Criticism of id ego and superego,survival gear on ebay 2014,basic first aid kit nz 2014 - You Shoud Know

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Freud's early work in psychology and psychoanalysis endeavored to understand and cure the human mind by means of hypnosis. Freud adopted this practice at first but it was not until he began allowing his patients to freely associate ideas with whatever came to mind, that he really explored spontaneous abreaction. Freud himself suffered bouts of deep anxiety, and it was partly this that led him to explore the connection between association of ideas and dreams.
While of unique historical interest, many of Freud's ideas have fallen out of favor or have been modified by Neo-Freudians, although at the close of the 20th century, advances in the field of neurology began to show evidence for many of his theories, and the theory of Ego defense mechanisms has received empirical validation.
Recent experiments indicate that a GSR Meter will respond to certain items (people, things, situations, statements) in a person's dreams, indicating these are emotionally charged, even though the person may not normally be conscious of such a reaction. Note: In a larger historical context, Freud responded to the rise of irrational political forces in Europe that appealed to unconscious, uncontrolled, and ultimately destructive mental forces that eventually dominated the middle of the twentieth century in Europe. As a result of his clinical experience, Freud developed a model of the human personality which has stood the test of time. Freud's basic concept was a construct of the human psyche as an orderly progression through the developmental stages of childhood to final maturation in adult life. As a practicing neurologist, he was much involved with the 'hysteric' types prevalent in Viennese society at that time, the turn of the century. Freud's orientation was biological, a natural result of his medical training and of the period in which he began his work.
Instincts drive and direct behavior, the goal of which is the satisfaction of needs derived from the instincts. The Ego is a mature adult function, but until the Ego is fully developed, the multifarious safety and acceptance demands of the environment are dealt with by the function of the Superego.
Persons with a strong Ego (see Ego-Autonomy) can objectively comprehend both the world and themselves.
The Ego therefore is associated with a set of cognitive functions such as reality-testing, defense mechanisms, synthesis of information, intellectual functioning, and memory. The Superego in Freud is a piece of the higher Id which has direct access to the Ego and is society's representative in the psyche. The Superego includes a conscious set of ideals, the pattern to which the individual consciously tries to adapt his life, and an unconscious set of prohibitions which attempt to prevent the direct expression of Id impulses.
Rationalization is substituting a plausible and acceptable rationale for the unacceptable feeling. Rationalization frequently occurs when an action is felt to be wrong, either because it is not considered acceptable by others, or because we ourself would not like to experience the effect that we caused. In effect the lower state of being that is withdrawn to, then becomes an apparently safe (though unserviceable) solution - a way of continuing toward our original goals and survival, without having to face opposition previously encountered. Freud postulated that human beings are dominated by two basic instincts: Eros (the sexual drive or creative life force) and Thanatos (the death force or destructiveness).
In the Phallic Stage which follows, the instinctual urge is objective and aggressive, whereas masturbation in the immature Genital period is essentially a subjective experience. It is in the Phallic Stage that the sexuality of early childhood reaches its greatest intensity and that male and female sexuality becomes differentiated. During the latency phase the drives are decreased and the libido is transferred from parents to friends, clubs and leading figures.
A child has six developmental tasks in the emotional domain: (1) the creation and sensation of a sense of self as distinct from others, (2) ability to tolerate emotions in self and others, (3) the capacity to manage aggressive urges, (4) the development of a sense of cause and effect and of control over the environment, (5) the development of a self-reflective capacity, (6) and the capacity to enter into and sustain a state of latency, repressing inappropriate sexual drives. The Genital Stage is the fifth and final stage of Freud's stages of psychosexual development, as the child's energy once again focuses on his genitals.
When Freud's and Jung's theories are described, Freud's view of the unconscious is generally represented in terms of the psychosexual stages of development, while Jung's theories of archetypes and the collective unconscious are most commonly discussed.
What the dogmatic religions fail to understand is that love as a creative expression is the higher purpose of sexual expression, and that the production of offspring is in that sense incidental.
All expressions of love are essentially sexual in their nature: a communication where one is being the other - where empathy is duplicated and understanding is complete. John Gowan (in Development of the Creative Individual, 1972) demonstrates how the Freudian (sexual libido), Eriksonian (Ego strength) and Piagetian (cognitive development) developmental stages are remarkably compatible. A second common aspect of the first, fourth and seventh stages is the immersion in the world of the senses.
After the tasks of this stage are completed, they will return to a new identity search on more advanced levels, fortified with their accomplishments in the real world. The third and sixth stages deal with the love relationship and its expansion from narcissistic self-love through oedipal love of parents to generalized heterosexual love, to fixation on some individual person.
Inspired by the Hellenic tragedy Oedipus Rex, Freud was inspired by its patricide and incest motif to later incorporate it in his structure of personality to symbolically represent the transitional dynamic of the Ego overcoming the Superego. The common man is ruled by four complexes: the Ego, the Id, the Superego and the Oedipus Complex. Morality is basically a set of rules concerning what to do and what not to do, enforced by Superego pressures and social consequences such as humiliation or punishment.
The benign Superego, which derives from the image of the loving and comforting parent, especially the mother. Oedipally-derived layer containing derivatives of the incest situation, jealousy, rivalry, hostility, etc. Acquisition of parental standards and values, ideals and injunctions, the internalization of parental love and protection, prohibition and punishment.
Superego development provides ideals, prohibitions and security, required in the development of the Ego. Sublimation is the transformation of unwanted or inappropriate impulses into useful activity, a form of defense mechanism. Primary Process thinking consists of those mental processes which are directly related to functions of the primitive life forces associated with the Id.
Secondary Process thinking consists of those mental processes which are directly related to learned and acquired functions of the Ego, and is characteristic of conscious and preconscious mental activity; marked by logical thinking and by the tendency to delay gratification by regulation of the discharge of instinctual demands. In the progression from waking conscious thought to daydreaming, hypnagogic hallucination and dreaming, there is a gradual increase in visual imagery, in multiple implicit connotations, and in the use of mechanisms of condensation, symbolization and displacement. In Freudian psychoanalysis, the word preconscious is applied to thoughts which are unconscious at the particular moment in question, but which are not repressed and are therefore available for recall and easily capable of becoming conscious. As we have seen, the personality of the individual is dependent upon the interaction of three mental structures: the Id, the Ego and the Superego. Where the Ego is unable to accede to the demands of the Id, or in certain cases, the demands of society, these impulses are repressed and become unconscious, but they are not divested of energy and are often the cause of future trouble.
The reactions of the Ego are influenced by incidents and memories that have accumulated over the years.
An important feature of early childhood is the development of the 'Guilt Complex' or conscience. An important contribution of Freud was his recognition that repressed ideas, when released into the conscious mind accompanied by the emotions associated with them at the time (a process of abreaction), discharge their pent-up energy and cease to be a source of disturbance.
Freud devoted much time and effort to perfecting techniques for analyzing mental disturbances, and relating them to primary causes. With regard to repressed ideas arising from traumatic conditions experienced in adult life - there is nearly always a predisposition to abnormality resulting from similar childhood experiences of a traumatic nature. Freud's basic model of the mind, in which the Ego mediates between internal drives and perceptions of external reality, bears a remarkable resemblance to recent notions in behavioral neurology about the hierarchical organization of the cortex and the limbic system.
Neuro-psychoanalysis combines the insights of both neuroscience and psychoanalysis to obtain a better understanding of mind and brain. Although Mind Development courses do not directly use Freudian psychoanalytic methods, the structure of personality that he discovered has proven to be a sound basis for understanding the human mind and for developing workable methods for the development of cognitive abilities. There is a modern neurological explanation for the theoretical differences in psychoanalytic concepts and techniques between Freud and Jung.
Psychoanalysts will be aware of the therapeutic advantage gained when insight acquires consciousness - the patient may remember the insight and apply it consciously to improve understanding and revise behaviors. Psychoanalysis and psychotherapy today are becoming more Jungian in nature perhaps without their exponents realizing it.
The distinguished historian of psychoanalysis Paul Roazen commented in Freud and his Followers that "Few responsible figures in psychoanalysis would be disturbed today if an analyst were to present views identical to those of Jung in 1913." Psychoanalysis has incorporated much of Jung's earlier work, but not his later work on archetypes and collective unconscious, though these "universal" factors have been an important influence in the development of Transpersonal psychology. Psychoanalysis has traditionally been a science that studies the workings and contents of the unconscious portions of the mind. Cognitive stress as a result of trauma can lead to a dematuring of the individual's cognitive functioning. This paper is dedicated to Joe Power for selfless dedication to the Mind Development Association. Learn how to study a subject with maximum comprehension, recall and ability to apply what you have learned effectively. Home-study course to improve the mind's capacity for perception and integration between left and right brain, boosting memory, creativity, natural eyesight and drawing ability.
Learn powerful communication skills that enable you to be more effective at work and in those situations of everyday life where better communication can make all the difference. If you are concentrating you are awake and aware - your mental life is both intensified and broadened. Learn how to read both quickly and in depth over a wide range of subjects, and then to be able to appreciate, analyze and apply what you have read with clear and incisive intelligence. Freud's Iceberg Theory - relates to Hemingway's approach to literature - an example of how what is happening in the world affects authors. This is a€?Writing about Character and Motivation: Psychoanalytic Literary Criticisma€?, chapter 3 from the book Creating Literary Analysis (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. In Through the Looking-Glass (1872), Alice, after entering Looking-Glass Land via a magic mirror, encounters two odd brothers, Tweedledee and Tweedledum. The dream in Looking-Glass Land seems more a nightmare for Alice, for she is scared that she is merely a figment of someonea€™s dream, their imaginationa€”thata€™s an idea that might bring us all to tears! We all have dreams, and we recognize that dreams often mirror the oddness and nonsense that Alice encounters in Wonderland and Looking-Glass Land. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, famously defines dreams as the a€?road to the unconsciousnessa€? in his monumental work The Interpretation of Dreams (1899).Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams. Keep a dream journal for a least one week, jotting down those dreams that you can remember most vividly. Psychoanalytical literary criticism, on one level, concerns itself with dreams, for dreams are a reflection of the unconscious psychological states of dreamers.
In this chapter, we explore three popular psychoanalytical approaches for interpreting literaturea€”Freudian, Lacanian, and Jungian. You can analyze the thematic content of the work, especially the motivations of characters and the narrator(s). You can analyze yourself or the reader of the literary work using reader-response theory, which we examine in detail in Chapter 6 "Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory". Here is a quick overview of some psychoanalytical interpretations that demonstrate these approaches. Jacques Lacan shows us how a psychoanalytical reading can focus on the formal, artistic construction of a literary text. Finally, a psychoanalytical reading can examine the reader and how a literary work is interpreted according to the psychological needs of the reader.
Keep this material, for you may have already developed an idea for your paper, which youa€™ll be ready to write after reading the rest of this chapter. Ultimately, much of Freudian psychoanalysis concerns itself with how the unconsciousness attempts to break through the repression barrier and enter consciousness. Freud posits that mental illnesses result from a faulty ego, one unable to accept the id-superego push and pull.
Central to Freuda€™s schematic of the mind is the Oedipal or Oedipus complexThe process of sexual development for boys defined by desire for the mother and feeling threatened by the father.
At this point you may be shaking your head in skeptical amazement, for Freuda€™s theories do tax the imagination. Therea€™s a bit more to Freud that wea€™ll want to examinea€”dreamsa€”but leta€™s look at another use of the Freudian OC in literary analysis. We must add another dimension to Freuda€™s theory to complete its frame, which will come full circle and connect us to Alicea€™s concern that she is a dream of the Red King. This chapter begins with a brief overview of the importance of dreams to psychoanalytic literary criticism. The primary recipe for such symbolization and image making is a dash of condensationWhen two or more images or things are compressed into one composite image or thing.
Freud also suggests that the dream symbolism of condensation and displacement also operates through various defense mechanisms or coping strategies that we use every day. In general, Freudian literary criticism is a powerful critical lens to use when viewing much literature. Jacques Lacan, in many ways, is more popular than Freud in literary analysis, though Freud is certainly more famous across disciplines. As you remember, Freud posits that the mind is divided between the conscious and unconscious, the dividing line between the two states representing the repression barrier.
This a€?bondinga€? between the signifier and signified is arbitrary, argues Saussure, for we could have easily labeled the a€?essence of the cata€? a trilgy and been hollering for years, a€?Here, trilgya€¦trilgya€¦trilgy.a€? But Saussure contends that once an arbitrary sign is constructed, it remains bonded together and unchangeable, like two sides to a piece of paper.
Lacan, then, views words, the signifiers, the marks of letters on a page, as central to the creation of meaning (or the essence of the signified).
To a degree, the sign, split between the signifier and the signified, acts like a repression barrier: Freuda€™s unconscious becomes the Lacanian signifieda€”meaninga€”which can never be fulfilled since languagea€”the signifiera€”approximates meaning. Central to Freuda€™s psychoanalytic theory is the Oedipal complex, and Lacan modifies the complex by making it a product of language acquisition.
During the Imaginary and Mirror stages, the child is subject to the desire-of-the-motherFound in the Imaginary and Mirror stages, where the mother is one with the child and satisfies all wants and desires., whereby the child has complete desire for the mother and believes the mother in turn exists solely for the childa€™s pleasure. Lacan insists then language is a source of our desire but that language becomes the source of frustrated desire since words can never capture desire or the essence of meaning.
In effect, metonymy works by displacement, residing on a horizontal axis that reflects the displacement; thus, a€?aa€? is displaced by a€?b,a€? which is displaced by a€?c,a€? and so on. If Lacan subscribes to Freuda€™s Oedipal complex, then the father must become a significant player in the development drama of the individual. Finally, Lacan constructs the ideal realm called the Real, the ultimate place where the Imaginary and Symbolic stages can meet.
Furthermore, Lacana€™s Imaginary, prelinguistic stage is appealing to feminist critics, for the Imaginary seems a maternal stage of unity that does not rely on a girla€™s symbolic castration to enter into the realm of the Symbolic, for both male and female are immersed into language, which casts each into a world of differences. Carl Jung, like Lacan, was a disciple of Freuda€™s, but unlike Lacan, Jung eventually split from Freud, believing that Freud focused too heavily on the importance of sexual desire and the repression that that desire causes.
The collective unconscious can be accessed through various archetypesParticular images or symbols that are part of the collective unconscious. The overriding archetype for Jung is the SelfKey archetype that represents the total personality but is unknown, leading to the quest or search for a€?self.a€?, the image of wholeness or individuation. The mandala is beginning and end, perfectly balanced by the four chambers, which composes the unification of the whole Self. Furthermore, every Self has its own masculine or feminine counterpart to the personality: the animaArchetype for the man.
Since the goal of the Self is harmony, as seen in the mandala, the Self undertakes the archetypal quest to achieve syzygyThe state of unity when the quest for the whole Self is achieved., the fulfillment of unity, of balance. Jungian criticism is often applied to literature that is considered more mythica€”fairy tales, fantasy, and medieval romances. Keatsa€™s a€?Urn,a€? as you have discovered, lends itself well to the psychoanalytic perspective.
According to Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. The id doesn't care about reality, about the needs of anyone else, only its own satisfaction. Within the next three years, as the child interacts more with the world, the second part of the personality begins to develop.
In a healthy person, according to Freud, the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation. At age ten he had already published his first paper, and by age 22 he had received his Ph.D. The four stages of Piaget’s Cognitive Development consist of: the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. During his time at Harvard he built new equipment and started doing one of his most famous experiments with rats. In 1936, then 32 years old, Skinner married Yvonne Blue and the couple moved to Minnesota where Skinner had his first teaching job.
In 1945, Skinner and his family moved to Bloomington Indiana where he became Chair of the Psychology Department at Indiana University. Alzheimer’s is an incurable disease but there are some things you can do to slow the process down. Alzheimer’s is a very serious disease even though it doesn’t seem like it since all that happens is them forgetting.
Musical experience can be beneficial to one’s learning ability, motor skills, health, overall intelligence, etc. In the following video Author and Neurologist Oliver Sacks experiments on how music “lights” up the brain. Most people go through times when it’s hard to fall asleep or wake up in the middle of the night.
Insomnia, the inability to get to sleep or sleep well at night, is an all-too common sleeping problem. Sleepwalking has been described in medical literature dating before Hippocrates (460 BC-370 BC).
Most people that experience sleep paralysis also have narcolepsy, but anyone can experience it and most will at least once. Autism, a complex brain disorder that constrains a person’s ability to communicate and develop social relationships, is one of three types of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Stimming- flapping of hands, rocking of the body, toe walking, spinning in circles for a length of time, stacking or lining up of objects, etc. ASDs are difficult to diagnose because there are no definitive medical tests that affirm the disorder. Many different influences can contribute to an ASD diagnosis ranging from environmental, biological, and genetic factors. Division of Birth Defects, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabillities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Spina bifida is a birth defect that involves the incomplete development of the spinal cord or its coverings. Spina bifida occurs at the end of the first month of pregnancy when the two sides of the embryo's spine fail to join together, leaving an open area. Because of the abnormal development of and damage to the spinal cord, a child with myelomeningocele typically has some paralysis. Maternal folic acid deficiency has been linked to spina bifida, and researchers believe that many cases can be prevented if women of childbearing age consume 0.4 milligrams (400 micrograms) of folic acid every day, and continue to take it throughout the first trimester.
It is important that folic acid consumption start before the onset of pregnancy to provide the best protection. Babies with myelomeningocele also have a sac-like mass that bulges from the back, but a layer of skin may not always cover it.
In cases of spina bifida manifesta, treatment depends on the type of spina bifida and its severity. The location of the gap in the back often dictates what kind of adaptive aids or equipment a child with myelomeningocele will need. Parents of children with spina bifida receive support from a medical team that may include several doctors (such as neurosurgeons, urologists, orthopedic surgeons, rehabilitation specialists, and general pediatricians), a nurse practitioner, physical and occupational therapists, and a social worker. The goal is to create a lifestyle for the child and family in which the disability interferes as little as possible with normal everyday activities. The NINDS supports a broad range of research on neural tube defects such as SB aimed at finding ways to treat, prevent, and, ultimately, cure these disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, Is an anxiety disorder that usually occurs after you experience a traumatic event such as war, natural disaster, or even a prison stay. What causes this disorder is still not really known but it changes how the responds to stressful things. PTSD has many symptoms that can go with it and are divided into three different categories. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is an anxiety disorder in which you have unreasonable thoughts and fears and the need to do a ritual or a organized plan. There are four types of obsessions that are aggressive, sexual, religious or harm related with checking compulsions, obsessions that are about balance accompanied by arranging or repeating compulsions, and symptoms of hoarding. The treatment of OCD, are mainly medications that increase the amount of the neurochemical serotonin in the brain. Most people occasionally feel nervous meeting a new person or speaking in front of a group. Social anxiety disorder typically begins during the teenage years and continues into adulthood.
Biological: Social anxiety disorder may be related to an imbalance of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Psychological: The development of social anxiety disorder may stem from an embarrassing or humiliating experience at a social event in the past. Environmental: People with social anxiety disorder may develop their fear from observing the behavior of others or seeing what happened to someone else as the result of their behavior. Psychotherapy -?Cognitive behavioral therapy improves symptoms in up to 75 percent of people with social anxiety disorder. One of the main questions that runs through people’s heads that have Glossophobia would be, “What will people think if I say something stupid or stumble over a word or my clothes are messed up.” I’m sure there are plenty of other questions that go on in somebody’s head but that was just one.
Public speaking fear can be called many terms, like stage fright, speech anxiety, speech phobia, fear of speaking, or performance anxiety.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is an illness that causes people to have unwanted thoughts, which are also called obsessions, and to repeat certain behaviors, or compulsions, over and over again. Obsessions are ideas, images and impulses that run through a person’s mind over and over again.
Compulsions are when people perform certain behaviors according to “rules” that they make up for themselves.
In recent studies have proven that as many as 3 million Americans ages 18 to 54 may have OCD. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a psychological disorder that affects some people who have faced difficult situations. PTSD can appear immediately following a traumatic event or it may be delayed for up to 6 months. It is unknown exactly what causes PTSD, but we do know that psychological, social, physical, and genetic factors are involved. Having PTSD causes the person suffering to re-live the traumatic event over and over again. It is also likely that the person affected my have feelings of guilt known as “survivor guilt,” with symptoms like those that would come from anxiety, stress, and tension.
Treatment for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder involves patients suffering from PTSD to recall the stressful event, express their feelings, and possibly learn to gain control over the event. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) or multiple personality disorder is a mental illness that is characterized by having two or more clear identities or alters. People with Dissociative Identity Disorder usually have other mental illness, such as Schizophrenia, psychosis and Delusions. Although there is no proven cause to DID, some psychologists have a theory that the disorder is a reaction to severe trauma experienced as a child.
There are many Signs and Symptoms that a person with Dissociative Identity Disorder will experience. With all these signs and symptoms it is difficult to diagnose because there is no definitive test.
Hypnosis is another treatment sometimes used to help DID patients learn more about their alters.
Borderline personality disorder is when people have a long pattern of unstable or turbulent emotions like feelings about others and themselves. 2) Things that we consider bad, they consider extremely bad and their views of a person changes rapidly. Freud's initial exposure to hypnosis in a clinical setting was over the winter of 1885-1886, when he studied in Paris with Jean-Martin Charcot, a renowned French professor of neurology.
He abandoned hypnosis in favor of conscious psychoanalysis, first with the technique of free association, then eventually with his well-known technique of observational, couch-based psychoanalysis. Freud noticed that patients would often find a connection between the direction of their associations and a dream they had experienced. He began to analyze dreams in order to understand aspects of personality as they relate to pathology.
Freud wished to devise a method that would bring the unconscious under the control of the rational conscious. Many of the terms Freud introduced, such as Ego, Superego, the Id and the Unconscious are therefore still used in contemporary psychology. His scientific training, backed up by penetrating insight and genius, compelled him to seek causes and to him, mental disturbances seemed to have their roots in early childhood incidents.
His conception of the individual was as a reservoir of dynamic energy, continuously seeking a means of discharge and in turn continuously needing replenishment.
It develops from the Id because of the organism's need to cope with external reality for the satisfaction of its instinctual requirements. However, as one matures, one learns to be reasonable about this because of the exigencies and obstacles of reality, which need to be taken account of to be able to obtain pleasure in the longer term.
The Superego is an internalized model of the social reality, which gives emphasis to the authority figures within that reality.
Its task is to find a balance between primitive drives, morals, and reality while satisfying the Id and Superego. Superego includes a psychic structure that acts in regulating the relationship between the instinctual drives and Ego, and the outside world.
The conscious ideals are formed primarily through imitation of the parents, but throughout childhood and into adolescence they are further influenced by many of the adults with whom the child has contact. They happen so quickly, so habitually and so imperceptibly, that one cannot notice them, and one does not want to notice them. Projection is another defense - when an unacceptable feeling or desire comes up, it is labeled 'this is what someone else feels, needs or wants', such as the person over there. The mythical characters of Eros and Thanatos were used by Freud in his formulation of drive theory to represent the two primary outlets of biological energy. During the early stages of infancy, the fundamental requirements are food, security and warmth, so that development can proceed without hindrance. This realization is followed closely by an immature forerunner of the Genital Stage, when the child begins to realize that it is a pleasurable experience to manipulate particular areas of the body, such as the mouth, the anus and the genitals. With a male infant the objective choice is the loved mother, with jealousy of the father; this is the Oedipus complex in which the boy develops a fear of castration by the father. With both sexes, loyalty to the parents poses problems; however, with careful handling by the parents, these stages are worked through leaving no ill effects. Adolescence, with its sexual emphasis, gradually channels the sexual impulse into object choices, and finally merges into adult life. The reason for this is that during the stage before Latency (Phallic stage) the child resolves the Oedipus or Electra Complex which are such traumatic events that the child then repress all of his or her sexual impulses. Puberty reactivates the early genital impulses and the person passes into the mature Genital Stage.
The impression is that Jung, but not Freud, conceptualized and thought important the presence of inherited memories in Mankind.
The fully developed Genital Stage is the final goal of psychoanalysis, but in Mind Development we are looking at going much further.
It is impossible to evolve into higher consciousness without a true understanding and embracing of authentic sexuality.
By contrast with the previous, the second, fifth and eighth stages are Ego bound, Ego oriented, and Ego circumscribed. There may exist stage 9, where agape love, in the manner of a Buddha or Messiah embraces all Mankind. The Oedipus complex, in its entirety, is the inherent transitional drive of the human organism from childhood toward adulthood and because of this it should not be feared.
Mind Development in involved in the process of creating uncommon men; those who can write their own script, those whose Superego has been integrated into an Autonomous Ego.
However, the belief that you must obey a moral code created by someone else is a form of trap - it reduces your freedom and competence. When a harmonious relation exists between it and the Ego, there is a feeling of self-confidence and love; when a state of tension exists between the two there results a feeling of not being loved and a fear of abandonment out of which develops the feeling of guilt in the common sense of the word.
It continues from infancy through adolescence, and later alterations of the Superego influence the adult personality.
The energy of sexual or aggressive feelings may be expressed directly or it may be sublimated.
At the same time verbal, rational, reality-oriented secondary process type thinking diminishes, as does reflective awareness (awareness of self) and one's ability to extend effort, that is, to willfully act.
The first, a conscious process, consists of making an experience unconscious; that is, material in the preconscious that is inadmissible to consciousness is suppressed down into the unconscious. This is itself an unconscious process and consists of forbidding material to rise up and enter the preconscious, so that it remains uninspected in the unconscious.
Initially the child accepts the standards imposed by parents, which are enforced by their reward-or-punishment approach.
Hypnosis, psychoanalysis, free (word) association, and dream interpretation were all used to trace typical disturbances to traumatic memories at specific developmental stages of childhood. Freud's description of the Unconscious includes the wellspring of the Id and the storehouse of suppressed or repressed traumatic material, as well as the structural unconscious processes that run the body.
Neuro-psychoanalysis has recently validated many of Freud's ideas, in terms of the left-right lateral axis of organization, the Conscious and Subconscious affective (emotional) aspects of lateralization are linked to right hemisphere and limbic processes, whilst the Conscious and Subconscious cognitive (analytical and verbal) processes are linked to the left. In addition, it has been proven out by modern neurological scanning techniques that the aspects of the psyche Freud describes have a concrete existence. Consciousness is a state of awareness, having a range of higher mental functions serving a regulatory, controlling, and integrating role in mental activity. Andrew Samuels, in Jung and the Post Jungians, gives a list of fifteen essential points which demonstrate that recent changes and developments in Freudian psychoanalysis reflect a Jungian reorientation.
Much depth psychology today is eclectic, drawing on Freud, Adler, Jung and many others including Otto Rank, Anna Freud, Melanie Klein, Wilhelm Reich, Erik Erikson and Erich Fromm. It has perhaps overlooked the important role that consciousness plays in ordinary life and in providing the levels of control and self-awareness individuals both experience and require. It is marked by regression from formal and post-formal operations thinking to more concrete operations with deficits in cognitive control and misalignment of emotion, time and reality.
The principles described here have many applications both for physical and mental development.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed.
Leta€™s continue our journey with Alice in this chapter as we explore psychoanalytic literary criticism. Freud, for example, contends that dreams are a€?the guardians of sleepa€? where they become a€?disguised fulfillments of repressed wishes.a€?Sigmund Freud. This desire leaves him symbolically castrated, unable to have normal relationships with others (primarily women).
Crews first provides a psychoanalytical reading of Nathaniel Hawthornea€™s life: he sees reflected in Hawthornea€™s characters a thwarted Oedipus complex (no worries, wea€™ll define that a bit later), which creates repression.
In other words, Lacan believes that our unconscious is a€?structured like a languagea€? and that a literary text mirrors this sense of the unconscious.


We examine this approach in detail in Chapter 6 "Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory" on reader-response criticism. It may be a commonplace by now that we all speak Freud whether we know it or not, but the commonplace remains both true and important. If the mind is unable to release those repressed desires through some outlet, then a person can develop a mental illnessa€”various neuroses like psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia. To summarize Freudian theory so far, the human mind is structured around the id-ego-superego triad that represents the tension between the pleasure and the reality principle; the ego is the moderator between pleasure and reality and is formed by entering the OC.
They are the primary outlets for these repressed desires, the a€?royal road,a€? as Freud expressed it, to the unconscious.
And Freuda€™s theory of dreams may be his most important contribution to literary analysis. RepressionDefense mechanism in which one forgetsa€”or, alternately, actively refuses to think abouta€”something that was unpleasant or traumatic. You have at your disposal a wide array of literary tools to use: repression of the conscious mind into the unconscious, pleasure versus reality principles, the id-ego-superego connection, the Oedipal complex, dreams and dream symbolism, and the various defense mechanisms. Lacan positions language in this dichotomy by modifying the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure, who argued that words (or signs) work within a system of other signs (our language). Language, consequently, is a system of signs, where words take on their meaning only in relationship to other words.
If Lacan is correct (and, of course, this is a pretty big a€?ifa€?), then our unconscious is a€?structured like a language,a€? and it follows that the human subject is divided between our name (for us, John Pennington and Ryan Cordell) and our signified (for us, the essence of a€?John Penningtona€? and a€?Ryan Cordella€?). If you say to a frienda€”a€?I would love to go to a movie tonight, wouldna€™t you?a€?a€”I = You and the You = Your friend.
He argues that a child passes through the ImaginaryThe stage where the child believes in wholeness of identity; this is a prelinguistic stage. Again, a division occurs as the self misreads itself in terms of the image the self projects into the mirror (or interprets from the reflection). Lacan contends that language operates as to preclude the childa€™s fulfillment of finding an objet petit a. Think about what happens when you stumble across a word you dona€™t know: you look it up in a dictionary, only to find that the word is defined by other words, which have their own meanings, which you could look up in a dictionary, whicha€¦and we are in an endless, infinite loop.
Remember, Freud claims that the dreamwork uses displacement and condensation to create the manifest content of the dream. Metonymy, being displacement, is a result of the Mirror stage where the child recognizes its reflection first as a complete substitution for itself (a metaphor), but it soon realizes that the reflection is of an Other, a displacement of the self (a metonym). To Lacan, though, the Real is only symbolic and beyond the reach of languagea€”it represents the unattainable; it represents desire.
His revising of Freuda€™s concepts a€?intoa€? language makes his theory particularly applicable to literary interpretation, for literature is based on language, which is structured like the unconscious. In Freuda€™s theory, a girl is defined by lackinga€”she desires the male organ that she does not have.
Jung felt that Freuda€™s theories were, simply, too vague and could be manipulated to fit any scheme.
Junga€™s concept of the collective Self, as you can see, is diametrically opposed to Freuda€™s and Lacana€™s fractured and split individual self. Jung fathoms that the mythsAn archetypal story that mirrors the quest for the complete Self.
In a€?On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetrya€? (1922), Jung explains how literature and the writer operate under the archetype.Carl Jung, a€?On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry,a€? in Twentieth Century Theories of Art, ed. Compare the classroom discussion with some critical applications of psychoanalytic theory to Keatsa€™s poem.
When he was four or five years old his family moved to Vienna, where he lived most of his life. These three elements of personality known as the id, the ego and the superego work together to create complex human behaviors.
The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. The sensorimotor stage ranges from birth to nearly two years in which you experience the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping). He did not fit in very well there; he did not enjoy the fraternity parties or the football games.
Still rebellious and impatient with what some considered unintelligent ideas, Skinner found a person that was willing to mentor him. The first four stages aren’t very sever and you wouldn’t think much about it being Alzheimer’s as to getting old, or just forgetting something.
Doctors can give u a pill that slows the process but some people get nightmares and cannot take the pill. Dating back to the birth of music, back nearly as far as the beginning of human beings, we see that it has always been a major part of Earth’s cultures around the world. In the video, it is shown that, when a desired music is listened to, the brain lights up in many areas including the amygdala (processes emotions). College students are the most sleep deprived individuals so it’s normal to feel fatigued in midday.
Insomnia can be caused by a variety of things including stress, jet lag, a health condition, the medications you take, or how much caffeine you consume over the day. In Shakespeare's tragic play, Macbeth, Lady Macbeth's famous sleepwalking scene is ascribed to her guilt and resulting insanity as a consequence of her involvement in the murder of her father-in-law. One’s behavior and development are the only diagnostic tools doctors can use when pronouncing an ASD diagnosis. In some cases, the spinal cord or other membranes may push through this opening in the back. Some evidence suggests that genes may play a role, but in most cases there is no family connection. The spinal cord does not protrude through the skin, although a patch of hair, a birthmark, or a dimple may be present on the skin over the lower spine. Babies with meningocele usually have an operation during infancy in which doctors push the meninges back and close the hole in the vertebrae. The shunt is a thin tube that helps to relieve pressure on the brain by draining and diverting extra fluid.
Those with a gap high on the spinal column and more extensive paralysis often need to use a wheelchair, while those with a gap lower on the back may be able to use crutches, leg braces, or walkers.
Treatment for the variety of effects of SB may include surgery, medication, and physiotherapy. Prognosis is poorest for those with complete paralysis, hydrocephalus, and other congenital defects.
Recent studies have shown that the addition of folic acid to the diet of women of child-bearing age may significantly reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Trying to talk about the event to a friend or a family member can help someone to live with this or another PTSD survivor. People with this disorder suffer from experiencing repeated obsessions that interfere with a person's ability to function in a social, occupational, and educational settings.
The other option that is out there is therapy to try and lighten “the Load” as far as the rituals go.
People with social anxiety disorder (SAD), however, become overwhelmingly anxious and self-conscious even in everyday social situations.
If the neurotransmitters are out of balance, messages cannot get through the brain properly. Also children who are sheltered or overprotected by their parents may not learn good social skills as part of their normal development. Treatment can help control symptoms and make the person confident and relaxed in social situations.
This type of therapy is based on the idea that a persons own thoughts, not other people or situations, determine how they behave or react. However, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally considered the safest and most effective treatment for persistent symptoms of social anxiety. You may have to try several different antidepressants to find which one is the most effective and has the fewest unpleasant side effects.
A type of anti-anxiety medication called benzodiazepines (ben-zo-di-AZ-uh-penes) may reduce your level of anxiety. There are thousands of other people who have to deal with this problem every single day, and it also effects their life every single day. The more and more people think about their presentation or whatever public speaking they are going to be doing the worse the phobia gets. People perform these behaviors because it is the only way that they can get the nervous feeling to go away for a short time, but then when the nervous feeling comes back they have to repeat the behavior all over again.
It is an anxiety disorder that can become prevalent if you have faced life threatening or frightening situations.
If the symptoms of PTSD appear immediately they are easily treatable and will usually get better in a few months. PTSD affects a bodies' reaction to stress effecting the neurotransmitters carrying information to the brain along with messing up stress hormones, causing real panic and stress to trigger at just a memory of what was a stressful situation. In some PTSD sufferers this means vivid memories of the event or as stated before actually believing they are there again re-living the event, this is called a flashback. In some cases expressing their feelings and mourning completes the mourning process and patients can carry out their lives.
Some even experience depersonalization (sense of being detached from self), derealization (world not real), amnesia (failure to recall personal information) and identity confusion or identity alteration (confused about who self is). The child is so severely traumatized that they dissociate themselves from the situation or bad experience.
Learning more about their alters may give them better control over their different personalities.
They are at risk for attempting suicide more than once, abusing illegal substances and alcohol to cope and having violent behaviors. Charcot's work centered on the causes of hysteria, a disorder which could cause paralysis and extreme fits. About the same time Freud began another association with a Viennese physician named Josef Breuer. He aided his patients to uncover and follow both obvious and hidden associations and emotions connected with the dream occurrences.
He believed that behavior was not a chance occurrence; every action and thought is motivated by the unconscious at some level. Jung's first contact with Freud was to send him a copy of his work on word association using a primitive psychogalvanometer. Other trends within depth psychology, art, and politics sought quite on the contrary to release the unconscious powers, dreams, and nightmares and allow them to dominate the conscious. Mind Development uses many of these terms to describe personality structures, hence the following paper.
In Freud's day, European society was still smarting from being toppled from its throne at the center of the universe by Copernicus and Darwin. This veritable storehouse of energy he called the Libido, the genetically inherent energy empowering the life instinct. This concept of needs is called the Pleasure Principle, the attempt to keep excitation or tension as low as possible. Freud described the Ego as a regulating agent and an intermediary, registering demands and meeting requirements, which in turn necessitates coordination with the environment - the world of reality. An inner-directed person takes an objective and rational account of reality to fulfill the needs of life (see Maslow), working toward a higher goal of individuation through self-actualization.
It can be modeled as a storehouse of 'tapes' containing commands, threats and injunctions, frequently in the actual voices of the parental figures.
Its main concern is with the individual's safety and allows some of the Id's desires to be expressed, but only when consequences of these actions are marginal.
The concept of superego formation involves the process by which prohibitions and restraints, once externally imposed, become internalized. The unconscious prohibitions are formed very early in life from internalized parental ideals and prohibitions.
Suppression, invalidation and refusal to acknowledge what is perceived are self-lies, used to submerge the truth, to keep it subconscious, to maintain the status quo, to avoid confronting reality or one's true feelings.
It's disowned and passed to the other person, unknowingly, due to reactive, subconscious suggestions from the past, which make the feeling unacceptable for oneself.
Then our behavior becomes the other's fault and instead of feeling affinity, we are now in opposition and may therefore withdraw. Eros represents life, creativity, growth, and increase in tension; and Thanatos represents the movement toward homeostasis (elimination of all tensions), dissolution, negation, and death. According to his theory the erogenous zones are very important to the cognitive development of the child, since Eros empowers our sexuality. This is as near to that desirable pre-natal condition as it will ever get - hence the very close link that is formed between mother and child. When defecation and urination takes place, the experience of the relief from tension is pleasurable.
After the child realizes that the father is much to powerful as an adversary, reality sets in and the child now begins to understand the impossibility of his sexual obsession with his mother is.
The anatomical genital difference from her brother raises the fear that she has been castrated, and for this she blames the mother - this is the Elektra complex.
Culturally valued skills and values are acquired and feelings of shame, guilt and disgust arise.
However, Freud's references to structures that are similar to those of Jung's collective unconscious appear to occur first in Totem and Taboo.
The Genital Stage opens the doors of creativity, because of the possibilities of sublimating Eros to creative purposes. For example, intuition and creativity cannot function in individuals who are sexually inhibited or who repress sexual guilt and shame. It is exclusively humans that experience the conscious psycho-emotional pleasures and ecstasies of the sexual expression that is rightly called "making love." By insisting procreation is the only valid purpose of the sex act, under the penalty of sin and Hellfire, religion lowers man to the level of animals. The energy of sex is sublimated as creative energy at any and every level you find yourself in the universe. In combination with this regard for the external world, there is a certain calmness or coolness of the Ego which results in a lack of self-consciousness. They are all about "me" (my identity, my existence and interpersonal relationships and my salvation).
When properly interpreted for its symbolic meaning, the Oedipus complex leads to the spiritual death of the Superego, so that the child can become the father of himself. To overcome the Superego requires advanced cognitive, emotional and moral development; this creates an Autonomous Ego, free from the Superego and operating on an Ego Morality.
In order to be free of this 'morality trap,' you need to strengthen your understanding of the cognitive links between your intentions, your actions and the consequences you produce - this is best achieved by creating your own moral code in the context of a sound and rational ethical framework. Primary Process is characteristic of unconscious mental activity; marked by unorganized, non-logical thinking and by the tendency to seek immediate discharge and gratification of instinctual urges.
Note: this may be considered 'suppression' and the material is then considered to be subconscious.
The Ego is the executive of the personality, mediating and reconciling the demands of the Id, with its instinctual and persistent demands, the need to conform with the Superego, with its introjections and related conscience and Ego-ideals, and the objective facts of reality. In infancy there is virtually no organization of memory or experience, hence the Id is in a dominating position, and frustration or delay can cause a violent 'all or nothing' reaction. With experience and knowledge the child acquires its own standards of behavior, based on observation and parental precept (rule of conduct). I prefer to differentiate consciousness between Subconscious processes - both cognitive and affective - and those that are deeply imbedded Unconscious processes, including including automated behavior and the store of Genetic or Archetypal memories. The Unconscious equates with the Brain Stem, the Cerebellum, the Pons and other deep brain structures - not specialized laterally; indeed, one of their functions is to integrate the two hemispheres. There are high levels of thinking, reality testing, experiencing, judging, anticipating; self-awareness and self-reflection enter into these controlling activities. This is where Mind Development steps in; the insights may be obtained in advance, as the individual examines his experience from the point of view of greater mindfulness and objectivity, a highly developed intelligence and a wide, integrated knowledge base in which the Superego has been subsumed. Attention deficit disorder is frequently found in cases of chronic exposure to violent stress. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (19 MB) or just this chapter (765 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). He had a tall red night-cap on, with a tassel, and he was lying crumpled up into a sort of untidy heap, and snoring louda€”a€?fit to snore his head off!a€? as Tweedledum remarked.
We dream, we wake, and we try to recollect our dream, which somehow seems to tell us something that we should know.
Bonaparte analyzes Poea€™s stories from this perspective, reading them as dreams reflecting Poea€™s repressed desires for his mother.
Furthermore, Hawthornea€™s ties to the Puritan past engenders his work with a profound sense of guilt, further repressing characters. Consequently, our drive for unbridled pleasure is repressed by the reality principle and becomes sublimated or buried in the unconsciousThe part of our mind that is buried deep within consciousness and seeks outlets.. The goal of this chapter is not to provide you with an overview of Freudian psychoanalysis as it relates to treating mental illness; instead, our goal is to show you how to apply Freuda€™s theories to the interpretation of literature. Jacka€™s stealing of the goose that lays the golden egg from the giant and subsequent cutting down of the beanstalk, which leads to the gianta€™s demise, symbolizes Jacka€™s freedom from the fear of the fatherly authority as he becomes his own person, his own man. The ego balances the id and superego by repressing those id desires that are not socially acceptablea€”which includes the desire for the mothera€”into the unconscious. When Lacan writes that a€?the unconscious is structured like a language,a€? he moves Freud from the biological realm into the realm of language.Dor, JoA«l.
However, Saussure believes a sign is only an arbitrary marker between the signifierThe first part of the sign system that represents that sign or signifier, the actual word for the signifier, or an example.
Lacan revises Saussure by suggesting that signs are not stable, but in fact are continually shifting; words are a mere approximation of meaning, thus Lacana€™s emphasis on the word over the actual a€?thinga€? the word represents. Language, consequently, throws a person into a sign system that never captures meaning, the human thrust into the language of desire. Lacan distinguishes the dual self by labeling the moia€?Me,a€? which in Lacanian thought represents the image a person has of himself or herself.
When your friend respondsa€”a€?You have a good idea; Ia€™d sure like to goa€?a€”the I = Your Friend and You = You. The mirror reflection becomes an apt metaphor: you are the reflection in the mirror, yet that reflection only a€?reflectsa€? you (it truly isna€™t you). For Lacan the dreamwork is a manifestation of languagea€”displacement resides in metonymySubstitution of a name or word that is closely associated with the thing that is meant; for instance, a€?White Housea€? used to indicate the executive branch of the government. The phallus or name-of-the-father is not the sexual organ itself, but a symbolic representation that is similar to the superego. The Imaginary and Symbolic are like two sides of a sheet of paper, similar to the signifier and signified; the Real is like a MA¶bius strip constructed from strands of paper where the Imaginary and Symbolic become entangled and lost in the web between the Imaginary and the Symbolic. Whereas Freud suggests the literary work is structured like an authora€™s dream in need of interpretation, Lacan proposes that language itself is a dream of condensation and displacement; therefore, Lacana€™s theory is centered more in actual language and less in the peculiar workings of each individual author and reader. Lacan, however, situates all this in language, revealing that women are marginalized not biologically but linguistically, for the privileged signifier is the phallus, or patriarchy. Junga€™s complaint seems justified, for Freudian analysis can become reductive as a reader finds phallic symbolism in every knife and fork and yonic symbolism in the soup bowl. Joseph Campbell in The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949) positions Jung in his definition of the monomytha€”the departure, initiation, and return of the hero who finds completeness and wholeness during the quest.Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, 3rd ed. His father Jacob Freud, at the age of 39, married Sigmund’s mother, Amalia Nathanson, who was 19 years of age. Joseph Breuer introduced Freud to a patient with hysteria, which became a well known case known as Anna O. The conscious mind is what a person is aware of at any time: your present perceptions, memories, thoughts, fantasies, and feelings.
They have no care for time, whether their parents are sleeping, relaxing, eating dinner, or bathing. The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run.
Many associate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong. If the superego becomes too strong, the person would be driven by rigid morals, would be judgmental and unbending in his or her interactions with the world. Piaget was a Swiss biologist, philosopher, and psychologist best known for his work in the area of developmental psychology. In 1925, Piaget, took the chair of philosophy at the University of Neuchatel; his duties where to teach psychology, philosophy, science, a philosophy seminar, and sociology. Piaget felt that the difference between humans and animals was the fact that humans are able to do reasoning through abstract symbolism. The preoperational stage ranges from age two to about six or seven years; this is when you represent things with words and images using intuitive rather than logical reasoning. After a few changes to the apparatus and some lucky accidents Skinner invented the cumulative recorder.
At the American Psychological Association, about 10 days before he died, he gave a talk before a crowded auditorium. I have always know what it was and that the person for got everything, but didn’t know much about it until my grandma got it.
For those people there is an off breed pill that isn’t as strong but they won’t get nightmares and still helps with the disease. It is harder on my grandpa than my grandma who has Alzheimer’s, because she asks him the same questions fifty times a day and it gets really annoying having to repeat yourself. But why are we drawn so easily to music; moreover, why are certain people drawn to certain types of music?
According to Weinberger, our brains have evolved to adapt to music, but not in one specific way. In his example he makes the claim that, “the cortical representation of digits 2 to 5 on the left hand of string players is greater than for the right, suggesting that musical experience does influence the brain.
Playing an instrument, for instance, involves vision, hearing, touch, motor planning, emotion, symbol interpretation…all of which activate different brain systems. Although when sleep loss continues on for months and inhibits your daily living abilities, you may be dealing with a sleep disorder. Insomnia can also be caused by other sleep disorders or mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression. Narcoleptics may have “sleep attacks”, which usually last less than 5 minutes, while in the middle of talking, working, or even driving.
Sleepwalking characteristically occurs during the first or second sleep cycle during stages 3 and 4 and is characterized by walking while asleep.
During sleep the brain makes the muscles relax and keeps them from moving, this is called atonia. A high fever during pregnancy may increase a woman's chances of having a baby with spina bifida. Most children with this type of defect never have any health problems, and the spinal cord is often unaffected. The sac is often covered by a thin layer of skin and can be as small as a grape or as large as a grapefruit. A baby who also has hydrocephalus will have an enlarged head, the result of excess fluid and pressure inside the skull.
Many will have no other health problems later unless there is nerve tissue involved with the sac.
In addition, some children need subsequent surgeries to manage problems with their feet, hips, or spine. Many individuals with SB will need assistive devices such as braces, crutches, or wheelchairs. The duration of the event or number of traumatic events someone goes through can put a person at more of a risk developing this problem.
They try to make the patient recall the event that happened to them and get them to express their feelings to get control over the experience. Obsessive-compulsive disorder often centers around thoughts, such as a fear of getting covered in germs.
Even many Famous people have to cope with OCD such as Leonardo DiCaprio, Billy Bob Thornton, and Donald Trump. Theirs is an intense and persistent fear of being scrutinized by others or of doing something embarrassing. The two most effective types of treatment are medications and a form of psychotherapy called cognitive behavioral therapy. They may reduce heart rate, blood pressure, pounding of the heart, and shaking voice and limbs.
This fear is a very normal response to the stress of performing in front of a group of people.
If you don’t take treatment then you could have some physical symptoms such as increased pulse, blushing, breaking out into a sweat, nausea, and eye contact difficulty.
People with OCD know that their obsessions and compulsions make no sense, but they can’t ignore or stop them.
Not all obsessions are constant, some people only have mild OCD, and their obsessions only happen once in a while. These medications are also often used for depression and include: clomipramine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxeine and fluvoxamine.
However, if PTSD appears later the symptoms are much more intense and are more difficult to treat.
The memories or flashbacks can be triggered by simple everyday objects that may remind one of the event. PTSD patients will often have support groups where they can talk out their stressful events with others who have similar problems.
This involves helping clients to improve relationships, preventing crises and experiencing feelings they are not comfortable with. He soon discovered that the symptoms of hysteria could be induced in non hysterics by hypnotic suggestion and that the symptoms of hysterics could be alleviated or transformed by hypnotic suggestion. In 1893 Breuer had presented a paper titled 'Studies in Hysteria.' In essence Breuer stated that forgotten traumas, painful incidents that had left a psychological scar, were responsible for what was at that time called hysteria.
Freud was able to make the breakthrough into seeing the connections with sexual feelings, with early childhood trauma, and with the subtleties of the human psyche. In order to live in a civilized society, people have a tendency to hold back their urges and repress their impulses. Now Freud was implying that Man's godlike intellect was "no more designed to discovering truth than a Pig's snout" (HG Wells). The instinctual drive towards survival and replacement of energy requires translation into more specific terms such as 'food, love, security' etc.
Although it seeks pleasure and the avoidance of pain, the Ego is under the influence of the Reality Principle, which is the delay of immediate gratification in recognition of social requirements or higher needs. Karen Horney, a Neo-Freudian, also talks of the Patripsyche, the internalized Father figure, the loudest of all the voices. Ego defense mechanisms are often used by the Ego when Id behavior conflicts with reality and either society's morals, norms, and taboos or the individual's expectations as a result of the internalization of these morals, norms, and taboos. They are defense mechanisms, used unconsciously, habitually, automatically - attached to anything we don't want to emerge, to look at or know about: the unacceptable.
After this break in relations the motive may then be used to make ourself right and the other wrong, and this 'computation' may become fixed in our mind as a way of handling people and the world - a defense mechanism used unconsciously (without inspection of the new reality) to aid survival. Eros also plays a powerful role in creativity - when we feel ready for something new, or feel the urge to give birth, whether that is to a new idea or a new way of seeing the world and expressing the self.
Bonding must occur at this stage, the Oral Stage, or the capacity to form emotional bonds, as an adult, will be severely impaired. The boy then represses his desire for his mother and hostility towards his father, with whom he has identified. The child has evolved from an animal-like creature with primitive drives to a reasonable human being with complex feelings. The less energy the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual developments of the earlier stages, the greater his capacity will be to develop normal relationships with a sexual partner. Freud employed the then accepted theory of inherited memories put forth by Lamark, a theory that is proving to be not so far off the mark according to recent research.
Creativity is the bridge between Freud and what we are doing with Mind Development Courses. Unconsciously recognizing this fact, churches have for ages attempted to control and regulate the sexuality of their members. It is also a degradation of what is in itself a beautiful process, the creation of new life. They are times of searching introspection, of withdrawal rather than return, of defiance of authority, rather than obedience to it, and of "marching to the music of a different drum." In each of these periods man tries to come to terms with himself. Jung points out that conscience does not equate with Superego, but that is only true when Ego is sufficiently developed to have it's own Ego Morality rather than an imposed one.
Many sports and games are sublimations of aggressive urges, and creative activities may be sublimations of our sexuality. When Primary Process plays a significant role in a person's thinking he is incapable of being inner-directed. This unconscious part of the mind includes some material which has been dissociated from conscious thinking - the Subconscious; and some that can relatively easily become conscious - the Preconscious contents. The material may emerge into the preconscious or even consciousness if current circumstances are similar to the original circumstances and remind the person, causing emotional charge.
Sometimes only part of an experience may be repressed; some memory of it may remain preconscious but feelings are not attached to it.
This interaction is unconscious most of the time; however much of it is Preconscious so that it can easily be brought into consciousness, and some of it is conscious thought and feelings. If frustration is of a traumatic intensity and prolonged, the ensuing warping of the child's personality is long lasting.
Behavior which digresses from these self-imposed standards arouses feelings of guilt and failure: at times, under certain circumstances, these feelings may be at an unconscious level, and like other unconscious and repressed ideas, can give rise to abnormal behavior. Freud analyzes defenses in the left hemisphere, whereas Jung analyzes the content of the right hemisphere; both Freud and Jung are correct from their particular perspective. We may tell friends our dreams, especially those strange ones that haunt our imagination, and they may venture an interpretation for us by reading our dream.
While such an interpretation is fascinatinga€”and can be quite usefula€”you probably wona€™t attempt to get into the mind of the author for a short paper. Initially, Freud categorized the mind according to three levels: the conscious (what we remember), the preconscious (what we can easily retrieve from our memory), and the unconscious (what cannot be retrieved into consciousness). During the oral stageStage in which a child is driven to incorporate objects with himself or herself, thus creating wholeness and unity., a child is one with its libido, its sexual desire satisfied by oral sucking, particularly of the mothera€™s breast. At one point in his career Freud referred to women as the a€?dark continent,a€? and he is known most for his rhetorical question: a€?What does a woman want?a€? Indeed, Freud did not have an answer, and many feminists would argue that he didna€™t even have a clue! For literary critics, however, this theorya€”or storya€”that Freud creates, one that he develop from reading literature (Oedipus Rex), has tantalizing possibilities for literary interpretation. By chopping down the beanstalk, then, Jack symbolically castrates the giant and is able to give up his pleasurable desire for the land of plenty on top of the beanstalk and live in the world of reality. To remain psychologically healthy, according to Freud, the human mind must be able to let those repressed desires escape. Some symbols become more universal: agricultural images represent fertilization, as do spring and summer. We can now examine the theories of Jacques Lacan, who makes Freud even more applicable to literary interpretation. Or to put it plainly, if you like cats, then having the word cat nicely printed in your lap is not as fulfilling as having that actual furry creature purring in your lap. Lacan claims that language creates our identity and places us within the system of language, which, as we remember, is arbitrary and approximate. The distance between the mirror and where you are standing symbolizes the gap or gulf between words and a persona€™s identity. Metonymy is a€?the substitution of the name of an object closely associated with a word for the word itself.
Language as metonymy always leaves a gap or absence or lackThat which is created by language since no word can capture the essence of the sign or thing named., since no complete meaning can be attained. The phallus is another objet petit a, but it operates as an anchoring point along the horizontal axis of metonymy.


Literary interpretation based on language, then, attempts to find meaning in a work that will elude us because language slides away from us. Freuda€™s claim that the unconscious is a result of a persona€™s repressed desire (which of course is sexual, libidinal), is challenged by Jung, who argues that the mind is constructed of multiple layers of consciousness, the unconscious composing only one of those layers. Archetypes are like universal Tupperware containers; a particular culture, society, or individual fills that container with its more a€?personala€? symbol-mixture that is molded by the archetype container yet maintains its individual flavor. Cooper argues that a€?Jack and the Beanstalka€? depicts common archetypes of the Fool and Trickster, as Jack moves from the fool (for buying a€?magica€? beans) to the trickster (who can outwit the giant).J.
Freud’s two step-brothers from his fathers first marriage was around the same age as his mother, therefore his oldest stepbrothers son was Freud’s first playmate as a child. He attended medical school, where he began his research mainly focusing on neurophysiology. The id is a big part of our personality because as newborns, it allows us to meet our basic needs.
It’s the ego's job to meet the needs of the id, while taking into consideration the reality of the situation.
Piaget was interested in the thought processes that underlie reasoning and felt that younger children answered differently than their older peers due to the fact that the reasoned differently. The concrete operational stage ranges from age seven to eleven years and is when you start to think logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations. This is a mechanical device that recorded every response as an upward movement of a horizontally moving line.
Skinner was willing to do what he could to help and sought funding for a top secret project to train pigeons to guide bombs. The second stage is when the person feels like they are forgetting things but no one notices it but themselves. Recent studies have uncovered many new findings about how music can influence our minds, bodies, and even our very lives. One of the common remedies for this is sleeping pills or alcohol, but this can be harmful as they reduce REM sleep. While most people with sleep apnea don’t remember these awakenings, but feel the effects in other ways, such as exhaustion during the day, irritability and depression, and decreased productivity. After a few long seconds of complete terror you can move again , everything is normal and your room is empty.
Research indicates that early treatment services; such as speech therapy, can greatly improve an autistic child’s development. Women with epilepsy who have taken the drug valproic acid to control seizures may have an increased risk of having a baby with spina bifida. Spina Bifida manifesta includes two types of spina bifida: Meningocele involves the meninges, the membranes responsible for covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord. Children with spina bifida often have problems with bowel and bladder control, and some may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other learning difficulties, such as hand-eye coordination problems. Babies with myelomeningocele need more immediate attention and often have surgery within the first 1 to 2 days after birth.
She's traveled to Canada and many places in the United States, and next summer she hopes to go to Scotland. The disorder usually gets better after the traumatic event happens after three months but for some people it can last for years. They will have bad dreams of it, flashbacks, or get up set on the anniversary of the event. To ease your contamination fears, you may compulsively wash your hands until they're sore and chapped.
Even though they may find their own anxiety unreasonable, they can't overcome it by themselves. Because of that, they may work best when used infrequently to control symptoms for a particular situation, such as giving a speech.
Many of us choose what we wear, what kind of car you get, and what your house looks like by what other people think. There medical term is called glossophobia, which comes from the Greek words glossa and phobos. These drugs can cause side effect, and it may take several weeks before your behavior improves. PTSD can happen at any age following any traumatic event, such as, a natural disaster, a life threatening accident, war, abuse, rape, or losing family or friends. People are less likely to develop PTSD when they have strong social support from family, friends, and others. PTSD patients usually turn to drugs and alcohol to solve their problems so substance related issues must be treated first before PTSD can be treated. If the symptoms cannot be linked to any other mental disorder then the person is diagnosed with DID.
This ran contrary to the then-prevalent belief that hysteria had physiological causes; it suggested that a deeper, unseen level of consciousness could affect an individual's conscious conduct. It was, Breuer wrote, the undischarged emotional energy associated with these forgotten traumas that were the root cause of hysteria.
Freud's assault upon the innocence of childhood caused a furore which has not died down even today.
Freud ascribed the appropriate directional functioning to what he termed the Id, which included other genetically inherent features, such as the impulse to love and to seek gratification.
It operates by means of secondary processes - perception, problem solving, and repression - that is, realistic, logical thinking and reality testing.
They are aware of the existence of their drives, but control them and channel them in socially acceptable ways. We use the term internalization to describe that process by which the Ego forms inner or psychic representations of objects that had originally influenced the child from without.
They may be feelings that are opposed or held down by our most strongly held mental convictions. If this is still incubating in the unconscious, it may be the source of some frustration or discomfort.
The Anal Stage includes the child's first experiences with external regulation of an instinctual impulse, involving the postponement of the pleasure from relieving anal tensions. Her Elektra complex is not repressed but is modified by reality and weakens with time, so that she remains identified with the mother. The child learns to adapt to reality and also begins the process of what Freud terms "infantile amnesia," the repression of the earliest traumatic, overly sexual or painful memories. If, however, he remains fixated, particularly on the Anal or Phallic stages, his development will be troubled as he struggles with further repression and defenses. This theory held that humans pass on some of their memories to their offspring through some unknown mechanism, which was later thought to be genes.
This has caused untold numbers of men and women to experience guilt in their sexual contacts that were directed solely at bringing pleasure to each other, as an expression of love and intimacy. In stage 2 he finds his identity or Ego, in stage 5 he redefines it in terms of what he can do as a young adult, and in stage 8 he again redefines it in terms of the meaning of his life and death in the cosmos. Freud believed that the greatest achievements in civilization were due to the effective sublimation of our sexual and aggressive urges that are sourced in the Id and then channeled by the Ego as directed by the Superego. The Preconscious is described as having no sense of awareness but it's contents are available for recall.
There are no mice in the air, Ia€™m afraid, but you might catch a bat, and thata€™s very like a mouse, you know. Dreams are stories of our mind, albeit often bewildering narratives in need of interpretation. To Freud, dreams are the a€?royal roada€? to the personal unconscious of the dreamer and have a direct relation to literature, which often has the structure of a dream.
But you will find, however, that examining the life of an author can be a fruitful enterprise, for there may be details from an authora€™s life that might become useful evidence in your paper. Crewsa€™s study is a model for psychoanalyzing characters in fiction and remains a powerful and persuasive interpretation. Freuda€™s map of the mind focuses on the tension between the conscious and the unconscious.
The id (the a€?ita€?) is the center of our instincts, our libido, which naturally seeks gratification, and is driven by the pleasure principle; the id is primarily sexual and aggressive in nature, purely biological. Continued thumb-sucking during childhood, for example, represents a child not completely through the oral stage of development. He does not provide an adequate explanation for the girla€™s journey through the process; in fact, Freud claims that the girl has an easier route through the OC since she accepts the notion of castration because she doesna€™t have the male appendage.
If dreams are fulfillments of repressed wishes and desires, then dreams provide a means for the pleasure principlea€”the ida€”to have a convenient outlet. Language, as Lacan defines it, represents a€?the unconscious [that] is structured like a language,a€? yet this language a€?is the discourse of the Other,a€? the Other being language.Dor, JoA«l. The Imaginary stage is prelinguistic, similar to the id with its chaotic collection of desire. By this time, the child is cast into the Symbolic stage by being thrust into the language of differences.
That Alice is able to cross through the mirror into Looking-Glass Land, for example, represents her desirea€”she is in an imaginary realm (her mind?) where she can attempt to satiate her desire. We commonly speak of the monarch as a€?the crown,a€™ an object closely associated with royalty thus being made to stand for it.a€?C. Language, consequently, is like the unconscious, which strives to fulfill repressed desire.
As the human subject floats through language on the metonymic plane, it searches for the phallus and temporarily finds the phallus as a metaphor on the vertical plane. Our desire for interpretation, in a sense, can only be temporarily reached via an anchoring point (a written paper), but that point will be undercut with subsequent papers and interpretations. The shadow is the dark side of the Self that we all hope to hide; it is also the a€?moral problema€? that the Self must grapple with on its way to wholeness. Unlike Freud, who saw no value in religion, Junga€™s theory is cemented in religion, with the Self a reflection of God.
Literature is not necessarily based on the personal unconscious of the writer, but on the unconscious mythology that is part of the collective unconsciousness. George Lucas, for example, wrote the original Star Wars Trilogy as a modern myth that exemplifies Campbella€™s archetypal patterns. At about this time Freud began a unique project, his own self-analysis, which he pursued primarily by analyzing his dreams. It includes all the things that are not easily available to awareness, including many things that have their origins there, such as our drives and instincts, and things that are put there because we don’t like to look at them, such as memories and emotions associated with trauma.
From this, he observed children of various ages and development the Process of Cognitive Development which has two major aspects: the coming to know and the stages that we move through to acquire this ability. Finally, the formal operational stage ranges from twelve years through adulthood and is when you begin to reason abstractly. Maybe one day, we will find that music is much more powerful than we now perceive it to be. According to the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, at least 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-term sleep disorders and another 20 to 30 million experience occasional sleep problems. In some cases a person can wake up without the brain sending the signal to the body move again which is sleep paralysis.
Sleep paralysis is not extremely dangers and most people can live with having multiple experiences a month. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) breaks down autism disorder into three levels. Approximately 10% of ASD patients also have other identifiable genetic disorders consistent with Fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormality disorders.
If the meninges push through the hole in the vertebrae (the small, ring-like bones that make up the spinal column), the sac is called a meningocele. Doctors also may use ultrasound to see if a baby has spina bifida; in some cases, the spinal defect can be seen on the ultrasound study.
During this first surgery, doctors push the spine back into the vertebrae and close the hole to prevent infection and protect the spine.
Surgery to close the newborn's spinal opening is generally performed within 24 hours after birth to minimize the risk of infection and to preserve existing function in the spinal cord. If the person is battling depression, alcoholism, or drug abuse though, they have to get these problems treated before they can tackle their PTSD problem. Despite the efforts of many people, thoughts of obsessive-compulsive behavior keep coming back.
If a friend, family member, or even yourself is suffering from this disorder then get help as soon as possible or the effects will only get worse. There is no single known cause of social anxiety disorder, but research suggests that biological, psychological, and environmental factors may play a role in its development.
When people are in therapy their therapist encourage them to do things that make them nervous but tell them not to do their rituals that they usually do when they get nervous. Events such as these will produce stress in everyone, but not everyone develops PTSD from these events.
These alters even have different ways of reacting, such as emotions, blood pressure and blood flow to the brain. This process takes time, most are in the mental health system for seven years before ever being diagnosed.
Using hypnotic techniques, Breuer helped some patients to re-enact, and thus recall, the original traumatic incident, and integrate it into long-term memory. Freud discovered that the elements in a subject's dream tend to be particularly close to repressed unconscious content and that free associations starting from those dream elements quickly encounter topics causing emotional arousal as the unconscious is stimulated, followed by resistance to those feelings. The Id strives to bring about the satisfaction of instinctual needs on the basis of the pleasure principle. When developed, the Ego may replace Superego introjections with its own ideals, based on its own reality testing. If a feeling or desire is triggered that is too uncomfortable, then we distance ourselves from it, we disown it - 'It wasn't me, it wasn't mine' - we identify with some other aspect of ourselves, a way of being that dare not have such feelings or desires.
For example, if one feels stuck or depressed, it may be the foreshadowing of a creative burst.
If the previous stages have been successfully completed, however, the individual will develop into a well-balanced, warm, and caring adult.
Indeed, genetically inherited memory may be responsible for traumas and conflicts held unconsciously but outside an individual's capability to recall; and such phenomena as Oedipal complexes may result from trace memories held and amplified in racial memory or what Jung would call Collective Unconscious. Sex and love are a fusion, a coming together of thought and feeling and body, the synthesis of masculine and feminine, and this is the essence of creativity.
See Repressive Desublimation for an explanation of how the natural process of sublimation may also be manipulated in a repressive way for means of social control.
The unconscious contains memories which have been repressed, and under normal circumstances cannot be recalled. If, for example, an infant is deprived of love and affection over a long period, its own natural impulse to give love can be distorted. Mind Development to achieve such cognitive ability must clearly then have a therapeutic effect on the underlying psychodynamics. But do cats eat bats, I wonder?a€? And here Alice began to get rather sleepy, and went on saying to herself, in a dreamy sort of way, a€?Do cats eat bats? Jacques Lacan, a disciple of Freud, was influenced by Freuda€™s psychoanalytical theories and contended that dreams mirrored our unconscious and reflected the way we use language; dreams, therefore, operate like language, having their own rhetorical qualities.
In turn, the superego (the a€?above mea€?) is the moral consciencea€”the a€?lawa€?a€”that tells us what is right or wrong, permissible or not permissible.
Next, the child passes through the anal stageAggressive stage of development in which a child learns control of the bodily functions., whereby it experiences the mastery of its own bodily functions, gaining pleasure from the ability to control bodily functions. In other words, the girl, already symbolically castrated, does not fear the father; instead, she turns toward the father for the missing phallus, her completion, and thus rivals the mother for the fathera€™s affection. If fairy tales suggest Freudian designs, as Bettelheim tells us, then it seems reasonable other literature may reflect Oedipal desires.
Freud identifies the dreamworkThe overall structure of our dreams, made up of the latent content, manifest content, and secondary revision. Secondary revision, finally, is the dream the dreamer remembers and attempts to interpret (or have someone else interpret); during the secondary revision, any gaps or illogicalities of the dream from the manifest content is filled in and smoothed overa€”the dreamer revises the story to make it more literary, to imbue it with more sense. Freudian symbol hunting can at times be a dangerous occupation, for every pena€”say the one you are probably holding in your hand right nowa€”is not necessarily a phallic symbol, even if as some Freudians pun: a€?Pen-is powera€?! During the Imaginary stage, the child has no clearly defined sense of self; instead, it is a mass of fluid desire, Lacana€™s image for this is an omelet or egg, a human Humpty Dumpty so-to-speak. Another way of understanding language as a gap is to open a dictionary to find a meaning of a word, as we have discussed earlier. Thus the phallus becomes the privileged signifier, for it helps the split subject achieve temporary meaning in the endless journey through the language of desire. Jung clearly separates himself from Freud, for the collective unconscious is much larger than the unconscious, suggesting that a commonality is shared by all humansa€”including the importance of myth, ritual, and religion. The anima embodies Erosa€”desirea€”a maternal archetype that is both positive (the nurturing mother) and negative (the devouring witch). The quest to find the Self, consequently, is a quest for God within the Self, symbolized by Christ, the purest archetype of the God-in-the-human-self. Freud said that the unconscious is the source of our motivations, ranging from simple desires for food or sex, neurotic compulsions, or the motives of an artist. The id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation. With the birth of his children he started to spend considerable time, with the help of his wife, observing their reactions and subjecting them to various experiments.
Skinner discovered that the rate with which the rat pressed the bar depended not on any preceding stimulus (as Watson and Pavlov had insisted), but on what followed the bar presses.
Now that Alzheimer’s has started showing symptoms you can start to tell the decline in memory.
A lack of quality sleep can have a negative impact on your energy, emotional balance, productivity, and health. Sleep apnea can be successfully treated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), a mask-like device that delivers a stream of air while you sleep. Some children with Autism show signs within a few months of birth; others don’t start showing signs until 24 moths or after. Level 1, the most severe, has to have at least 6 items listed in three sub categories; at least two from category A, and at least one each from categories B and C. Some teratogens ingested during pregnancy have also been linked with higher risks of ASD, for example the prescription drug Thalidomide (a sedative used in the 1950’s) and Valporic Acid (an anticonvulsive or mood-stabilizing drug). This may lead to more ritualistic behavior, and a savage cycle that's typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
It will take awhile for the nervous feeling to go away but the more they don’t do the rituals the better their nervousness will get.
Research shows that some major factors that play a role with people being diagnosed with BPD reported a history of abuse, neglect, or separation from parents in their childhood.
Eros is also at the root of our philosophic or religious exploration and the urge toward self-actualization. So any creative act is driven by this urge, at all levels of our being, to share pleasure and feeling - from the writing of a book to baking a cake, from designing a bridge to painting a picture, from a love affair to playing a musical instrument, from a discovery or invention to raising a beautiful family. In practice the process is normally arrested in childhood as the Phallic Stage moves into the following Latency period of quiescence. According to Groddeck, we "are lived by our unconscious"; Freud certainly subscribed to this theory. The infant's attitude in later life will be affected, so that it is unable to achieve a proper relationship with others. Do cats eat bats?a€? and sometimes, a€?Do bats eat cats?a€? for, you see, as she couldna€™t answer either question, it didna€™t much matter which way she put it.
Another Freud disciple, Carl Jung, eventually rejected Freuda€™s theory that dreams are manifestations of the personal unconsciousness, claiming, instead, that they reflect archetypes that tap into the a€?collective unconsciousnessa€? of all humanity.Sigmund Freud. Freud believes the anal stage is primarily aggressive and leads to the desire for mastery over others. You can probably see why nearly all of Freuda€™s critics have recognized the limitations of his claims about women.
By telling a dirty joke or laughing at one, we are able to alleviate our fears or laugh at something that is normally not permissible. Another way to see secondary revision is to view it as interpretation: as we interpret a dream, we interpret a piece of literature. Freud once said that sometimes a cigar is just a cigar, but that leaves open the possibility that sometimes that cigar might mean something else. Freudian literary criticism is primarily external to a work of art: we read and interpret according to Freuda€™s theories, applying, for example, the id-ego-superego triad to Hawthornea€™s short story a€?The Birthmark,a€? as a student example demonstrates later in the chapter. Metaphor is a€?an analogy identifying one object with another and ascribing to the first object one or more or the qualities of the second.a€?C. Cast into a language of desire, humans are unable to find stable meaning, for language cannot satisfy desire; we continually search for an objet petit a that will fulfill us, but that objet is based on a lack, for it is simply a product of language. However, the phallus can never be secured, for it too resides in language and quickly slips away. The doppelgA¤nger is the German literary term for the double, and it captures the dark side of the human. The quest for the Holy Grail in Arthurian legend, for example, symbolizes search for the unity of Self and God. The most recent example of this myth is seen in Harry Pottera€™s confrontation with Voldemort.
To Cooper, the fairy tale is about the universal pattern where goodness triumphs over evil, where ingenuity and innocence defeat brutality.
Freud’s early experiences in Vienna were very overwhelming due to the family being Jewish and the community being Catholic. He looked at the genesis of intelligent conduct, ideas of objective constancy, and causality.
Things you should do to help are repeating instructions and give them time to comprehend it. Losing weight, elevating the head of the bed, and sleeping on your side can also help in cases of mild to moderate sleep apnea.
A child with ASD can develop normally until around 18-24 months of age, at which point they will stop gaining new skills or lose the ones they already mastered.
Category A consists of qualitative impairments in social interaction, category B consists of qualitative impairments in communication, and category C consists of restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities.
It occurs when the meninges push through the hole in the back, and the spinal cord also pushes though. A needle is inserted through the mother's belly and into the uterus to collect fluid that is tested for AFP. OCD symptoms may come and go, they may ease over time, or they can grow progressively worse the older a person gets.
This emotionally intense transfer of a memory from the unconscious to the conscious is known as catharsis or abreaction - an effective method which seems to corroborate Freud's theories on the unconscious mind. Its psychic processes are primary processes - undirected attempts at immediate satisfaction.
The weaker the Ego is, the more infantile and impulsive its owner, the more distorted his or her perception of self and reality. Perhaps in the case of children living with or closely connected with their parents, a remnant of the Oedipus complex may continue in process, but the Superego is typically not overcome in this way.
She felt that she was dozing off, and had just begun to dream that she was walking hand in hand with Dinah, and saying to her very earnestly, a€?Now, Dinah, tell me the truth: did you ever eat a bat?a€? when suddenly, thump! It follows, then, that the ego (the a€?Ia€?) is the moderator of the id (pleasure) and the superego (moral conscience). As with any Freudian readings, there are those who will reject Freuda€™s very premises, and this is true with Bettelheim, for many fairy-tale scholars have looked at the limits of his claims. Think of a slip of the tongue, where you are repressing some desire that unconsciously slips out in normal conversation. The latent content is like a bubbling cauldron of desire, so deep and seething that it appears unintelligible.
If a dream has a narrative structure, then it follows that it requires reading and interpreting, making a dream similar to a poem, play, short story, or novel. And Freud contends that as the mind is split between the unconscious and the conscious, this schism is a product of the two great motivating factorsa€”ErosDriving force in humans that is concerned with desire, sexual desire, love, and so on. Lacanian psychoanalytic criticism, on the other hand, can be seen as internal to the work, for it focuses on the actual language of the literary work.
However, the child passes through the Mirror stageStage where child passes from the Imaginary (believing in unity) to the Symbolic (which is a world of differences)., where it sees itself reflected in the mirror, and this reflection provides the child with an image of itself, one at first of ideal completeness. Thus the search for the phallus or name-of-the-father is a frustrated desire since it is a product of language. Conversely, the animus embodies Logosa€”reasona€”and is paternal, symbolized by the Great Father, the Wise Old Man, the Lover, and the Destroying Angel archetypes. Such a quest becomes the foundation for a culturea€™s archetype, this archetype being a variation of the a€?big dreama€? of the collective unconscious, the grand archetype. Freud spent three years as a resident physician in the famous Allgemeine Krankenhaus, a general hospital and the medical center of Vienna.
Unlike the reflexes that Pavlov had studied, this kind of behavior operated on the environment and was controlled by its effects. Then stage five comes and they can’t recall where they went to school, what there address is, or what day it is. You should accept the blame when something is wrong even if you have no clue what their talking about.
Generally sleepwalking behaviors are resolved by late adolescence, although approximately 10% of all sleepwalkers begin their behavior as teens. A level 2 envelopes delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas with onset prior to three years of age; Social interaction, language as used in social communication, and symbolic or imaginative play. However, concerns about certain vaccines and infections have led researchers to consider these as risk factors. Most babies who are born with this type of spina bifida also have hydrocephalus, an accumulation of fluid in and around the brain. In other words, the ego is the compromise of the id and the superego, a delicate balance of the mind.
Finally, the child enters the phallic stageStage in which a child discovers his or her sexual organsa€”specifically, the presence or lack of a penisa€”and begins sexual development., where the childa€™s sexual desire is concentrated on the genitals, which become an erogenous zone that fulfills pleasure.
Freuda€™s OC approximates the tragedy of Oedipus Rex: the boy, as Freud tells us, has a desire for the mother and begins to see the father as a threat to this desire. A clever definition of such a slip is as follows: Ita€™s when you say one thing, but mean a mother. To bring some meaning to this cauldron, the dreamwork operates by allowing the manifest content to provide a structure for the latent content; the manifest content orders and arranges the dream into a story that uses images and symbols to convey meaning. We see in Chapter 6 "Writing about Readers: Applying Reader-Response Theory" that reader-response interpretation approximates Freuda€™s reader a€?wish-fulfillmenta€? as a textual strategy.
One thing we do know for sure is that Alice travels to liminal spaces when she tumbles to Wonderland and when she crosses over to Looking-Glass Land. The standard for living was quite higher and educational opportunities were better in Vienna than the provinces.
When the child is uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or just wants attention, the id talks until his or her needs are met. The main benefit that he derived from these studies was that Piaget learned in the most direct way how intellectual operations are prepared by sensory-motor action, long before the appearance of language.
The third level, and least severe illustrated a disturbance that in not better account for my Rett’s Disorder (a neurodevelopmental disorder that affect females almost exclusively) or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (a disorder similar to Autism ).
Research shows that OCD may be caused by chemicals in the brain that carry messages from one nerve cell to another. In effect, the oral, anal, and phallic stages reflect libidinal sexual desires central to the pleasure principle.
To continue with our analogy, as the dreamer looks into the bubbling cauldron of the latent content, he or she takes a ladle and dips into the cauldron and pours latent content into a bowl, the bowl representing the manifest content, a smaller and more structured container. Lacanian psychoanalysis is textual, part of the artistic, formal construction of the literary work. Yet this image of completeness is quickly shattered, for the child must misread itself, for it simultaneously sees itself as unified and as an object, an Other.
Hyde (1886) is a prototypical story of the double; it focuses on the experiences of the mannered Dr. As the shadow side of the Self is usually hidden or repressed inside, the anima or animus side of the Self is also internalized and hidden, for the Self is unwilling to recognize its feminine or masculine side. The area in which Sigmund’s family lived was called Leopoldstadt slum, which was rich in Jewish people.
During the last part of Freud’s residency, he received money to pursue his neurological studies. With this knowledge he changed his method of study by modifying the direction of conversation to objects that the child could manipulate by themselves. Most people say that they feel a presence in the room that they can’t look to see almost always described as malevolent or evil.
One of these chemicals is serotonin, which helps to keep people from repeating the same behaviors over and over again. The father, symbolic of the law or lawgiver, steps in and, with the threat of castration or emasculation, turns the boy away from the mother. That our desire for life will ultimately be defeated by the inevitable reality of death is a central concern that leads to repression. That is why the Self will project its opposite onto others, which explains erotic heterosexual love: the male and female are united, finding their anima or animus completed by their partner. The housing there was cramped and they had to move quite often, once even with his fathers family.
Sigmund spent four months at the Salpetriere clinic in Paris, France, under a neurologist named Jean Martin Charcot . He discovered that children up to the age of twelve did not believe in the constancy of material quantity, weight, and volume of a lump of modeling clay.
Some experience hallucinations, seeing grey or dark figures in the room or sitting on their chest trying to crush them.
The boy then represses his desire for his mother (and his desire to be rid of the father) into the unconscious. It is important to note that during the Mirror stage the child begins to acquire language, learning immediately that what is desired and the words used to identify that object of desire are not the same. Jung falls into the same trap as Freud to a degreea€”they both make essentialist assumptions about gender. Freud went to a local elementary school and then attended the Sperl Gymnasium, a school that would prepare him for college from 1866 to 1873. The influence of his discoveries on the science and culture of the twentieth century is limitless. He had also discovered from his own children that between the ages of six to ten months, they did not possess the notion of constancy and permanency of an object disappearing from view.
Language in the Mirror stage fragments the myth of the unified self contained in the Imaginary stage. Freud was a superior student and passed his final examination with flying colors, qualifying him for the University of Vienna at the age of seventeen.
He felt that there had to be successive stages in the development of ideas of constancy which could be studied in concrete situations rather than solely through language. By successfully negotiating the OC, the boy is gendered; he learns how to direct his sexual desire to appropriate objects and usually grows into a healthy sexual human being. Even though housing was cramped, Sigmund’s parents recognized his scholarly achievement and Freud had his own room, while his siblings had to share a room. Stevensona€™s novel famously suggests that the shadow resides naturally in the Self, though the Self wears a mask to hide that shadow side to the world and to the Self.



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