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admin | Category: Improving Erections | 08.09.2014
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Childhood and Society was Erikson's first book, first published in 1950 and revised in 1963. The following table summarizes Erikson's stage theory, first described by Erik Erikson at a 1950 White House conference on development.
For example, Erikson felt that adolescents were engaged in a struggle between identity and feelings of confusion.
Erikson's description of the eight stages of life has a lot of appeal, and Erikson himself was described in the early 1980s as the fifth most influential psychologist of the century (Gilgen, 1982). Marcia (1966) proposed four distinct ego identity statuses applied to adolescents, derived from Erikson's theory. Marcia and co-workers found that "foreclosers" tend to have closer relationships with parents (Marcia, 1980).


For example, at the top we see that infancy is characterized by a struggle between basic trust and mistrust. Identity consists of self-descriptions and self-perceptions and includes one's values and beliefs.
Much research has been done on predictions made by Erikson's theory, especially the adolescent crisis of identify vs.
Van De Water and McAdams (1989) found that generativity, supposedly a product of middle adulthood, is not related to age.
Erikson identified a series of eight crises that, he said, characterized the growth of personality.
This is very much like Horney's idea that the mother and young child establish a relationship that creates either basic trust or basic anxiety. If the crisis is successfully resolved (if it has a happy outcome) the child is left with hope instead of despair.


A 1971 study of middle-aged men found a variety of developmental paths, with relatively few men reporting a mid-life crisis. Finally, there is the "identity diffuse" person who experiences neither an identity crisis nor a commitment to a definite personal identity. Similarly, a great deal of research shows that adolescence is not always marked by rebellion and questioning of parental values. Similarly, each other crisis or conflict could result in a problem or a new "virtue." Progress or development was achieved by resolving each conflict. It sometimes is marked by an identity crisis, like the one Erikson experienced as a teenager, but this only happens with a minority of teenagers.



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