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Please take this 5 minute survey to evaluate the ways to sustain and support the UDL Center. In the context of technology, accessibility most commonly refers to providing access for all people to web environments, including people with disabilities.
The National Center on Universal Design for Learning website was designed to be compatible with screen readers in order to increase its accessibility.
Specialized formats of curricular content that can be used by and with learners who have print disablilities and include: braille, audio, large print, and electronic text. The student, who is visually impaired, relies on several different forms of accessible instructional materials in order to access her printed textbooks. A change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student. The idea or belief that schools and teachers must take responsibility for measurable student learning. As part of the state's accountability system, all students must take a state-wide English Language Arts and Mathematics assessment.
The teacher was concerned because he noticed a change in the student's affect; usually she was energetic and lively, and today she appeared disinterested and preoccupied. Networks in the brain that enable us to engage with learning; networks specialized to evaluate patterns and impact emotional significance to them. Image description: This medial view of the brain shows the limbic lobe, site of the affective networks. Preferences for movies, motivation to get up early and go to the gym, and nervous feelings before a big presentation are all everyday examples of your affective network in action.
Federal law that protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in the operations of public businesses and governments.
When teaching how to draw, the art teacher used an apprenticeship model, giving novice students hands-on experience and the opportunity to learn from more experienced peers. Learners make progress when the task they put their minds to is neither overwhelmingly difficult nor boringly easy. The student found that Lois Lowry's The Giver was written at an appropriate level of challenge.
Assessment is described as the process of gathering information about a learner’s performance using a variety of methods and materials in order to determine learners’ knowledge, skills, and motivation for the purpose of making informed educational decisions. Assessments can provide teachers with data regarding students' progress and can also inform teachers regarding the effectiveness of their instructional techniques.
Devices or services that are used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability. Text-to-speech (TtS) software is an assistive technology that reads any digital text aloud. A general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness; skills become automatic after extended periods of training with practice and good instruction.
Image description: This avatar is a digital image of a young girl with ribbons in her hair. The students created avatars to look like themselves: they had choices in hair, skin, eye color, and even in the types of clothing. The student is unable to decode the text of a short story he is assigned for his English class. A nonprofit research and development organization that works to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through Universal Design for Learning. A procedure of breaking up learning materials into manageable sections (e,g., grouping of words in sentences into short meaningful phrases). Instead of asking the student to complete the entire chapter in one night, the teacher and the student worked together to chunk the assignment into more manageable pieces. Live or animated support provided by an agent to help the performance of a task; aimed at improving the performance of the learner. The teacher used several techniques to develop students' cognitive skills during the lesson. An umbrella term for the variety of approaches and models in education that involve the shared intellectual efforts by students working in small groups to accomplish a goal or complete a task. As a final project for the unit on The Revolutionary War, the teacher wanted to focus on collaborative learning. A visual display that supports comprehension by depicting the relationships between concepts within a learning task. Changing the font size and increasing the sizing of images helped the student to see the math item more clearly; this change was construct irrelevant to the math skills being assessed by the item. The UDL framework can be applied to all aspects of the curriculum in order to decrease barriers and increase opportunities for learning. Since the student was not able to decode the text, he was not able to access the meaning or to fully participate in the class discussion. An approach to teaching that includes various approaches to content, process, and product in order to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs. Differentiated Instruction and UDL share the same goal: to maximize learning opportunities for all students. A book, article, or other published material that can be retrieved by and read via an electronic device.
The principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States.
A method for measuring knowledge and ability where evaluations are part of the learning activity rather than happening after the fact. A term used to describe students who are in the process of acquiring English language skills and knowledge; some schools refer to these students using the term limited-English-proficient (LEP). Associated with the prefrontal cortex in the brain, these capabilities allow humans to overcome impulsive, short-term reactions to their environment and to instead set long-term goals, plan effective strategies for reaching those goals, monitor their progress, and modify strategies as needed. In order to support the student's executive functions in an assessment situation, the teacher provided him with a graphic organizer indicating all the items on his test.
The teacher provided the student with constructive feedback on ways to improve his project on the water cycle. Curricula designed to be adjustable from the beginning, so it can adapt to the needs of diverse learners without significant add-ons.
The teacher found that it was more efficient to create flexible curricula that accounted for all learners from the start rather than modifying preexisting curricula. Special education and related services provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge mandated by IDEA. Assessments given primarily to determine what students have learned in order to plan further instruction during the instructional episode; by contrast, an examination used primarily to document students' achievement at the end of a unit or course is considered a summative test. The teacher's use of formative assessment allowed her to adjust her daily lessons and instruction in order to maximize just in time learning.
In order to support his students' writing, the teacher provided graphic organizers to facilitate the organization of their ideas.
The 2008 reauthorization established the first statutory definition for universal design for learning. A piece of text or a graphic within an electronic document that provides access to content within another document or website. While searching the web, the student clicked on a hyperlinked word, and a new window with a definition of the word. A federal law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation, IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities. A student-centered and teacher-guided instructional approach that engages students in investigating real world questions that they choose within a broad thematic framework; students acquire and analyze information, develop and support propositions, provide solutions, and design technology and arts products that demonstrate their thinking and make their learning visible. As part of the inquiry-based instructional unit on green energy, students were responsible for collecting information about the school's energy efficiency, developing at least three recommendations, and presenting these recommendations to the school board. Materials that teachers use to teach and students use to learn (for example, printed text, digitized text, speech, images). For the unit on the Civil Rights Movement, the social studies teacher included a range of instructional media: video clips, the era's most popular songs, primary source documents, and a slide show of photographs. The 3rd grade team worked together to design an integrated unit on the ocean that incorporated content in marine biology, geography, ecology, history, mathematics, and literature. Subject matter benchmarks used to measure students' academic achievement; guidelines published by professional organizations or enacted by government specifying what is to be taught and learned.
Refers to the IDEA’s mandate that schools educate students with disabilities in integrated settings, alongside students with and without disabilities, to the maximum extent appropriate. An effective way to allow a reader to focus on the more relevant information of the text; done by covering up unnecessary text as well as hiding other distractions.
The teacher encouraged some of her students to place a piece of paper under the line of text that they were reading. The teacher used mastery-oriented feedback to notify one student in her reading group how he was doing.
Materials are usually seen as the media used to present learning content and what the learner uses to demonstrate knowledge. In order to develop students' ability to manage information, the English teacher created a checklist of the materials that they were responsible for bring to class each day: grammar textbook, ELA textbook, and their writing manuals. As an ongoing theme throughout the school year, the teacher worked to develop students' media literacy. Something inherent to the mode of presentation that is immaterial that obstructs or impedes access to and or use. The small font size of the student's copy of The Call of the Wild presented a media-specific barrier since the student could not clearly see the words on each page. The school created a "Reading Buddies" program where sixth grade students act as mentors to first grade students during reading time.
At the end of the school year, the teacher asked students to reflect about their learning over the course of the year in their journals as a way to develop meta-awareness. The process of "thinking about thinking." For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text. Methods are generally defined as the instructional decisions, approaches, procedures, or routines that expert teachers use to accelerate or enhance learning. A category of function; for example, vision, hearing, and touch are different sensory modalities. In order to incorporate a range of modalities in the lesson on the life cycle of plants, the teachers encouraged students to touch, smell, and feel the different seeds that were on the table. In order to demonstrate proper technique, the teacher modeled to students how to begin to dissect the frog.
When a curriculum modification is made, either the specific subject matter is altered, or the performance level expected of the student is changed; a curriculum modification is made when a student is either taught something different from the rest of the class or taught the same information but at a different level of complexity. The student's IEP team decided to make a modification to the unit on Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Combining several media in one presentation; for example a multimedia Web page may combine text, graphics, audio clips, and video. The student's multimedia presentation on climate change impressed her audience; her peers and her teacher were highly engaged by her use of graphics, video, and audio clips. The teacher used multiple means of action and expression to assess what students had learned during the unit on the nervous system; students had the option of creating a diagram, an animation, a magazine article, or a poster. To ensure that the activity offered multiple means of engagement, student choice was built in as a way to provide students with a sense of autonomy. A group of more than 40 national organizations that advocates for the incorporation of UDL in federal, state, and district education policy. The 2001 re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)-- the principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States.
A federal agency under the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts. In order to assess the student's optimal knowledge, the student was provided with models and prompts during the activity.
Providing choices and flexibility in the manner or in the way a task or item is approached. Providing flexibility in the selection, method, or way a user may respond to a task or item.
A method for measuring knowledge or ability based on a student's performance on a test or given task.
The teacher used performance-based assessments to determine how students were arriving at their answers while performing a task, rather than just assessing after the activity was completed.
A systematic collection of a variety of teacher observations and student work, collected over time, that monitor growth of the student's knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific subject area; can be print based or digital. During a parent-teacher conference, the teacher shared the student's portfolio with the parents in order to discuss the student's progress. Includes printed textbooks and related printed core materials that are written and published primarily for use in elementary school and secondary school instruction and are required by a SEA or LEA for use by students in a classroom. Teaching approach that engages students in sustained, collaborative real-world investigations.
Jim Geier is the founder and principal consultant of Wireless-Nets, Ltd., an independent consulting firm assisting organizations with the development and deployment of wireless networks. THP collaborates with leading experts to produce evidence-based policy proposals that foster prosperity through broad-based, sustainable economic growth.
THP forums bring together key policy makers, academic experts, and business leaders to discuss ways to address our nation’s most pressing economic challenges. THP charts, maps, and tables highlight economic policy challenges through dynamic interactive features. THP proposals and research introduce innovative, evidence-based economic policy options into the national discourse.
The Hamilton Project supports policies that foster economic growth and broad-based participation in that growth. Over the past three decades the gap in earnings between workers with high levels of education and those with less education has grown substantially (see Fact 2). Over the past 20 years both high- and low-income students have made strong gains in math achievement, with the share of fourth-grade students scoring at or above proficiency in math in 2014 substantially higher than in 1996.

Large differences in skills between high- and low-income students make it especially daunting to address disparities in student achievement, in part because these disparities reflect broader economic challenges such as the large share of children living in poverty and, in particular, the high concentration of poverty at the school level. There are several promising interventions that have been shown to improve test scores and high school graduation rates, especially among low-income students living in areas with high concentrations of poverty. Skills are an important determinant of workers’ earnings and employment opportunities. It is important to note, however, that tests of both cognitive and soft skills are correlated with other factors that influence employment outcomes, such as educational attainment, parents’ income, and the neighborhood environment. The gap in earnings between high-school-educated and college-educated workers has more than doubled in the United States over the past three decades (Autor 2014). In recent decades the growing earnings premium for education has contributed substantially to the net growth of earnings inequality. Despite a slowing pace, educational attainment in the United States has gradually risen over the past 35 years, as shown in figure 3.
Nonetheless, many researchers worry that skill levels among young people in the United States are far too low.
There is concern among some researchers that public policies aimed at improving skills and educational attainment are too often evaluated on narrowly defined criteria such as conventional cognitive test scores. Fact 4: Americans who did not attend college form a larger share of those who live below the poverty line. Conditional on attaining a bachelor’s degree, the choice of what to study is also an important predictor of lifetime earnings. Fact 5: An additional year of schooling increases earnings and reduces the likelihood of an individual being unemployed, on welfare, or in poverty. Measuring the direct effect of education on economic success is no straightforward task: not only does education improve skills, but students with higher skill levels are more likely to pursue further education.
To isolate the effects of educational attainment on earnings, Messacar and Oreopoulos (2012) take advantage of changes to state laws governing minimum school-leaving age. Fact 7: On average, states with higher concentrations of children in poverty receive less antipoverty (Title I) funding per child. Title I of ESEA is the primary source of federal funding for schools with high concentrations of poverty. The negative relationship between share of students eligible and funding per eligible student is due in large part to the interaction between Title I’s chronic underfunding and the complex Title I formulas that distort allocations in the absence of full funding.
Fact 8: Average performance among low-income students declines as their population share increases. High poverty concentrations pose a challenge, in part because average test scores among low-income students decline as the share of low-income students increases. However, some states with similar shares of low-income students have very different levels of proficiency. Average earnings among women with college degrees have increased dramatically over the past 25 years.
Although not all teachers are female, teaching remains the second-most popular occupation for women (U.S. Earlier work found that salary increases during the 1980s did not improve the quality of new teachers entering the profession (Ballou and Podgursky 1997). In a recent poll, 60 percent of undergraduate students reported some interest in a teaching career. States predominantly rely on income and sales taxes for education funding, which can provide wealthier states more resources for education (Oliff and Leachman 2011).
It is worth noting that spending also varies substantially within states and even within school districts (see Fact 11). Federal, state, and local education spending for public elementary and secondary schools totaled $620 billion in 2012, the most recent year for which data are available. Local school funding is predominantly raised from property taxes, which make up 81 percent of total school revenue (NCES 2015c). In cases where variations in property values lead to wide disparities in local revenue for educational spending, state and federal funds can serve to offset these differences.
The persistence of these gaps suggests that intervening early in life may have lasting benefits, and that a number of early-life interventions, as shown by figure 12, may help children to develop the foundational cognitive and emotional skills needed to successfully complete later milestones, such as high school graduation (Murnane 2013).
Three programs focused on preschool-aged children have substantially improved high school graduation rates, especially among students at greater risk of dropping out. In addition, early-life interventions outside of school settings have been shown to increase high school graduation rates. There is strong evidence that a variety of high school‑age interventions, most of them targeting students from low-income and minority backgrounds, have successfully increased high school graduation rates. The limbic lobe includes primitve cortical tissue (stippled area), the fontal lobes, and underlying cortical structures (hippocampus and dentate gyrus, not shown). She was able to comprehend the dialog and storyline, and she was challenged by a few vocabulary terms that she needed to look up in the dictionary.
Even though he understands the language and story structure, he is unable to read for understanding since decoding is a barrier to his learning. However, in the image on the right, the items are chunked, and the student is responsible for completing only the first 3 items at one time. She asked students to make predictions, ask clarifying questions, and summarize information. The class was responsible for writing and producing a fifteen minute play that would capture a critical event that took place during the War.
However, he realized that identifying the symbols for a math calculation problem is a construct relevant change to the assessment item.
The distinction between the two frameworks lies within the goal; DI focuses on differentiating with a focus at the student level, whereas UDL focuses on designing flexible curricula with the needs of the broadest range of students in mind from the start. From 2001-2009, the law was known as the No Child Left Behind Act but is again referred to as ESEA in current policy discussions.
She stated that she was impressed by the visual that he created to depict water's journey, and she suggested that he may also want to include labels for each step. Concept maps, story maps, advance organizers, story webs, semantic maps, and cognitive organizers are all commonly used graphic organizers. This definition incorporates the three principles of UDL--representation, expression, and engagement--and emphasizes reducing barriers with appropriate supports and challenges built into instruction.
When individual forms of instructional media (text, video, audio) are combined to represent information in multiple ways they are called multimedia.
This strategy allowed the students to focus on one line of text at a time and masked the other text on the page. Rather than telling him he was "very smart," she commented on how he was working hard at answering in complete sentences. She used an array of formats to present content, and she varied the media with which students could use to express their learning.
Expert teachers apply evidence-based methods and differentiate those methods according to the goal of instruction. To "practice what you preach." In regular practice and behavior, the teacher is a model of thoroughness, or self-evaluation, or courtesy, or whatever else is expected of students. Instead of reading the original work, the student would read an abridged version written at his individual reading level.
Students are different in the ways that they express their knowledge; therefore, it is crucial to allow them to express verbally, physically, with written text, etc. Students are different in the ways that they will become interested or motivated to learn; therefore, it is crucial to provide multiple ways to engage learners.
Students are different in the ways that they perceive and understand information; therefore, it is crucial to provide different ways of presenting content. Department of Education, OSERS supports programs that help educate children and youth with disabilities, provides for the rehabilitation of youth and adults with disabilities, and supports research to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities. Projects are organized around a driving question, and students participate in a variety of tasks that seek to meaningfully address this question.
His 25 years of experience includes the planning, analysis, design, implementation, installation, and support of numerous wireless network-based solutions for enterprises, municipalities, hospitals, universities, airports, warehouses, and product manufacturers worldwide.
Educational attainment is a significant determinant of a range of measures of well-being, including an individual’s likelihood of marrying, owning a home, or living a long life, as well as her likelihood of being arrested.
For the past decade we have emphasized that evidence-based improvements to public education are essential to the success of our economy and society.
For men, median real earnings increased only among those with college or advanced degrees: their earnings are 29 percent higher than they were in 1980. In 2014 a majority of public school students nationwide attended high-poverty schools—defined as schools in which more than 40 percent of students are low-income (see Fact 6).
The charter school sector serves a small but increasing share of students, and achievement gains among students attending these schools can be quite strong in some cases (see Fact 14).
No test perfectly measures the skills relevant to economic success, but tests that aim to measure analytical ability often do correlate with outcomes in the labor market.
The right panel of figure 1 shows on the horizontal axis a combined index of three scales that measure social skills, self-esteem, and the extent to which a person believes that her own actions, as opposed to forces outside of her control, determine rewards and success in life. This makes it difficult to measure precisely the relative importance of these other factors compared to skills in determining a young person’s later economic success.
Although a large number of developed countries show a similar trend, the United States appears to have the largest skills premium—that is, the gap between the wages of low- and high-skilled workers. Roughly two-thirds of the overall increase in earnings dispersion between 1980 and 2005 is accounted for by the rising returns to schooling—primarily the growing premium to postsecondary education (Goldin and Katz 2007).
Economists continue to study this question, but a number of studies point to the interplay of supply and demand for skills.
The share of young women with college degrees almost doubled, from 21 to 39 percent, and young women are now more likely than young men to have a college degree. Historically, successive generations have attained more education at a rate of approximately one additional year of schooling every decade; for example, individuals born in 1930 averaged about 11 years of schooling by the time they reached age 30, compared with 13 years for people born in 1950 (Goldin and Katz 2008). For example, in the 1960s the Head Start program was thought to have fallen short of its goals because it did not permanently raise the IQs of its participants. Workers lacking college degrees today are much more likely to be employed in low-wage, low-skilled occupations than were such workers in the past (Kearney, Hershbein, and Jácome 2015). In an empirical simulation, Hershbein, Kearney, and Summers (2015) test what would happen to earnings if one-tenth of the men without a college degree were to obtain one. For the median graduate, total lifetime earnings range from close to $800,000 to more than $2 million depending on the major, as shown in a Hamilton Project economic analysis (Hershbein and Kearney 2014). In other words, the education wage premium can be attributed partly to selection (the tendency that students who go on to college already have higher levels of cognitive and soft skills) and partly to treatment (the direct impact of additional years of schooling).
Research demonstrates that concentrations of low-income students are more expensive to educate across several dimensions (Downes and Pogue 1994; Duncombe and Yinger 2004).
The purpose of Title I, particularly its schoolwide program, is to allocate more money to schools with concentrations of poverty. For example, Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Jersey all have a share of low-income students that is just under 40 percent, but there is a difference of nearly 20 percentage points in the share of low-income students scoring at or above proficient. While the average female college graduate working full-time earned an inflation-adjusted $56,204 in 1993, by 2014 her earnings had grown almost 20 percent to $67,088.
Department of Labor [DOL] 2014), and three-quarters of public school teachers are female (NCES 2015a). Since then, though, the accountability movement has realigned incentives so that schools today are more likely to be evaluated by student performance.
When asked what policies might induce them to join the profession, the top responses included increasing pay for every teacher and, in particular, increasing pay for high-performing teachers (Hiler and Hatalsky 2014). Instructional spending includes salaries and benefits for teachers, textbooks, supplies, and other purchased services for extra- and cocurricular activities (NCES 2012b). As a result of varying resources and preferences for education across states, a student in Vermont may receive as much as $95,000 more in instructional expenditures from kindergarten through 12th grade (adjusted for cost of living) than a student in Utah (NCES 2012a). The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 introduced requirements to report school-level spending, which will bring unprecedented transparency to these spending differences.
Although the population of students has grown by 40 percent since 1960, per-pupil spending has increased by 274 percent (NCES 2014a).
Since wealthy families tend to live in affluent communities, increasing the tax base and revenues for local schools, their children’s per-student spending is typically higher in these districts than in poor districts. Beginning in the 1970s, many states have reformed their school finance systems to address this inequality. Recent work on cohorts born in the 1960s and 1970s has shown that access to the Food Stamp Program from the time of a child’s conception through age five increased high school graduation rates by 18 percentage points (Hoynes, Schanzenbach, and Almond 2016).
Figure 13 graphs the percentage point increase in the high school graduation rate for several high school interventions, with the per-student net cost of the intervention displayed below the bars when applicable. They will determine which option in the mode for presenting information will work best for her in this assignment. In this book, leading wireless expert Jim Geier systematically presents all the information and guidance that network architects, engineers, administrators, and managers need to maximize the performance and business value of new 802.11n networks. As the following fourteen facts demonstrate, the evidence makes an overwhelming case for policy changes in education. Men with less than a bachelor’s degree have seen their real earnings stagnate or decline, with an especially large drop among workers with the lowest levels of education. However, there remain large and persistent gaps in skills between high- and low-income students, as illustrated in figure A.
At the state level, performance among low-income students declines as the share of low-income students in the state increases (see Fact 8).
For example, the left panel of figure 1 shows a correlation between scores on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) and earnings in middle age.
The upward sloping pattern indicates that, by this measure, those with higher noncognitive skills also earn more, on average. Compounding this difficulty is the fact that skill formation is a cumulative process in which experiences in early childhood and adolescence lay the foundations for future learning. In part, the magnitude of this gap reflects the fact that the inflation-adjusted earnings of workers with high levels of education have risen much more over the past 35 years than have the earnings of less-educated workers, as shown in figure 2.
To exclude the effect of the very top and bottom of the earnings distribution on growing inequality, one can compare earnings at the 90th percentile of the wage distribution to earnings at the 10th percentile.

In The Race between Education and Technology, Harvard economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz (2008) make the case that the U.S.
As shown in Fact 2, this has coincided with large increases in the wage premium for women with college degrees. But for individuals born around 1950 and later, this pace was roughly cut in half, even though the economic returns to education have increased (see Fact 2).
This kind of write-off may be premature in light of evidence from early childhood interventions such as the Perry Preschool Project, which had lasting benefits that were not picked up by conventional measures of cognitive ability (Schweinhart et al. Fully one-fifth never finished high school, and over half have a high school diploma or less. As a result, it would be incorrect to infer that giving a college education to someone who would have otherwise obtained just a high school diploma would cause her earnings to increase by the size of the gap between high-school-educated and college-educated workers. Among those working at least 25 hours per week, an additional year of compulsory schooling is associated with a 10.7 percent increase in annual earnings.
Department of Education (ED) classifies schools with 40 percent or more low-income students as high-poverty schools (Lippman, Burns, and McArthur 1996, 18).
For example, schools with high shares of low-income students have higher teacher attrition rates due to difficult working conditions such as larger class sizes and lower-quality facilities (Greenlee and Brown 2009; Murnane and Steele 2007). As discussed in Fact 8, low-income students are more likely to struggle in school and require additional support. A new Hamilton Project policy proposal by Nora Gordon, "Increasing Targeting, Flexibility, and Transparency in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to Help Disadvantaged Students” (2016) discusses the causes of this dilemma and offers potential policy solutions. The national average for the share of low-income students scoring proficient or better is 18 percent, compared to 48 percent for the rest of the student population. Teacher pay, on the other hand, has been stagnant over these years, dropping slightly from $58,048 to $56,689. As alternative labor market opportunities for women have expanded, teaching has become a relatively less attractive career path (Murnane and Steele 2007). As argued in Duncan and Murnane (2014), a well-designed accountability system can promote improvements in school practices, such as greater willingness to use resources and to work together in new ways to better promote students’skill development. The pay and prestige disincentives among the best and brightest to teach may pose an especially large problem for high-poverty schools, where work environment challenges associated with teaching in such schools, including lower parental engagement and leadership instability, further compound the opportunity costs to becoming a teacher (Simon and Johnson 2013).
While schools in the Northeast spend $8,000 to $13,000 or more per student on instruction, schools in western and southern states typically spend much less (NCES 2012a). Ensuring that students have equal access to a quality education across all states is a key rationale for federal involvement in school funding (Rentner 1999; ED 2012).
Federal education funds flow to states primarily through grant programs, such as funding for low-income students through Title I of ESEA and special education grants through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1990.
As a result, revenues raised for school spending can differ dramatically due to differences in property values and tax rates. Often reacting to mandates from courts that found local finance systems unconstitutional, states have moved away from funding based primarily on property taxes and have implemented state aid formulas that direct more money to low-income and low-tax-base school districts (Lafortune, Rothstein, and Schanzenbach, 2016). Furthermore, the income achievement gap remains as the child advances through school (Reardon 2011). The success of these childhood programs points to the lasting benefits of intervening well before students enter high school. Note that we do not mean to suggest that these are the only effective interventions, but instead that these are the interventions that have been rigorously evaluated. Net costs for each of these interventions are hard to estimate, but are generally thought to be modest. The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools and society. 89-329), legislation signed into United States law on November 8, 1965 as part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society domestic agenda.
Accessing the general curriculum: Including students with disabilities in standards-based reform.
He is the author of numerous tutorials and other publications and has developed and instructed dozens of training courses on wireless networking topics.
A strong education system is fundamental to ensuring that all Americans have the opportunity to acquire the skills they need to thrive.
In contrast, women have seen their real median earnings increase across all education levels, with a nearly 40 percent increase among college-educated women. Math proficiency rates among low-income students were still lower in 2015 than high-income students’ rates in 1996. This may partly reflect differences in access to resources: while education spending overall has steadily increased each decade over the past 50 years (see Fact 11), spending is highly uneven across states because most local education budgets are funded by state and local revenues (see Fact 10).
Stronger analytical skills as measured by the AFQT correspond to higher wages, resulting in the upward sloping pattern shown in the figure. The relationship between this noncognitive index and earnings is similar for men and women: a 10-point increase in the noncognitive index is associated with about a 7 percent increase in earnings for both men and women.
This cumulative feature is partly attributable to perceptions of elf-efficacy: early success at learning not only makes later skill-building easier, but also shows that effort has rewards, which can create a self-reinforcing motivation to continue learning (Heckman 2006). Individuals born around 1985, who were 30 years old in 2015, averaged 14 years of schooling.
Those with household incomes between 100 and 299 percent of the federal poverty line, or annual incomes between $24,000 and roughly $72,000 for a family of four, are much more educated: roughly four in ten have completed at least an associate degree, and only about one-third of them have a high school diploma or less.
There is compelling evidence that effective teachers in early childhood impart large gains to society through their students’ subsequent gains in earnings and other life outcomes (Chetty et al. However, research that isolates the causal impact of additional schooling does find that additional years of schooling improve outcomes. These results may be understated because education earnings gaps tend to increase with age and these results focus only on younger cohorts. Schools with high concentrations of poverty also face higher student turnover because low-income students tend to change schools more often (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES] 1996, figures 3.14). However, the negative trend in figure 7 shows that states with higher shares of low-income students receive less Title I funding per eligible student. Gordon explains that a small state minimum leads to states such as Vermont receiving a disproportionate level of Title I funding.
In states with high concentrations of low-income students, this figure is as low as 7.4 percent.
As shown in figure 9, both college-educated women overall and school teachers in particular saw their wages decline through the Great Recession. The average starting salary for an education major in 2014 was $40,267, the only category to see a decline from the previous year (National Association of Colleges and Employers [NACE] 2014). Emphasis on school accountability also increases pressure on teachers to improve student test scores and serves as a disincentive to working at a low-performing school (Murnane and Steele 2007). After adjusting for differences in living costs across regions (as proxied by variation in average earnings across states), the spending gaps narrow slightly but remain: northeastern states spend almost twice as much as western and southern states.
The federal role in funding education grew with the 2001 reauthorization of ESEA, known as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, and temporarily increased further with the economic stimulus package in 2009 through additional grants for Title I and IDEA, along with State Fiscal Stabilization Fund grants for education (ED 2009). In Texas, for example, the Fort Sam Houston school district receives only $265 in local revnue per student, while the neighboring Alamo Heights school district receives $13,007 in local revenue per student (NCES 2012a).
Once state and federal spending are included in the example of Texas school districts above, the gaps are reduced dramatically: total revenues per student in Fort Sam Houston are $14,640, compared with $15,607 in Alamo Heights. Furthermore, it is estimated that the Perry Preschool intervention, which provided high-quality preschool to black children, had positive effects on a number of outcomes, including increased earnings and lower rates of crime among participants.
New York’s small schools initiative has been successful in raising graduation rates (9 percentage points) particularly among black males (11 percentage points, or from 31 to 42 percent), a group that has historically had some of the lowest graduation rates (Bifulco, Unterman, and Bloom 2014). Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping.
108-446, establishes the NIMAS as a national standard and requires states and local districts to adopt the NIMAS for providing textbooks and instructional materials to students who are blind or print-disabled. Each phase of wireless LAN deployment is organized into clearly defined steps, and multiple case studies and hands-on exercises show how to apply each technique. Jim has been active within the Wi-Fi Alliance, responsible for certifying interoperability of 802.11 (Wi-Fi) wireless LANs.
Identifying ways to close these achievement gaps is perhaps the largest challenge facing K–12 education today. In fact, some northeastern states spend about twice as much per student as states in the South and West, even after adjusting for variation in cost of living. A similar relationship holds for measures of a range of analytical skills, such as verbal reasoning and problem solving. Emerging research has found that both cognitive and soft skills can be taught, but that the teachers who are effective at raising cognitive skills are not necessarily the same teachers who are effective at imparting soft skills (Jackson 2012; Kraft and Grace 2016).
The flip side is that impediments to early learning can have cumulative negative effects on later skill formation.
Gains in earnings for women with a bachelor’s degree or an advanced degree were more than twice as large as those for women with a high school diploma, some college, or an associate degree.
Fully 95 percent of its growth between 1984 and 2004 was attributable to rising returns to education (Fortin, Lemieux, and Firpo 2011).
The labor market’s demand for analytical skills, written communications, and specific technical knowledge increased dramatically.
From 1980 to 2015 the share of American men age 25–34 that completed high school inched up from 86 to 90 percent, and rose from 85 to 91 percent among women.
In particular, by age 10 the IQ scores of the participants were no higher than those of the control group, but the participants did show more motivation to learn, and by age 40 they were more likely to have graduated high school, to be earning higher salaries, to own a home, to be less dependent on welfare, to have had fewer out-of-wedlock births, and to have not been arrested. Among households earning 300 percent of the federal poverty line or more, over 90 percent have at least some college education. The state with the highest share of students attending high-poverty schools is Mississippi, at nearly 92 percent, and the state with the lowest share is Minnesota, at roughly 17 percent. Title I of ESEA provides supplemental funding to school districts with large numbers or concentrations of low-income students. Because Title I is the primary mechanism for the federal government to distribute school funds across states, this negative relationship is counterintuitive and suggests that the funds may not be targeted appropriately in the status quo. Additionally, a provision known as hold harmless, which allows districts to continue to receive allocations based on allocations received in previous years, prevents Title I funding from adapting quickly to structural changes in poverty levels across states and districts. This stands in stark contrast to 1960, when teachers earned on average 13 percent more than their fellow female college graduates, and even in contrast to 1980, when teachers earned 4 percent more (Hurley 2013). Among those who chose to teach directly after college, those who scored in the highest quarter on college entrance exams were less likely to be observed in the profession 10 years later than were those who scored in the lowest quarter; 13 percent of teachers reported leaving the profession altogether due to low pay (Alt and Henke 2007). Despite increases in the federal share of spending, from 6 percent in 1990 to a peak of 13 percent in 2010 and back to 10 percent in 2012, the vast majority of school funding comes from state and local levels.
Preschool attendees graduated high school at rates 20 percentage points higher than nonattendees (Schweinhart et al. The additional cost per student per year of the small schools initiative was about $850, and falls to nearly zero when accounting for differences in teacher salaries and student populations (Unterman 2014). For engaging with learning, UDL materials offer alternative pathways to success including choice of content where appropriate, varied levels of support and challenge, and options for recruiting and sustaining interest and motivation. He has also been active with the IEEE 802.11 Working Group, responsible for developing international standards for wireless LANs.
The rate of high school completion (including GED attainment) among young women also increased, rising 6 percentage points over this period to 91 percent.
As seen in the figure, the relationship between AFQT scores and earnings is different for men and women: a 10-point increase in AFQT is associated with about a 15 percent increase in earnings for men but an 11 percent increase for women. Such obstacles are particularly troubling given that the effects of skills on economic outcomes reach far beyond earnings; early childhood test scores are correlated with high school graduation rates (see Fact 12), college attendance, marriage, home ownership, and retirement savings (Chetty et al. However, earnings for women at all education levels tended to increase at a higher rate than they did for similarly educated men. In other words, if the education premium had remained constant, there would have been essentially no increase in wage inequality between 90th- and 10th-percentile workers. Between 1900 and 1980 Americans kept pace by steadily increasing their level of education, reflecting in large part the country’s commitment to a secondary school system essentially free and open to all (Goldin and Katz 2008). While education is a strong predictor of income, there is still considerable variation in education within income groups. If low pay for teachers in early education dissuades potentially impactful workers from going into the field in the first place, the result could be costly to society in the long run.
As shown in figure 6, southern states tend to have the largest shares of students attending high-poverty schools. For convenient reference, Geier also provides an extensive, up-to-date wireless networking glossary. He served as Chairman of the IEEE Computer Society, Dayton Section, and Chairman of the IEEE International Conference on Wireless LAN Implementation. The share of young men who completed high school also rose, but by less than the gains among women (see Fact 3).
Skills measured as early as kindergarten have a positive impact on adult earnings (Chetty et al.
The differences may be partially explained by a lower initial level of earnings for women relative to men. For example, among households living below the poverty line, about 20 percent have at least one member who has completed an associate degree or more. Jim’s education includes a Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in electrical engineering, with emphasis in wireless communications.
His 25 years of experience include analysis, design, implementation, installation, and support of wireless network-based solutions for cities, enterprises, airports, manufacturers, warehouses, hospitals, and other facilities worldwide.
Black and low-income males experienced particularly sizeable gains in high school graduation rates from assignment to smaller classes (Murnane 2013). He is author of more than a dozen books, including Wireless Networks - First Step and Deploying Voice over Wireless LANs (Cisco Press) and Implementing 802.1X Security Solutions.

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