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Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are severely challenged by their difficulties with language and communication.
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The 19 individual SIG Perspectives publications have been relaunched as the new, all-in-one Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups. This is a€?What Is Communication?a€?, section 1.2 from the book An Introduction to Group Communication (v.
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Many theories have been proposed to describe, predict, and understand the behaviors and phenomena of which communication consists.
The root of the word a€?communicationa€? in Latin is communicare, which means to share, or to make common.Weekley, E. At the center of our study of communication is the relationship that involves interaction between participants.
The first key word in this definition is the word processA dynamic activity that is hard to describe because it changes..
The second key word is understandingTo perceive, to interpret, and to relate our perception and interpretation to what we already know.. In order to better understand the communication process and how it provides a foundation for group communication, leta€™s break it down into eight essential components.
Imagine, for example, that you are addressing a large audience of sales reps and are aware there is a World Series game tonight.
For example, suppose you are a sales manager participating in a conference call with four sales reps.
A meeting, presentation, or personal conversation does not take place as an isolated event.
Context is all about what people expect from each other, and we often create those expectations out of environmental cues. Psychological noise is what happens when your own thoughts occupy your attention while you are hearing, or reading, a message. Noise interferes with normal encoding and decoding of the message carried by the channel between source and receiver. Researchers have observed that when communication takes place, the source and the receiver may send messages at the same time, often overlapping. Rather than looking at the source sending a message and someone receiving it as two distinct acts, researchers often view communication as a transactionalModel of communication in which actions happen at the same time. Researchers have also examined the idea that we all construct our own interpretations of the message.
Because we carry the multiple meanings of words, gestures, and ideas within us, we can use a dictionary to guide us, but we will still need to negotiate meaning. The communication process involves understanding, sharing, and meaning, and it consists of 8 essential elements: source, message, channel, receiver, feedback, environment, context, and interference. List three environmental cues and indicate how they influence your expectations for communication. Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License unless otherwise noted. Organizing vocabulary on communication boards sometimes feels overwhelming, especially if you have not had specific training or education in this area.
Language Learning– it is often helpful to order vocabulary on a communication display so that the communicator can learn language and literacy in addition to functional communication. Speed of communication:  We want to help communicators navigate the communication book as fast as possible because ‘listeners’ often have a hard time waiting. Predictable Patterns– When organizing multiple pages in a book, the order should be meaningful to the communicator.
Once a communication board has been made, we do not move vocabulary around to ‘test’ communicators.
Once the organizational system has been learned, all additional pages should follow that system.
We can, but should we automatically ‘copy’ a high tech display as the template for a communication book. PrAACtical AAC supports a community of professionals and families who are determined to improve the communication and literacy abilities of people with significant communication difficulties.
Two of the most eye-opening, method-changing presentations I have gone to in the last two years have been one regarding Core Vocabulary by Gail VanTatenhove and one concerning PODD by Linda Burkhart. I too have had the pleasure to hear both Gail VanTatenhove and Linda Burkhart speak and I second the recommendation to attend their seminars if given the chance.
I am an SLP that specializes in AAC and I whole-heartedly agree that the PODD is a great system that can be so powerful when implemented with the appropriate support (yes! Unfortunately, she can't direct select so the version that is sold commercially needs to be significantly tweaked for her to use it but having the PODD disks and being able to print them out for vocabulary and navigational ideas is so valuable!
Some research suggests that augmented language input, whereby a speaking communication partner adopts and uses an augmentative or alternative communication (AAC) system for both expressive and receptive language, can be effective with these individuals.
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When it comes to communicating in the workplace, we are often less interested in theory than in making sure our interactions generate the desired results. This definition serves us well with its emphasis on the process, which wea€™ll examine in depth across this text, of coming to understand and share anothera€™s point of view effectively.
Your sales team members might have a hard time settling down, but you may choose to open with, a€?I understand there is an important game tonight.a€? In this way, by expressing verbally something that most people in your audience are aware of and interested in, you might grasp and focus their attention.
Spoken channels include face-to-face conversations, speeches, telephone conversations and voice mail messages, radio, public address systems, and voice-over-internet protocol (VOIP).
Your team members a€?size you up,a€? much as you might check them out long before you open your mouth. As the source, you want to tell the reps to take advantage of the fact that it is World Series season to close sales on baseball-related sports gear.
That probably has some relation to the position and role each person has outside of the meeting.
Perhaps you are hungry, and your attention to your own situation interferes with your ability to listen. With this in mind, core and fringe vocabulary can be organized in a way that follows a left to right access to be able to generate language in a typical grammatical sentence structure.
It was founded in 2011 by two SLP professors, Carole Zangari and the late Robin Parker, around a shared passion for AAC. For anyone who works with students who need AAC, I highly recommend seeing both of these presenters. I could, and may, write more about this topic and other bits of information that I find valuable.
Planning on attending a LAMP class offered through PRC which is also an excellent training!
The Pragmatic Organization Dynamic Display (PODD) system is both a method and tool for developing and utilizing augmented language input. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (9 MB) or just this chapter (992 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). As a member of a group or team we are often collectively judged on what we produced, not what we individually contributed to the final product. You may share a joint activity, as when you share in compiling a report; or you may benefit jointly from a resource, as when you and several co-workers share a pizza. Written channels include letters, memorandums, purchase orders, invoices, newspaper and magazine articles, blogs, e-mail, text messages, tweets, and so forth. The nonverbal responses of your listeners can serve as clues on how to adjust your opening. There is a time for quiet social greetings, a time for silence as the bride walks down the aisle, or the father may have the first dance with his daughter as she transforms from a girl to womanhood in the eyes of her community.
For example, your cellphone ringtone may be a welcome noise to you, but it may interrupt the communication process in class and bother your classmates. The distinction between source and receiver is blurred in conversational turn-taking, for example, where both participants play both roles simultaneously. In the constructivistModel of communication focusing on the negotiated meaning, or common ground, when trying to describe communication. With that said, we need to include vocabulary that meets the communicators needs in the situations they are going to be using it.
Just today a teacher had commented how a student was given a communication board designed by the student's classroom teacher and that she, "Didn't know how to use it." The first question I asked was, "Has anyone shown this child how to use the communication board?"  Answer? Without going into details, I have not yet completed the "category pages" so we're just using this book without them for now.
By our second session he was flipping through the pages to make requests such as, "more" and comment such as, "That's funny."  Again, each child is different — which is the best part of our job!
I did an internet search for PODD and found a file containing some sample pages on which I based my own. As a promising practice, PODD provides strategies to support the design, production, and implementation of communication systems that enable genuine communication for a variety of functions in all daily environments. Working in a team can be a challenge, but it can also produce results no individual member could have accomplished alone. In communication, sharing occurs when you convey thoughts, feelings, ideas or insights to others.
By looking at the context the word is used in, and by asking questions, we can discover the shared meaning of the word and understand the message.
By imagining yourself in their place, you anticipate what you would look for if you were them. Verbal or nonverbal, all of these feedback signals allow the source to see how well, how accurately (or how poorly and inaccurately) the message was received. You might assume that this means they understood and agreed with youa€”but later in the month you might be disappointed to find that very few sales were made.
The degree to which the environment is formal or informal depends on the contextual expectations for communication held by the participants. You may open the email, start to read, and think a€?Greata€”no problema€”I have those figures and that analysis right here in my computer.a€? You fire off a reply with last montha€™s sales figures and the current projections attached. If you were a member of an audience listening to an executive speech, how could this impact your ability to listen and participate? In order to communicate, you must each realize what the term means to the other person, and establish common ground, in order to fully understand the request and provide an answer. And when there are no plans, disorganization usually occurs and with disorganization comes chaos. Pragmatic Organization Dynamic Display (PODD) Communication Books: A Promising Practice for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders. PODD includes strategies to minimize some of the common difficulties associated with the use of multi-level communication books. Knowing what makes for a productive group starts with effective communication underscore how valuable it can be to understand what communication is and how it works. You can also share with yourselfa€”a process called intrapersonal communicationa€”when you bring ideas to consciousness, ponder how you feel about something, or figure out the solution to a problem and have a classic a€?Aha!a€? moment where something becomes clear.

The speaker also conveys a message through his or her tone of voice, body language, and choice of clothing.
Just as a quarterback plans where the receiver will be in order to place the ball correctly, you too can recognize the interaction between source and receiver in a business communication context. Feedback also provides an opportunity for the receiver or audience to ask for clarification, to agree or disagree, or to indicate that the source could make the message more interesting. The person sitting next to you may be used to informal communication with instructors, but this particular instructor may be used to verbal and nonverbal displays of respect in the academic environment.
You may be called upon to give a toast, and the wedding or quinceanera context will influence your presentation, timing, and effectiveness.
While there are many models of communication, here we will focus on two that offer perspectives and lessons for effective communicators.
This is often dependent on fine motor skills but remember that it does not always have to initially be related to language level.
Instead of storing the handouts in a drawer somewhere, I am constantly referring to my notes from both conferences. All of this happens at the same time, illustrating why and how communication is always changing. Do any of you have any questions?a€?) you might have an opportunity to clarify your message, and to find out whether any of the sales reps believed your suggestion would not work with their customers. A professional communication context may involve business suits (environmental cues) that directly or indirectly influence expectations of language and behavior among the participants.
You may be used to formal interactions with instructors as well, and find your classmatea€™s question of a€?Hey Teacher, do we have homework today?a€? as rude and inconsiderate when they see it as normal. The next morning, your boss calls on the phone to tell you he was inconvenienced because you neglected to include the sales figures from the previous years. This article explores the use of the PODD system for individuals with ASD, with emphasis on features that address the unique communication challenges faced by these individuals.
The speaker begins by first determining the messagea€”what they want to say and how they want to say it. When you plan to give a speech or write a report, your message may seem to be only the words you choose that will convey your meaning. The quarterback throws the message (football) to a receiver, who must see and interpret where to catch the football.
The environment can include the tables, chairs, lighting, and sound equipment that are in the room. The nonverbal response from the instructor will certainly give you a clue about how they perceive the interaction, both the word choices and how they were said.
I am going to apologize in advance to Linda Burkhart and Gayle Porter (creators of PODD) in advance if I am not explaining PODD very well or using PODD the way it was intended. Understanding the words and the concepts or objects they refer to is an important part of the communication process.
The next step involves encoding the message by choosing just the right order or the perfect words to convey the intended meaning. Each channel takes up some space, even in a digital world, in the cable or in the signal that brings the message of each channel to your home. The quarterback may intend for the receiver to a€?catcha€? his message in one way, but the receiver may see things differently and miss the football (the intended meaning) altogether.
For example, if you drove a car to work or school, chances are you were surrounded by noise. Interference: by thinking about how you wanted to respond to your bossa€™s message, you prevented yourself from reading attentively enough to understand the whole message. Now imagine that your mother is joined by someone else, someone you havena€™t met beforea€”and that this stranger listens intently as you speak, almost as if you were giving a speech. The third step is to present the information, sending the information to the receiver, audience, or group members. When the quarterback and receiver, as well as the rest of the team, fail to communicate, an interceptiona€”like a miscommunicationa€”is bound to occur.
The environment can also include factors like formal dress, that may indicate whether a discussion is open and caring or more professional and formal.
Car horns, billboards, or perhaps the radio in your own car interrupted your thoughts, or your conversation with a passenger. I am and always have been about the "eclectic approach." PODDs are Pragmatically-Organized Dynamic Displays. Finally, by watching for the audiencea€™s reaction, the source perceives how well they received the message, and responds with clarification or supporting information. People may be more likely to have an intimate conversation when they are physically close to each other, and less likely when they can only see each other from across the room. The message also consists of the way you say ita€”in a speech, with your tone of voice, your body language, and your appearancea€”and in a report, with your writing style, punctuation (!), and the headings and formatting you choose. The feedback or response from your mother and the stranger may cause you to re-evaluate what you are saying. In addition, part of the message may be the environment or context you present in and any noise which may make your message hard to hear or see. When we interact, all of these factors and many more influence the process of communication.
Tabs that match the pictures of the function are along the side of the book, attached to the edge of each page. Ita€™s always a good idea to go check out where youa€™ll be speaking before the day of the actual presentation. These children are both direct selectors; however, partner-assisted scanning can also be used if need be.

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