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May 3, 2014 by Shannon The definition of permaculture is pretty simple: an agricultural system or method that seeks to integrate human activity with natural surroundings so as to create highly efficient self-sustaining ecosystems.
Subscribe to our newsletter, and get this FREE PRINTABLE cheat sheet with our most popular green cleaning recipes! Permaculture is an ecological design system for sustainability in all aspects of our lives. Here, I’ll keep a running tab of any useful information or resources relating to the Permaculture movement. Get the "GREEN: Clean" cheat sheet for FREE when you sign up to our newsletter, and learn how to make your own natural household cleaners! TweetMany states are scrambling to identify low-emission power sources to comply with federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions, but Michigan is blessed with affordable, reliable, zero-emission hydro power to help meet the restrictions.
In 1880, Michigan demonstrated the potential for hydro power when a hydroelectric turbine in Grand Rapids provided the first public demonstration of hydro power in the United States.
Hydro power is the least expensive electricity source, with production costs substantially lower than wind, solar, nuclear, and natural gas. Earlier this year, EPA announced plans to require a 30-percent reduction in nationwide power plant carbon dioxide emissions. Taylor received his bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College and his law degree from the Syracuse University College of Law, where he was president of the local chapter of the Federalist Society and founder and editor-in-chief of the Federalist Voice.
Be able to dump the maximum current your combined wind and solar systems will throw at it at once. The photo below shows a dump load resistor mounted on a piece of threaded bar (allthread) that is simply screwed into a hole in the woodwork. There are other kinds of resistor, for example these aluminium housed ones that are not suitable on their own. The problem with using 3.1 ohm resistors at 12V nominal is that the voltage for dumping is only 14 or 15 volts, so the current will only be 4-5 amps. When selecting a dump load for the tristar controller, you will have a range to choose from. I don’t understand why we should care about maximum diversion load if Tristar diverts excess current only?
Hi Kees, You need to understand the relation between the battery and the wind or solar charging sources. The battery voltage will rise as the turbine charges it (pushes current into it) but it will be close to its nominal level. Do I understand it right that this would not have happened with a Tristar with a dump load ? Kees, Your battery must have suffered some bad damage before it got to 19.6 volts (or possibly just some bad connections) but in a well designed system that would not be a likely thing to happen.
So long as you have capacity to divert all of the incoming current to dumps then there is total control of the battery voltage. You are right that higher voltage systems are more efficient but the higher voltage Dc is a bit harder to switch. I don’t recommend you rely on car batteries for energy storage unless you have no alternative. Good day, I have a solar system which has a 48 volt system, the batteries are charged from a Microcare 40 Amp MPPT ccontroller, this works just fine. You can set the voltage close to the settings of the microcare unit and it may (at times) dump the current coming in from that but that won’t matter, so long as they can regulate the total incoming current between them at a suitable voltage. Thanks for the above, I will look into it, I presume the terminals of the tristar are to be connecter to the battery terminls direct? For example if you have 9 batteries then you could use 2 tristars configured for 48V (each on a 4 battery string) and one configured for 12 volts for the remaining battery.
If you use a generator and wish to EQ with it (which makes very little sense to me) then what I suggest is to use a relay on the generator output that disables or modifies the tristar by acting on the battery-sensing wires.

Regarding dump loading: I purchased the PWM Tristar45 for the hydro dump control some months ago. I want to use my electric hot water heater as a dump load for wind generator ( for that matter a pre heater for my hot water demands).
Sometimes you can find grid voltage heaters with multiple elements in them and you can connect them in series instead of parallel so as to reduce the power they use from an inverter and match the power of the wind turbine that way. I use an MPPT charge controller that I set to 100VDC from the turbine (1500 watts 72 volt coil) The charge controller locks in the 100V and jsut increases current to load the turbine.
Turning to the charge controller, the way I normally do this is to divert current from the battery to a dump load. I initially went with a 48 volt coil (to match the batteries) in the turbine but found the high currents (up to 30 amps at 60 volts) burnt out my coil. With reference to using a higher voltage and less current in the stator, this is exactly cancelled out by the higher resistance of the longer, thinner wire in the stator to achieve a higher voltage. If you dump into diversion loads directly off the battery (which I recommend) then the turbine will not be affected at all since it will not know anything about it. When you say the controller pulses the load and the wind turbine slows that makes me think the controller is putting load directly onto the turbine and not the battery. Willem Van Cotthem experimented with this vertical gardening system using recycled plastic bottles stacked and attached to a fence. Nurture and I started learning about permaculture a couple years ago – right around the time we began our journey to green. Permaculture teaches us how to build natural homes, grow our own food, restore diminished landscapes and ecosystems, catch rainwater, build communities, take care of waste and much more. It teaches us to create settings and construct ecosystems which have the diversity, stability, and the resilience of natural ecosystems.
Policymakers in the Great Lakes State would be wise to take advantage of these hydro power resources. Continuing to harness the power of water and gravity, Michigan now has dozens of small hydroelectric dams producing power. Hydro power also tends to be less expensive than coal power, which has long been the backbone of U.S. Unlike wind and solar, hydro power is reliable and not dependent on when fickle winds blow and when darkness doesn’t obscure the sun. With EPA ramping up its carbon dioxide restrictions, adding more hydro power is a no-brainer. Taylor is a senior fellow for environmental policy at The Heartland Institute and managing editor of Environment & Climate News, a national monthly publication devoted to sound science and free-market environmentalism with a circulation of approximately 75,000 readers. I made a three resistance choice dump load from 10 watt 100 ohm resistors purchased from Maplin for ?18.50p. According to your explanation if the wind turbine is only producing 2 amps and the battery is full, the Tristar will only divert those 2 amps into the heater, and not more.
The charge controller does the MPPT and converts the 100v to battery charge voltage, lets say 50V. If the dump resistance is too low and the batteries are fully charged and the wind is strong the PWM constantly pulses the load and the turbine slows dramatically for a short time causing a lot of heat in the coils. In the spirit of sustainability, it also teaches us to allow natural and designed ecosystems to demonstrate their own evolutions. Nevertheless, Michigan is underutilizing its available hydro resources, as hydro power currently contributes less than one percent of the state’s electricity generation. Also, hydro power is a totally clean energy source, producing no carbon dioxide or other emissions.
Many states have few hydro power resources and will have little choice but to turn to expensive, unreliable, environmentally destructive wind power to meet the EPA mandates. So I can use any heater with any maximum power even if the current is greater that Tristar’s nominal current.

I was afraid to use this scheme, because last year the alternator of the engine in my boat got berserk and delivered 19.6 V to the battery bank, and several instruments were burnt beyond repair. Provided actual voltage is not an issue it is better to use a higher voltage as the current is lower in direct relation. When connected to the grid and running, my pre paid meter still deducts units even when I have no load at all, in other words all the power generated is going to the grid and I am having to pay for them to take it, not really on is it?
I have seen power stations with very large correction capacitors, in fact my father nearly died with one faulty cap, it recharged when the bleeder resistor was disconnected. We read articles, watched documentaries, researched the history of the movement… it all fit right into our pie-in-the-sky dream of one day owning a piece of land to raise animals and grow our own food. Washington and Idaho are perfect examples of the economic benefits of hydro power, as the two states rely on it more than all other states, and as a result, the two states rank first and fifth in the nation, respectively, for lowest electricity prices.
To the extent hydroelectric dams impact the environment, by changing portions of streams and rivers into ponds and lakes, the impact is much smaller and more benign than the towering wind turbines that disfigure thousands of square miles of formerly pristine American lands and kill 1.5 million birds and bats in the United States each year.
By contrast, Michigan officials can and should take advantage of available hydro power resources in the state.
James Inhofe said Tuesday afternoon that parents must “un-brainwash” kids indoctrinated by schools pushing the man-made global…The Death of OPEC July 27, 2016The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is dead. It is only important to be sure that wind turbine will not generate more current which can damage the controller. The information you have provided was understandable to me from the beginning but the supplier of my windmill tried to persuade me conversely. When I have a load on near to the same value as it is generating it stops and of course wen I use more than the inverter produces it deducts, so the meter moves forward which ever way the power if flowing.
I am moving to the Western Cape and will have tons of wind and sun, I still prefer the higher voltage and will happily install nine giant batteries, so a 115V system.
With less money required to purchase electricity, businesses have more money available to hire additional workers, and individual consumers have more money available to purchase food, clothing, housing, health care, and other consumer goods. Doing so will produce environmental advantages over wind power, ensure a reliable supply of on-demand, zero-emissions electricity, and give Michigan businesses and consumers a competitive advantage over states forced to rely on more expensive means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions. I am going to read all your articles because your site is very valuable mine of information. Yankee(or Confederate) equipment and 10 kilowatt transformers are not so difficult to find, I can parallel a few transformers so as to up the voltage to 220 if I must. In that spirit then, because Willie’s point about power meters not reversing is understandable if the phase correction is not done.
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Using such a high voltage has other benefits, for instance, the dump load unit could be a geyser. The initial expense is ultimately worth the cost, the storage of power becomes a lot easier, waste, thus less. It could also be possible for Willie to change the two wires around , that is, his neutral might be the mains live and the opposite for his live. I suspect that the best ohm rating for the dump load would be so that just a fraction more current is needed than the turbine will produce at max output? I am using this as I need the bi-directional inverter to pexcite the grid tied inverter then they work together.

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