experiential learning styles and needs of adults, and these traditional methods will be even less suited to the development and education imperatives of the next century. The power of computer-based learning is derived, in part, from the computer's capability to provide accurate, near-immediate feedback.
As with most one-way modes of communication, there is a significant gap between what is in the sender's mind and what is in the receiver's.
In most internships the nature of the tasks done and the amount of supervision, coaching and feedback are quite dissimilar from those of the real job.
For the most part, business organizations have not considered the potential cost of threats (such as loss of market share, contamination of the environment, unemployment or underemployment, or loss of stockholder wealth) serious enough to warrant the investment in building simulations to train their leaders.
Professional services firms, particularly those in the business of defining problems (such as law firms and consulting firms), have found ways to educate their professionals on the processes of problem-finding and issue diagnosis. Medicine, dentistry and the performing arts - among other professions - seem to have made a different assumption.
The protege's role in the relationship is to express interest in and value learning from someone of greater wisdom - and in many cases the most important role of the protege is to maintain the momentum of the relationship by reaching out for contact.
While learning usually occurs after the event in these cases, such need not be the rule: We do not need to be surprised in order to learn, and we can contemplate the future through developing "what if" scenarios and conducting threat analyses.
We have sketched out some of these issues and have suggested ways to build and develop the competencies and skills critical for success.
The failure to understand and respond to any of these stakeholders will lead to underperformance, inefficiencies and significant delays in taking productive actions. Like most things in this life that are worthwhile, recognizing the answer is the easy part; actually implementing it requires vigilance, rigorous discipline and a senior management body committed to keeping the organization truly aligned with its core values - forever. Authors from a broad and diverse spectrum of institutions map the current setting of Higher Education programs with an eye on future directions for their livelihood and survival.
They will excel not by possessing traditional skills and tools, but by demonstrating a high degree of flexibility and adaptability in dealing with both technology and people and by being able to stay constantly meaningfully connected to others in the ever-changing world. However, the market forces to increase size and go global do not necessarily lead to organizational survival.
The United States' contingent work force - consisting of more than 45 million temporaries, self-employed, part-timers and consultants - has grown 57 percent in 15 years.
However, it will be an organized chaos wherein lies great opportunity and potential for those managers adept, flexible and intelligent enough to seize it and make it their own - rather than being owned by it. The concepts of the 30-year career and the gold watch upon retirement will be completely anachronistic. Additionally, professional services firms provide a powerful window into understanding the challenges of developing future leaders, considering the not-insignificant challenge of managing these kinds of firms.
The growing use of 360-degree feedback in work organizations (also known as multi-rater feedback or a rounded appraisal process) supports both the need for and the benefit of receiving information on how others see one's performance. Sending an e-mail message and getting a response later is not the same as a face-to-face meeting or even (to consider a new mode of social discourse) a chat room discussion. The concepts of recitals, scrimmages, dry runs or dress rehearsals are seriously lacking in formal business education.
The invention of complex, behaviorally focused leadership simulations and war games has helped to reduce this gap in professional development.
Much of the challenge is in providing a partially defined yet still ambiguous situation for learners to tackle. A significant degree of personal mastery is necessary for the key skills and concepts to be passed from one person (the master) to another (the apprentice). The lack of such opportunities in formal business education is driven by the functional and course focus of the curriculum as well as the frequent lack of any practice experience on the part of the faculty.
Of the 100 largest United States companies at the beginning of the 20th century, only 16 are identifiable today. Yet successful businesses will be those that do not forsake their own strong histories and foundations and do not undervalue their past learning and the ability to think metaphorically - because in these postmodern times what is old can rapidly become what is new, even at the same time as what is new today is nothing like what was new yesterday.
The common characteristics of these new leaders are all related to issues that are more focused on the intangible aspects of an organization. Such feedback provides the recipients with an understanding of how those with whom they interact - peers, bosses, subordinates and even customers - perceive their actions.
With the exception of small group work, most business education fails to incorporate relevant others into the learning experience. Such simulations involve intensive, interactive experiences that recreate organizational life in important decision-making groups. An overabundance of data without a clear understanding of which data are useful and which are not seems to be a key aspect of the learning stimulus. Formal business education's reliance on books, lectures and instructors who do not (or cannot) do what it is they teach is an impediment to professional development. Considering more recent history, of the companies in the Fortune 500 in 1970, fully one-third had ceased to exist by the early 1980's.
Over time, those would-be leaders who are unwilling or unable to demonstrate these leadership behaviors will find themselves with few followers. Simulations, role-playing and other experiential activities provide opportunities for peers, instructors and observers to provide timely feedback. They generate leadership and managerial behaviors that are easily recalled by participants and observed by a trained staff, facilitating later review and discussions.
And during the 1980's a total of 230 companies - 46 percent - disappeared from the Fortune 500. With such feedback, participants are able to adjust their thoughts and intentions - with the presumed goal of improving performance and receiving more favorable feedback in the near future. Since the participants control the simulations, it is the participants' styles, actions, goals and interests that are played out to provide a lifelike situation from which to learn.
Individuals in this method are teamed with preceptors, whose primary role is to monitor, coach and apprentice the manager-participant in the key skills of leadership. Stumpf, author of several books and articles on strategic leadership, is dean of professional development at Booz-Allen & Hamilton.



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