What are some natural ways to lose weight fast,diet for aids patient,weight loss program questionnaire examples - New On 2016

20.04.2014
A total eclipse of the Sun has not been seen in the continental USA for nearly two generations. Although people may opt for the longer durations in eastern regions of the USA, poorer weather prospects here suggest going west. Prudence may suggest observing from regions of good weather prospects with shorter durations than locations with longer durations that have higher probabilities of not seeing the eclipse at all.
Currently maximum total eclipse durations are declining with the 2009 July eclipse longest of the 21st Century.
Finally, maximum duration of a total solar eclipse occurs only on the center line of the eclipse path about mid-way between its ends. Read about the Eclipse at Madras, Oregon including circumstance of the eclipse in Part  4. Stop eating all simple carbs, such as flour, sugar, starchy vegetables like potatoes, and most grains. Use artificial sweeteners very sparingly, and only to curb the cravings for high-sugar alternatives. These are just simple ways and  most of all, natural, but it could lose your weight fast if followed diligently. Natural Ways To Facelift To Remove Wrinkles And Aging LinesBy the time we came out of this world, we were free of wrinkles. 4 Natural Ways To Boost Fertility And Conceive In TimeTo conceive a  child in a natural ways would be great! Potato consists of natural bleaching agents, which will help to lighten the dark circles and remove the puffiness near the eyes.
In case you find this process of extracting juice to be time consuming, you can take thick potato slices and place them on the dark circles. Another remedy using cucumber is, to take two equal quantities of cucumber juice and lemon juice. One of the most beneficial natural ingredients for delicate skin around the eyes is almond oil. Tomato is also a great skin lightening agent with certain properties that will help clear the area around the eyes. Take a teaspoon of turmeric paste, tomato puree and orange lentil flour and mix it together, with a few drops of lemon juice. Along with using these natural remedies, you can also prevent dark circles by making a few changes to your lifestyle.
With the rising stress levels in our lives, more and more people are suffering from skin problems like under eye dark circles. Needless to say, it’s high time you start paying attention and deal with it. Hiding behind fashionable sunnies or putting on a primer might be a temporary solution, but you need a permanent one for sure.
Besides the aesthetic factor of you not looking your best with dark circles, they may also reflect an underlying medical condition. Today we always look for quick solutions and pop pills merrily to get rid of our beauty or health problems and suffer the long-term consequences.
Milk contains antioxidants for glowing skin, and gives it a certain luminosity and a translucent quality which your expensive creams fail to give. What we have to do is take a cotton ball and place it in a bowl of cold milk or iced water for a while. Cover the eyes with cotton wool and apply the mask over it ensuring that the pack does not drip into the eyes. Lie down and relax for at least twenty minutes before washing it off with clean water or you can use cold milk for further relaxation.
The curcumin component of turmeric is an excellent antioxidant which has anti-aging, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties that help reduce the dark pigments under your eye.
The acidic and astringent properties of buttermilk can lighten the under eye circles effectively. Castor oil is a good source of fatty acids that greatly helps to improve the skin tone and rejuvenates it further.
Now apply this castor oil and fresh cream paste over the closed eyelids and under the eyes. This process can be repeated twice in a day for two weeks or until you notice a visible change in the dark under eyes.
Now dip a cotton ball into this almond oil and mashed avocado mixture, and apply it over the closed eyelids and under the eyes. This process can be repeated twice in a day to reduce the puffiness under eyes and the dark circles. Night jasmine has ophthalmic, astringent and anti-inflammatory properties that helps to reduce the stress, which is the prime reason for dark circles. Nutmeg is known to work against blemishes and helps lighten darkened skin due to the presence of vitamin E and vitamin C. Lemon juice is a potent source of vitamin C which makes it a natural skin bleaching agent, and if this concoction is used regularly, it will yield great results.
Add the mint leaves into the blender and blend or juice it, so that you get ample amount of juice. Dip a cotton ball into this solution and apply it over the closed eyelids and under the eyes. This process can be repeated twice in a day for a week or until the dark area under your eyes reduces significantly. Honey and banana both have great moisturizing qualities and the moisture from these ingredients helps moisturize the area, thus taking care of the sensitive area. Use your fingertips to massage the organic coconut oil over the closed eyelids as well as under the eyes for good 2-3 minutes. If your dark circles are a result of dry skin, the wholesome fatty acids of avocados can come to your rescue. Add green apple to the boiling water and let it cook for about 5-10 minutes or until the outer layer of the apple becomes tender. Peel the outer layer of this cooked green apple and leave it over the eyelids for 15-30 minutes. You need to make some lifestyle changes in order to get rid of your dark circles permanently. Just a little tender loving care can protect the sensitive area under your eyes, so you don’t have raccoon eyes. I just want to get rid of both the problems especially dark circles ASAP, it looks very weird. Quote via kushandwizdom“To everyone going through struggles or pain right now, keep your head up, and keep smiling.
Athletes Foot – The powerful antifungal properties of coconut oil make it perfect for any fungal infection. Cleanser – Coconut oil makes an effective and gentle cleanser to remove the grime of the day.
Stretch Marks – Prevent and soften stretch marks from pregnancy with coconut oil for soft and supple skin.
Moisturizer – Coconut oil is an excellent way to soften and hydrate dry, rough, or damaged skin. Face Scrub – Mix coconut oil with baking soda, sugar, or cinnamon and oatmeal for the perfect face scrub and exfoliator. Dandruff – Massage coconut oil into the scalp to ease symptoms of dandruff, both itching and flaking. Wrinkles – Rub into lines, creases, and wrinkles to rehydrate skin and soften those wrinkles away. Sore Throat – Dissolve a spoonful in your mouth and let it slowly roll down the throat. Ring Worm – Rub coconut oil onto affected area to kill the fungus that causes unsightly ringworm. Cold Sore – Coconut oil has antiviral properties that will help the body get rid of the virus that causes cold sores. Lubricant – Coconut makes an all-natural personal lubricant for intimate moments without chemicals. Pet Health – Coconut oil can do a multitude of things for pets, both topically and internally. Cradle Cap – Coconut oil is gentle and safe for infants and helps ease the itching, pain, redness, and flaking associated with cradle cap. Bruises – Rub coconut oil into bruised skin to speed healing and watch the bruises fade fast.
Shaving Cream – Coconut oil keeps the razor gliding smoothly while leaving skin smooth and soft. Toothpaste – Mix 1 part coconut oil with 1 part baking soda and add a couple drops of peppermint oil. Yeast Infections – Coconut oil fights these fungal infections internally and externally.
Energy – Coconut oil and its medium chain triglycerides make it an excellent energy source to improve stamina, endurance, or just to give you a boost through the day. Deodorant – Mix coconut oil with cornstarch, baking soda, and your favorite essential oils for a natural deodorant that smells fantastic. Eczema – Coconut oil reduces the itchiness, pain, flakiness, and dryness of eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis. Hemorrhoids – Coconut oil eases the pain and discomfort of hemorrhoids and encourages natural healing both internally and externally. Nose Bleeds – Rub a bit of coconut oil in nostrils to fight the dry cracking that can lead to nose bleeds and pain.
Canker Sores – Dab coconut oil on canker sores to kill infection and speed up healing. Acid Reflux – Take a small spoonful with meals to keep acid reflux and heartburn at bay. Nursing – Coconut oil works great to repair dry, cracked skin, including sore nipples from nursing. Fitness – Coconut oil boosts energy, increases metabolism, improves thyroid function, and aids healthy weight loss.
Gram and chick powder helps to absorb oil or fat from your body and other food and thus reduce fat.
Do you wish to drop off the excess pounds from your body and obtain a healthy and fit body?
Lower level of metabolism would result in more storage of fat, hence restricting you to achieve your weight loss goal. Increased consumption of good carbs would help in fat burning process, thus supporting to attain optimum body weight. Further these foods are rich in necessary minerals, vitamins and fiber content to enable the body to obtain essential nutrients for healthy living. Eating five to six small portions of meals throughout the day would amazingly assist in boosting up the level of metabolism, thus helping you to keep going throughout the day.
You should eat healthy snacks or fruits in between three big meals and reduce the size of your meals, so that the metabolic rate remains enhanced and you do not gain more weight. The tips given above have been proven to deliver successful results with regard to disposing off extra body fat, hence enabling an individual to obtain a great body shape over a certain period of time, provided the above instructions are followed with great dedication. A seven minute duration will not happen again until 2150 June (7m14s) while a total eclipse with a duration near maximum is nearly two centuries in the future.
Not until 2078 will total eclipse durations begin to increase when Saros cycle 139 begins to bring eclipses of longer and longer durations. This position may often be difficult to access as it was, for example, during the 2012 November Australia eclipse.
These foods cause blood sugar to spike and the pancreas to release insulin to turn all that excess sugar into fat. Unsweetened tea and decaf black coffee are also permissible, but you will not lose weight fast if you are drinking hidden calories such as the sugar in soda pop or the cream in fancy coffee. Fat is not necessarily bad for you, but, like anything else, can be trouble when taken in excess.
Stevia is a natural sweetener that does not affect blood sugar levels, and frequently comes packed with fiber. The only way to make your body healthier is to give it a lot of attention, and that means frequent workouts. Cucumber is very quick in treating dark circles and one can rely on it completely for this purpose. The paste consists of one tablespoon of lemon juice, a pinch of gram flour and turmeric powder along with two tablespoons of tomato puree. Vitamins B and C along with potassium act as a great aid to nourish sensitive skin around the eyes.
If you do not add enough vitamin C into your diet, you will be in a risk of having unhealthy skin. As the area becomes really thin and delicate, it needs to be improved by toning the skin with water.  Including a healthy diet and exercises to your day will expel dark circles. Since there was an overwhelming response to the above article, we thought we thought we will extend the article so that you will have a great many options to choose from to bid your dark circles a firm goodbye.
When it comes to looking presentable, you should be willing to walk the extra mile to get rid of the problem.


You are slathering on the under eye cream every night without fail, yet those tell-tale signs of stress refuse to fade away, so let’s find out the truth behind dark circles and what you should do to get rid of them. Cucumber has skin-lightening and mildly astringent properties that help set right those giant panda eyes naturally.
Combining these two natural agents you can get rid of your dark circles with great effectiveness. The bromelain enzyme of pineapple has natural anti-inflammatory properties that can reduce damage caused by free radicals. Fresh cream, on the other hand, contains lactic acid which helps reduce the puffiness and fine lines. Almond oil is a natural moisturize, which helps preserve the elasticity and suppleness of the sensitive area around the eye. The dryness under your eyes causes dark circles, so if you want to get rid of that, use this remedy.
It takes a few weeks to show results and you need to follow the process twice a day to get the best results.
After 10 minutes, start rubbing it around your eyes, taking extra care to rub it in your dark circles and eyelids. The avocado contains Vitamin B along with Vitamin E and Vitamin K which softens the area around your eye and reduces the dark circles. A diet rich in all basic nutrients, including vitamins, minerals take care of all your skin woes. She has done her masters in English and has done her graduation from Banaras Hindu University. This will coat and protect the throat, boost the health of mucus membranes, and fight any infection. It improves breath, makes for a shiny coat, eases joint problems, cleans ears, gets rid of fleas, and much more.
This makes a refreshing, natural toothpaste that whitens and cleans without added preservatives, fluoride, sweeteners, or other chemicals.
Rather than frying or using oil to cook food, the best cooking method to reduce weight is grilling, baking or boiling. Among fruits and vegetables cucumber, lemon, lime, orange, apple, water melon are the best.
Take half cup of warm water, squeeze one lemon in it and add a teaspoon of honey.Mix well and drink it well at empty stomach in the morning. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. They eat and contaminate food, damage structures and property, and transmit parasites and diseases to other animals and humans. It is true that everyone wants to look good and smart by having optimum weight of the body. Healthy food sources like fruits, vegetables and whole grains are the best options to feed the body with required amount of good carbs. A protein rich diet with low sugar content is considered to be the best diet program to accelerate weight loss and restrict weight gain. Also, this diet practice would keep you satisfied all the time and would not result in accumulation of fat. It is suggested that you drink lot of water daily, so that all the toxins are disposed off and the body remains in good health. Although eclipse durations have their maximum values along points on the central line, these durations diminish with increasing distance from the central line.
Almost half are approximately three minutes or less (as will be with the 2017 August eclipse). This will not happen until the remarkable 2186 July total eclipse (7m29s), the longest duration of totality during the years -2000 to +4000.
For this eclipse, maximum duration was 4m02s over the central Pacific Ocean and not the Australian mainland. Cutting out these foods is one of the most important things you can do to lose weight fast.
A diet that keeps you hungry all the time is not one that you will stick with for very long, no matter how fast the pounds come off at first. Aim for as many omega 3 fatty acids as possible, which are plentiful in things like wild salmon and grass fed bison, as opposed to the saturated fats and omega 6s, which make up most of the fat in regular ground beef.
You can’t lose weight fast and eat a diet packed with sweets, but just a little now and then can be permissible. You need to take two teaspoons of turmeric powder and add it to a few drops of pine apple juice. Yes, it is true, if you remove and add a few things to your life you can prevent dark circles from coming back.
If you are unable to escape stressful times or late night work, you can add these simple natural remedies to reduce the dark circles. These are easy to follow remedies and also easy to get, right from your kitchen, and with this comprehensive article, we hope that your dark circles will be a thing of the past.
If you are wondering, what you should do to remove them or how to get rid of dark circles, you’ve come to the right place!
So if you are wondering how to reduce dark circles under eyes, coconut oil is a great answer to your skin problems.
I have a poor eye sight and so I have to use high powered spectacles, is my dark circles a result of this?
Try to loose weight as soon as you gain weight otherwise it will become permanent and it will be difficult to loose them when you become an aged person.We gain weight not only for overeating. Rats live and thrive in a wide variety of climates and conditions and are often found in and around homes and other buildings, on farms, and in gardens and open fields.A IDENTIFICATIONPeople dona€™t often see rats, but signs of their presence are easy to detect.
Extra weight on the belly does not look good and spoils the entire appearance and beauty of a person. A few tips to lose extra pounds from the body and get a perfect shape of the body are explained here.
Weight loss process would be hastened wonderfully with the aid of eating a nutritious diet. The digestive system would keep in good health with the aid of consumption of at least ten glasses of water daily.
Annular eclipses occur when the Moon's disk is not large enough to hide the entire solar disk at maximum eclipse. Unfortunately, this long duration will take place about 400 mi (640 km) east of South America in the Atlantic Ocean, 500 mi (800 km) north of the equator. Fortunately, greatest duration for the 2017 August eclipse does occur over the mainland USA. Eating lots of fiber and vegetables will also help stabilize your blood sugar, which eliminates the highs and lows following eating.
Not only will it help you naturally lose weight fast, but it will give you strength and stamina you never had before and improve overall health. You need to make sure that you follow a healthy lifestyle, in order to get the best results. Here are some natural home remedies, which will help you get rid of saggy bags or dark circles under your eyes. Repeat this process at least 2 to 3 times a week to regain your skin tone around the eye area. Eyes are the mirrors of the soul, and if we don’t make efforts to look after them and the sensitive skin around them, gradually the condition of our skin will deteriorate and we will have to suffer the repercussions. Other causes related to gain weight is low metabolic rate, a big gap in between two meals, poor digestive system, etc. Taking a heavy and nutritious breakfast is must because breakfast helps to stabilize the hormone and blood sugar and thus increase metabolic rate to burn calories. In California, the most troublesome rats are two introduced species, the roof rat (Figure 1) and the Norway rat (Figure 2). So, you should consume good carbs to increase the energy and strength, hence assisting in fat loss process.
Totality is a two minute eclipse on the West Coast with the east coast having 34 seconds more. Thus, western location may again have an advantage since summer storms tend to build during afternoon hours, a common occurrence during summer months. The duration of totality decreases slowly at first with the distance from the central line of totality then increases rapidly. Although much less spectacular than total solar eclipses, central durations are often much longer.
Cardio will get your heart rate up and burn lots of calories while you are exercising, and weight training will improve overall strength and endurance, as well as burn more calories while you are at rest. Wash the skin with cold water and apply a cream.You can also apply a paste made from boiled green apple, under the eyes.
Ita€™s important to know which species of rat is present in order to choose effective control strategies.Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, sometimes called brown or sewer rats, are stocky burrowing rodents that are larger than roof rats.
It is believed by some people that going on crash dieting by restricting the intake of foods would help in reducing weight. The approximate range in altitude of the Sun in degrees during the eclipse is also shown for both west and east regions. For example, at a distance of 60% away from the central line to the edge of totality, the duration is still 80% of maximum. Even if the fractional distance from the central line is one half, the loss in duration is only about 15%.
Doing this twice daily for a few weeks will completely remove the dark circles around the eyes. Their burrows are found along building foundations, beneath rubbish or woodpiles, and in moist areas in and around gardens and fields (Figure 3).
Hence, observers usually do not need to be exactly on the central line to experience most of the duration of totality. Anything frozen can be placed on the eye lids like frozen peas, cold spoon or even a chilled tea bag. Going on crash dieting would deprive the body of all the vital nutrients, hence lowering down your metabolism and energy level. They are huge brands who advertise great products, with your favorite celebrities telling you that they work. While generally found at lower elevations, this species can occur wherever people live.Roof rats, R.
Roof rats are agile climbers and usually live and nest above ground in shrubs, trees, and dense vegetation such as ivy.
In buildings, they are most often found in enclosed or elevated spaces such as attics, walls, false ceilings, and cabinets. The roof rat has a more limited geographical range (Figure 4) than the Norway rat, preferring ocean-influenced, warmer climates.
If you are unsure of the species, look for rats at night with a bright flashlight, or trap a few.
Figure 5 illustrates some of the key physical differences between the two species of rats, while Table 1 summarizes identifying characteristics.While rats are much larger than the common house mouse or meadow vole, a young rat is occasionally confused with a mouse. In general, very young rats have large heads and feet in proportion to their bodies, whereas those of adult mice are proportionately much smaller (Fig.
They have poor eyesight, but they make up for this with their keen senses of hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Rats constantly explore and learn, memorizing the locations of pathways, obstacles, food and water, shelter, and features of their environment.
Thus, they often avoid traps and baits for several days or more following their initial placement. While both species exhibit this avoidance of new objects, this neophobia is usually more pronounced in roof rats than in Norway rats.Both Norway and roof rats can gain entry to structures by gnawing, climbing, jumping, or swimming through sewers and entering through toilets or broken drains. While Norway rats are more powerful swimmers, roof rats are more agile and are better climbers.Norway and roof rats dona€™t get along.
The Norway rat is larger and the more dominant species; it will kill a roof rat in a fight.
When the two species occupy the same building, Norway rats may dominate the basement and ground floors, with roof rats occupying the attic or second and third floors. If the door is made of wood, the rat might gnaw to enlarge the gap, but this might not be necessary.Norway RatsNorway rats eat a wide variety of foods but mostly prefer cereal grains, meats, fish, nuts, and some fruits. When searching for food and water, Norway rats usually travel an area of about 100 to 150 feet in diameter; seldom do they travel any further than 300 feet from their burrows or nests.
The average female Norway rat has 4 to 6 litters per year and can successfully wean 20 or more offspring annually.Roof RatsLike Norway rats, roof rats eat a wide variety of foods, but they prefer fruits, nuts, berries, slugs, and snails. Roof rats are especially fond of avocados and citrus, and they often eat fruit that is still on the tree.
When feeding on a mature orange, they make a small hole through which they completely remove the contents of the fruit, leaving only the hollowed-out rind hanging on the tree. Theya€™ll often eat the rind of a lemon, leaving the flesh of the sour fruit still hanging. Residential or industrial areas with mature landscaping provide good habitat as does riparian vegetation of riverbanks and streams.


Roof rats prefer to nest in locations off the ground and rarely dig burrows for living quarters if off-the-ground sites exist.Roof rats routinely travel up to 300 feet for food. They have an excellent sense of balance and use their long tails to steady themselves while traveling along overhead utility lines. They move faster than Norway rats and are very agile climbers, which enables them to quickly escape predators.
The average number of litters a female roof rat has per year depends on many factors, but generally it is 3 to 5 with 5 to 8 young in each litter.DAMAGERats eat and contaminate foodstuffs and animal feed. Both rat species cause problems by gnawing on electrical wires and wooden structures such as doors, ledges, corners, and wall material, and they tear up insulation in walls and ceilings for nesting.Norway rats can undermine building foundations and slabs with their burrowing activities and can gnaw on all types of materials, including soft metals such as copper and lead, as well as plastic and wood. If roof rats are living in the attic of a residence, they can cause considerable damage with their gnawing and nest-building activities. They also damage garden crops and ornamental plantings.Among the diseases rats can transmit to humans or livestock are murine typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis (food poisoning), and ratbite fever. If sanitation measures arena€™t properly maintained, the benefits of other measures will be lost and rats will quickly return.
Good housekeeping in and around buildings will reduce available shelter and food sources for Norway rats and, to some extent, roof rats. Neat, off-the-ground storage of pipes, lumber, firewood, crates, boxes, gardening equipment, and other household goods will help reduce the suitability of the area for rats and also will make their detection easier.
Collect garbage, trash, and garden debris frequently, and ensure all garbage receptacles have tight-fitting covers. Where dogs are kept and fed outdoors, rats can become a problem if there is a ready supply of dog food.
Feed your pet only the amount of food it will eat at a feeding, and store pet food in rodent-proof containers.For roof rats in particular, thinning dense vegetation will make the habitat less desirable.
Climbing hedges such as Algerian or English ivy, star jasmine, and honeysuckle on fences or buildings are conducive to roof rat infestations and should be thinned or removed if possible, as should overhanging tree limbs within 3 feet of the roof. Coarse steel wool, wire screen, and lightweight sheet metal are excellent materials for plugging gaps and holes. Norway and roof rats are likely to gnaw away plastic sheeting, wood, caulking, and other less sturdy materials.Because rats and house mice are excellent climbers, openings above ground level must also be plugged. Rodent proofing against roof rats, because of their greater climbing ability, usually requires more time to find entry points than for Norway rats. Roof rats often enter buildings at the roofline, so be sure that all access points in the roof are sealed.
If roof rats are traveling on overhead utility wires, contact a pest control professional or the utility company for information and assistance with measures that can be taken to prevent this.Population ControlWhen food, water, and shelter are available, rat populations can increase quickly. While the most permanent form of control is to limit food, water, shelter, and access to buildings, direct population control often is necessary.A For controlling rats indoors, using traps is best. When rodenticides (toxic baits) are used in structures, rats can die in inaccessible locations such as within walls or ceilings. In hot weather, the stench of a dead rat can be unbearable and can necessitate cutting a hole in the wall to remove the carcass. Also, ectoparasites such as fleas and mites often leave dead rat carcasses and can infest the entire house if the carcass isna€™t removed promptly.Trapping.
Trapping is the safest and most effective method for controlling rats in and around homes, garages, and other structures. Because snap traps can be used over and over, trapping is less costly than poison baits but more labor intensive.
Traps can be set and left indefinitely in areas such as attics where rats have been a problem in the past. The simple, wooden rat-size snap trap is the least expensive option, but some people prefer the newer plastic, single-kill rat traps, because they are easier to set and to clean. Snap traps with large plastic treadles are especially effective, but finding the best locations to set traps is often more important than what type of trap is used.
Generally, young rats cana€™t be trapped until they are about a month old, which is when they leave the nest to venture out for food.Nutmeats, dried fruit, bacon, or a piece of kibbled pet food can be an attractive bait for traps. Fasten the bait securely to the trigger of the trap with light string, thread, or fine wire so the rodent will spring the trap when attempting to remove the food. Soft baits such as peanut butter and cheese can be used, but rats sometimes take soft baits without setting off the trap. Set traps so the trigger is sensitive and will spring easily.The best places to set traps are in secluded areas where rats are likely to travel and seek shelter.
Droppings, gnawings, and damage indicate the presence of rodents, and areas where such evidence is found usually are the best places to set traps, especially when these areas are located between their shelter and food sources. Place traps in natural travel ways, such as along walls, so the rodents will pass directly over the trigger of the trap.For Norway rats, set traps close to walls, behind objects, in dark corners, and in places where rat signs, such as droppings, have been seen.
Position traps along a wall so that they extend from the wall at right angles, with the trigger end nearly touching the wall (Figure 7). If traps are set parallel to the wall, they should be set in pairs to intercept rodents traveling from either direction.For roof rats, the best places for traps are off the ground in locations where rats might be coming down from their nests to find fooda€”such as on ledges, shelves, branches, fences, pipes, or overhead beamsa€”where they can be fastened with screws or wire (Figure 8).
In homes, the attic and garage rafters close to the infestation are good trapping sites (Figure 9).
In areas where children, pets, or birds might contact traps, place the trap in a box or use a barrier to keep them away.A Use as many traps as are practical so trapping time will be short and decisive.
If a rat sets off a trap without getting caught, it will be very difficult to catch the rat with a trap again.
To reduce the likelihood of a€?trap shyness,a€? one strategy is to leave traps baited but unset until the bait has been taken overnight. As with snap traps, for existing rodent populations ita€™s important to use enough traps to achieve control in a timely manner. These traps need to be checked frequently, and dead rodents should be removed for disposal.Dona€™t touch rodents with your bare hands, and wash thoroughly after handling traps. A major drawback with glue boards and other live-catch traps is the trapped rat might not die quickly, and you will need to kill it by delivering a sharp blow to the base of the skull using a sturdy rod or stick. Rats caught in glue traps can struggle for quite some time, often dragging the trap as they try to escape. Live traps arena€™t preferred, because trapped rats must be either humanely killed or released elsewhere.
Releasing rats outdoors isna€™t recommended, as they can cause health concerns to people, pets, and other domestic animals. Because neither the roof rat nor the Norway rat is native to the United States, their presence in the wild is very detrimental to native ecosystems. They have been known to decimate some bird populations.Rodenticides (Toxic Baits)While trapping is generally recommended for controlling rats indoors, when the number of rats around a building is high, you might need to use toxic baits to achieve adequate control, especially if there is a continuous reinfestation from surrounding areas. If this is the case, consider hiring a licensed pest control applicator who is trained to use rodenticides safely.Baits to control rodents are formulated with an attractant (generally food) and a rodenticide (toxin). Changes in rodenticide regulations went into effect in mid-2011 in an effort to prevent rodenticide hazards to wildlife and pets and to reduce accidental exposure to children. These federal EPA restrictions now permit manufacturers to produce, for sale to the general public, only wax block, gel, or paste rat and mouse baits that are packaged in ready-to-use, disposable bait stations. Agricultural producers and professional pest control personnel are able to obtain more types of rodenticides in various formulations, some of which are restricted use pesticides.Anticoagulant Rodenticides.
Anticoagulants are blood-thinning drugs that cause an animala€™s blood to lose the ability to clot, damaging capillaries and resulting in internal bleeding that is fatal.
These active ingredients are used at very low levels and the onset of symptoms is delayed for several days, so the rodent doesna€™t avoid the bait because of its taste or the onset of illness.
When prepared with good-quality cereals and other ingredients, anticoagulant baits provide good to excellent control when baits are fresh and when placed in suitable locations so as to attract rats.The various anticoagulant active ingredients currently registered for use against rats in California are listed in Table 2.
Anticoagulants fall into two groupsa€”the older a€?first-generationa€? compounds such as warfarin, chlorophacinone, and diphacinone, which require a rodent to consume multiple doses over a period of several days; and the newer a€?second-generationa€? compounds such as brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and difethialone, which can be fatal after a single feeding. Since not all rats will consume bait when it first becomes available, bait application directions typically recommend providing an uninterrupted supply of bait for at least 10 or 15 days or until evidence of rodent activity ceases. A rodent feeding on anticoagulant bait usually wona€™t die until 2 to 6 days following ingestion of a lethal dose. This slow action is a safety advantage, allowing accidental poisoning to be treated before serious illness occurs.The recommended strategy of bait application, which is often needed for optimum rodent control, can result in a rodent ingesting an overdose of the second-generation anticoagulants, which are more effective in part because they persist longer in the rodenta€™s body than do the first-generation anticoagulants. Thus, they also have the potential to be hazardous to predators and scavengers, which may consume poisoned rodents. This secondary hazard from anticoagulants, as well as the primary hazard of nontarget animals directly ingesting rodent baits, is substantially reduced when baits are applied and used properly, according to label directions.Table 2. The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Table 3. The same or similar trade names may be used for products with different active ingredients.Because of the potentially greater hazard of second-generation anticoagulants to children and household pets, these active ingredients are no longer allowed to be manufactured for sale to the general public. Some of the second-generation rodenticides now labeled for use by only by agricultural producers may be restricted to applications in and around agricultural buildings.Anticoagulants have the same effect on nearly all warm-blooded animals, but the sensitivity to these toxicants varies among species with larger animals generally requiring a larger dose of toxicant than smaller animals. Dogs are more susceptible to anticoagulant poisoning than are many other mammals, and small to medium-sized dogs that seek out and consume rodents or rodent carcasses could be at greatest risk.
Symptoms of anticoagulant poisoning in mammals include lethargy, loss of color in soft tissues such as the lips and gums, and bleeding from the mouth, nose, or intestinal tract.
Vitamin K1 is the antidote for anticoagulant rodenticides, although in cases of severe poisoning, whole blood transfusion is also used.
Three other active ingredients are registered and used as rodenticides to control rats and house mice in California: bromethalin, cholecalciferol, and zinc phosphide. These two materials are formulated to serve as chronic rodenticides so that rats will have the opportunity to feed on exposed baits one or more times over a period of one to several days. Bait acceptance is generally good when fresh, well-formulated products are used.Zinc phosphide differs in that it is an acute toxicant that causes death of a rodent within several hours after a lethal dose is ingested. Because zinc phosphide baits often require prebaiting to get adequate bait acceptance (offering rats similar but nontoxic bait before applying the zinc phosphide bait), ita€™s not commonly used against rats and is infrequently available to consumers. All rodenticide baits must be used carefully according to the label directions, which have become more specific and more restrictive.
Some baits must be contained within bait stations for all outdoor, above-ground applications (Figure 10).
In addition to increasing the safety of the bait, bait stations also help the rats feel secure while feeding. For Norway rats, place bait stations near rodent burrows or suspected nest sites, against walls, or along travel routes. For roof rats, place baits in elevated locations, such as in the crotch of a tree, on top of a fence, or high in a vine. If you place bait stations above ground level, take care that they are securely fastened and wona€™t fall to the ground where children or pets could find them. Because rats often are suspicious of new or unfamiliar objects, it might take several days for them to enter and feed in bait stations.Where it is impossible to exclude rodents from structures, rat control can be accomplished by establishing permanent bait stations in buildings and around the perimeters of buildings.
Place fresh bait in these stations to control invading rats before populations become established.
With the first-generation anticoagulant baits, it usually takes 5 or more days, once the rats start feeding, for them to die. Check bait stations regularly and replace bait if it gets old or moldy, because rats wona€™t eat stale bait.Baits and bait stations now have more restrictive regulations regarding locations for use. Different designs of commercially manufactured bait stations may be required, depending on the particular situation and the bait formulation used. For example, some labels state a€?tamper-resistant bait stations must be used if children, pets, nontarget mammals, or birds may access the bait.a€? Certain prepackaged bait stations intended for sale to homeowners can be used only inside structures and are prohibited for use in any area accessible to pets or outdoors.
Other baits or bait stations may also be used around the periphery of structures or within 50 feet of a structure. Because rats may not travel far from their shelter to find food, many product labels suggest making bait placements at 10- to 30-foot intervals. Place bait boxes next to walls (with the openings close to the wall) or in other places where rats are active.
In all cases, the user must follow label directions.Remove and properly dispose of all uneaten bait at the end of a control program.
In addition, ita€™s wise to collect and properly dispose of any dead rodents found during the course of a rodenticide application. You can pick them up using a sturdy plastic bag inverted on your hand, seal them in the bag for disposal with household garbage, or bury them in a location where pets or scavengers wona€™t easily dig them up.Other Control MethodsRats are wary animals, easily frightened by unfamiliar or strange noises.
However, they quickly become accustomed to repeated sounds, making the use of frightening devicesa€”including high frequency and ultrasonic soundsa€”ineffective for controlling rats in homes and gardens.Rats have an initial aversion to some odors and tastes, but no repellents have been found to solve a rat problem for more than a very short time.
There are no truly effective rat repellents registered for use in California.Smoke or gas cartridges are registered and sold for controlling burrowing rodents.
When placed into the burrows and ignited, these cartridges produce toxic and suffocating smoke and gases.
Because Norway rat burrows can extend beneath a residence and have several open entrances, toxic gases can permeate the dwelling.
Often, predators arena€™t able to keep rodent numbers below levels that are acceptable to most people.



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